Centos lsusb

centos lsusb

You can also add several option to the cv command just like other commands. One useful option is having to know the estimated time remaining for a copying operation or a move operation particularly for large files. Adding the -w option will just do exactly that.

Setpci命令是一个查询和配置PCI设备的使用工具。 语法 setpci(选项)(参数) 选项-v:显示指令执行的细节信息; -f:当没有任何.

5 with kubeadm on CentOS. How to Install CentOS 7 Step by Step with Screenshots * Linux ntopng – Network Monitoring. How to Setup up Kubernetes 1. How Install R / R Studio on CentOS. Linux lsusb Command to Print information about USB on System. New version of Kubernetes is out.

– The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. This is another mostly bugfix release. 5 () is out. Would it save you a lot of time if I just gave up and went mad now.

Install the Wifi USB RTL8192cu on CentOS 5 | www.apolonio.com

5 One of my CenTOS systems recently booted with the following error: "Bringing up interface eth0: Device eth0 has difference MAC address than expected.

25 programs like beacon or Linpac will fail. State when run with “sudo”. 000 refid SHM stratum 15 # Drift file. Sh http://www. Unfortunately, ACS does not work in hostapd v2. Conf to spindown the drive in say 10 minutes — spindown_time = 120 — Ok, we’ll use this hard drive later for compiling stuff. 25 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://sourceforge. Warn -/var/log/mail. I wanted to display more information at one time so I opted for one of these . This will work just fine for my UL-Link device. So #If some of the above packages are missing, you can explicitly install them with: sudo apt-get install libnetfilter-log1 libnfnetlink0 libnetfilter-conntrack3 2. D/nfs-common file and change their start up/down priorities from: # Default-Start: S # Default-Stop: 0 1 6 to: # Default-Start: 1 2 3 4 5 # Default-Stop: 0 6 Once that’s in place, you need to reboot but maybe you can’t. If you had already installed a previous version of Direwolf, check that the /etc/ax25/direwolf. 0 b) TX bytes:0 (0. Pyshutdown: Building a shutdown button for an Rpi much like a PC’s ATX power button One of the critical issues with the entire Raspberry Pi SBC line (and many other Linux SBCs btw) is there is no way to safely shutdown the OS w/o logging into the device via the console, SSH, etc. Fl connector and an external wifi antenna (mentioned below – not possible on the Rpi 3B+): NOTE: Previous doc versions focused on working with an RTL8192CUS based Wifi device but no longer https://www. Conf file – If you’re going to be operating your station on an APRS frequency, make sure that Linpac isn’t using one of the primary APRS SSIDs. Take a hand help radio, QSY it’s VFO to 144. Inspecting the file in Audacity shows the ticks so I think there is a bug in arecord here. For example: The Pixel version of Raspbian includes: – OpenOffice suite of document, spreadsheet, and presentation creation tools – Wolfram GUI scientific package is included on the Pixel version of Raspbian – The triggerhappy hotkey tool used for IR remote controls, etc # To remove these programs sudo apt-get remove –purge wolfram-engine libreoffice* nuscratch You can get a complete list of what’s installed in your Raspbian OS by running: sudo dpkg -l | less +—————————————————————————+ | IMPORTANT: | | Unless you know what each package does and understand it’s dependencies, | | do NOT remove it | +—————————————————————————+ 9. The previous watchdog daemon approach. 16 p – 64 0 0. Configuring Direwolf To configure Direwolf, edit the /etc/ax25/direwolf. Socket file and change the line: sudo vim /lib/systemd/system/gpsd. Just too bad there is only one LED to use. Look at the output of the command to confirm things look like you expect them to: sudo iptables -L h. If that upgrade does well, then kick off remote upgrades for all your other deployed units. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. Wav’ : Signed 16 bit Little Endian, Rate 44100 Hz, Stereo b. I would also recommend to delete the following stanza as it’s redundant, and only consumes additional log space: sudo vi /etc/rsyslog. 3 so you cannot # use channel=0. Now install the required GPS software: sudo apt-get update #Unfortunately, you must install all the additional package dependencies here # (something like +30 packages are require) # sudo apt-get install gpsd gpsd-clients libgps-dev We now need to configure gpsd to use the new device. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25/issues/1 | +—————————————————————————-+ +—————————————————————————————————————–+ | NOTE #2: | | As Raspbian gets updates, you will eventually see a glibc/libc updates break similar to the NOTE | | above. If # you do this in time, the D74 should say: # # Information: Pairing is completed. Sudo time dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/sd-card/p2/bigfile. #As such, disable gpm from starting at boot time sudo update-rc. Checked #enable the following line in the rules. Is NOT trival and really takes a lot of experimentation until you get the hang of it. # Assuming the above commands worked ok, open a new terminal windowa and run the command: sudo cat /dev/rfcomm0 # In this window, you should now see NEMA GPS Sentence output like: — $GPGGA,041220. Sh — #. Conf-`date +%m%d%y` 7. 4 (final release version) # 04/24/17 – Added a test OBEACON object # 04/20/17 – Updated the Direwolf build a bit # 04/07/17 – Corrected required Direwolf checkinstall packages as we don’t need the -dev versions # 03/16/17 – updated checkconfig package description to be all on one line # 03/09/17 – Updated the SD card imaging section to recommend using larger card sides, pre-format it, # – Updates on the RPiv3 vs RPiv2 boards # – Updated GPS setup section # # 02/28/17 – Added a URL for Bluetooth audio support # 02/26/17 – Added a note to remove the unattended-upgrades package # 02/21/17 – Updated setting the proper hostname and FQDN for the Rpi # 02/20/17 – Added systemd logging to the pyshutdown section to better monitor when it’s # being activated # # 01/13/17 – Added sending an email to root when the pi is rebooted # – Updated the watchdog section a bit # # 12/12/16 – Added HW watchdog support # – Added the beginnings of ulogd2 support to send iptables log lines to # a different file # # 12/10/16 – Added specific links for the firewall-confirm. Instead, you’ll see names like | | “enxb827eb5f05”. If you don’t install this rotation system (usually installed by default), the RAM drive can get full and you’ll loose important diagnostic logs, etc. If you do have to make changes to the access database, make sure to also compile a new version of the database and restart your email server. Some SBCs include a shutdown button on the device itself but the Rpi line doesn’t. Xyz/ — Rpi pin RTC pin ——–+——————+——– 1 : +3. If you want to know why these # sources vs the official AX. If not, you MUST fix this before moving on. Ok, now HOLDDOWN the button for at least three seconds and the Rpi should begin to gracefully shutdown the OS. | | | | If your external hard drive has it’s own power brick, you can connect the hard drive directly | | to the Raspberry Pi. ] 2 – Name: [ linpac ] 3 – Version: [ 0. If you already had a /etc/ax25/direwolf. | | To do this, do the following steps: | | | | sudo vi /boot/cmdline. Service If you have multiple remote Rpi based sites you’re maintaining, I’d recommend to upgrade the most “accessible” *first* (including a reboot). Com ] 1 – Summary: [ A set of utilities for packet radio mail exchange with the BBS. If you need help with this, feel free to | | reach out to me. 3 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://github. D -f triggerhappy remove #Disable the Rsync daemon – usually doesn’t autostart without editing the /etc/default/rsync file sudo update-rc. Pdf Anyway, for now, let’s move forward with the Hostap + dnsmasq approach +——————————————-+ | 08/14/16 | | This section is DEPRECATED as the RTL8192 | | is not well maintained. If you see garbage on the screen (something like the following): sudo cat /dev/ttyAMA0 ���������������������������������������������������������������� That’s bad. D/iptables — #. The second command will aga read from the chip and confirm the correct date/time: sudo hwclock -w -f /dev/rtc0 sudo hwclock -r -f /dev/rtc0 — 2017-11-20 17:18:52. Change the following areas NOTE: The raspi-config program has changed a LOT over they years and this following prompts reflect the layout and settings for Raspbian Stretch. Err /var/log/mail. If you | | run the command “ifconfig” or “ip addr”, you will no longer see Ethernet | | interfaces with names like “eth0” but instead, you’ll see something like | | “enxb827eb5f05”. Socket | | | | then run to retry the package config: | | | | sudo apt-get -f install | +——————————————————————————————–+ 2. Review the boot up logs to make sure things are working as expected Before you claim success on your new Raspberry Pi setup, I recommend you review the system bootlogs to make sure you’re not having some hidden errors. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] They must remain there if the TNC-Pi is to use the serial port interface or REMOVED if you’re going to use the TNC-Pi via the I2C bus #2 – If you have a Raspberry Pi v3, you MUST make two changes to the setup to swap the serial port for use with the Bluetooth interface (required for using the TNC-PI in serial or I2C mode) Edit the /boot/config. That can wear out your hard drive prematurely too (that and consume excess power). – The above script doesn’t support a debouncing capability and I was experiencing false shutdowns due to I beleive RFI issues. In researching around, it sounds like some Realtek devices can actually support AP and Client mode at the same time (STA+AP): http://randomstuffidosometimes. Wav You should see the following output: Playing WAVE ‘/tmp/15sec-silence. Bogus-priv # Use interface wlan0 interface=wlan0 # Explicitly specify the address to listen on listen-address=192. Testing Direwolf Test out Direwolf in it’s stand alone more and enable all it’s settings to better tune it’s levels #Other options you might be interested in #-q d : suppress APRS decodes #-q h : suppress heard levels #-t 0 : disable colors #-d o : show output for asserting DCD and PTT lines #-a n : print out number of samples for N sections # sudo direwolf -t 0 -d o -a 100 -c /etc/ax25/direwolf. | | To do this, do the following steps: | | | | sudo vi /boot/cmdline. If you need this, I would recommend additional at least this following protection. 11 Trying. Net rpi3 localhost – Now add your desired Rpi’s hostname alias for local wireless network address – Add addresses to reflect any IP addresses enabled in the /etc/ax25/ax25ipd. Now we need to configure DNSMasq: +—————————————————————————————————-+ | NOTE: New recent issue – 10/26/17 | | | | There has been a recent issue seemingly introduced with a recent Raspbian patch where | | dnsmasq won’t start. -ne 0 ]; then echo “pishutdown. Specifically, you might need to alter the lines to reflect what you want to use: Raspbian Stretch ONLY: Do NOT edit the /etc/network/interfaces file at all. As such, I recommend you remove it: sudo dpkg -r avahi-daemon libnss-mdns 3. Restart Ulogd to get the new settings sudo service ulogd restart 6. It’s recommended to have the TXDELAY and TXTAIL parameters in both files aligned 26. -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “LinPac failed to start” echo -e “LinPac failed to start” >> $LOG else echo -e “nLinPac Started” echo -e “nLinPac Started” >> $LOG fi fi #Find the beacon section and change the CALSIGN+SSID, CALLSIGN and status text to match #your own setup /usr/sbin/beacon -c ki6zhd-6 -d ‘info KI6ZHD’ -t 15 vhfdrop “low-level KB2KB netrom node in Santa Clara ” — That’s it. B Ok, assuming you’re using *Raspbian Jessie* here, let’s install the required software: sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install firmware-realtek dnsmasq hostapd Next, confirm the Wifi device can be interrogated: sudo iwconfig — wlan0 unassociated Nickname:”” Mode:Auto Frequency=2. You won’t see anything else in this terminal window as # this program doesn’t display anything. B Setting up the Sound Card levels for 1200BAUD AFSK Packet Radio – This example is using a Alinco DJ-580 HT with a simple PTT circuit similar to the one shown here (more about this later): http://www. The important information you # get from this output is: # # The top entry is for the Audio side using Bluetooth profiles: # 0x1112 (input) and 0x1203 (output) on Bluetooth channel #1 # # The second entry is for the serial port using Bluetooth profile: # “Serial Port” (0x1101) on channel #2 # In different Unix terminal window than where you are currently running the # program “bluetoothctl”, issue the command: sdptool browse 24:71:89:96:DE:AB # Here, you’ll see all kinds of details: — Browsing 24:71:89:96:DE:AB. 193 3 u 62 1024 377 16. Make any changes you so desire but just be sure you understand what you’re doing: The below firewall example: + ALLOWs incoming SSH connections on TCP port 22 + ALLOWs incoming PING packets + ALLOWs incoming DHCP response packets for the RPi to get a TCP/IP address + ALLOWs all outgoing connections and responses to other allowed sessions – DENYs incoming Samba / Windows File/Print traffic – DENYs all other incoming traffic Do the appropreate copy/pastes and any possible changes you might want — *filter :INPUT DROP [0:0] :FORWARD DROP [0:0] :OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0] # Allows all loopback (lo0) traffic and drop all traffic to 127/8 that doesn’t use lo0 -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT -A INPUT. Now, enable (but not yet start) the service with: sudo systemctl enable watchdog 9. This Wifi hardware support is limited to the 802. Com/HAM/CentosDigitalModes/RPi/ to see other potentially interesting scripts and tools as I add them. To permanently allow this drive to spin down when idle, edit the /etc/hdparm. Sh script’s “FET_LIBAX25_PATH” variable to point to the | | directory where the libax25 package is available. This example will only # allow 6 packets in 1 minute or 10 packets within 5 minutes. When prompted for your home BBS callsign, you need to enter in a valid or valid-looking BBS address. This is fully documented here: http://www. 1GB of free space, it took my system 29minutes. The audio should be completely noise free. 521910 16 0 — Now all you have to do is have things load up at boot time. BEWARE of the soundcard and radio microphone bias DC voltage IMPORTANT: Microphone Bias Voltage: ———————————– Before you connect your radio to your soundcard, it’s CRITICAL that you check to see if: 1) Your soundcard’s microphone jack does or doesn’t provides a “bias” voltage for condenser-type microphones. You *will* # need to change it to meet your needs: # # cd /tmp # wget http://www. I’ve checked with the CM108 schematics and programming API and this voltage cannot be turned off. 4Ghz band and there isn’t any 5. Also, if the “delaycompress” parameter is present, comment it out by adding a “#” in front of it: sudo vi /etc/logrotate. 0 broadcast 192. You need to adjust for both sides if they are adjustable. It’s worth noting that Debian includes an auto-updating package. 11n WLAN Adapter [606161. Sh approach: #It’s critical that you include the trailing “&” character for proper operation sudo /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. I will research this where the fix could be simple symlinks # to a recommendation of removing the VE7FET AX. Btw, if Linpac | | crashed on you, your terminal might be screwed up and not working properly. From the included scripts: cd /usr/local/src/ Instax25. Sh chmod 700 mount-hampacket2-nfs. For my machine, I see it as device: /dev/mmcblk0 4. 7,M,,0000*5Cx0dx0a (49) $GPGSA,A,3,10,32,27,21,18,,,,,,,,6. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 You should see something like the following: — gpsd:INFO: launching (Version 3. Local — find the line that says “exit 0” exit 0 — just above it, add the lines: — echo “Starting pishutdown. NOTE: You might be thinking to yourself, “Why do this if I have a GPS running. To support this this setup, edit these lines to read: [email protected] KI6ZHD-6 [email protected] KI6ZHD-6 I then insert “;;” in front of the other “mycall” lines to comment them out (disabling them). X kernels sudo echo “bcm2835_wdt” >> /etc/modules 4. I’ve asked | | the repo owner to revert the change or fix the conflicts. Activate the new rules with the following command: # NOTE: If you made any mistakes in the above rulset file and if you activate # the firewall without special precautions, you run the risk of loosing # your network connection. Gz First, let’s build and install the ax25mail-utils program tar xzvf ax25mail-utils-0. Log” sync=1 — 5. If all the above test steps work, edit the /etc/default/gpsd file, find the line that says “DEVICES=”” and update it to reflect your proper device-by-id serial port. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 — This shows that the gpsd process is running. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] As such, it’s CRITICAL that you insert a 10uF capacitor between the soundcard and your radio. In my case: # NOTE: you might need to specify “-n” as an optional parameter for your specific GPS but it has # power draw implications (if you run your Rpi from battery). P=462982 talks to a scripted setup to bring in new drivers for the TP-Link TL-WN725N V2 which uses the RTL8192cus chip. Load the kernel module and make sure it loaded # This only for Jessie / 4. Once all that is completed, any incoming SSH program will have to be specifically told use port 2222 to connect: ssh -p 2222 [email protected] Future: Advanced security thoughts that I’ll add into this doc some day – use SSH keys ONLY (no passwords) – Makes brute force attacks almost impossible as long as your version of sshd doesn’t have bugs. | | | | For now in this document, I will DISABLE IPv6 protocol support. — Validate the output: — 0 – Maintainer: [ ki6zhdattrinityos. I bought an inexpensive USB GPS unit but | | it would never lock on more than one or two satellites when inside and | | that could take like ten minutes. Add in that there is a lot of conflicting and stale setup information out on the web of how to do it and it’s become a bit of nightmare to setup. On the Rpi pins, I now see the voltage at 1. In troubleshooting this, if I tried to type in my password in the username prompt, the wrong characters were popping up (like | or +, etc). /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 Now work around a checkinstall bug incorrectly reading RPM spec files: mv ax25apps. Linpacconfig Anyway, to get you started, once you SSH into your Raspberry Pi and configure your packet system to auto-start upon boot (starts Linpac too), you’ll be able to connect to the “screened” Linpac session at any time by running the command: sudo screen -dr linpac At this point, you should see the Linpac main interface where: – At the top are the commands to send to either Linpac or to the remote station you’ve connected to – In the middle is the text your station receives from the remote station – At the bottom is all the packets your system is hearing A few quick commands to get you around: – To connect to a remote station, say the remote “lprc3” node that in my area, I would issue the following command INCLUDING the first “:” character too: :c lprc3 The system should then connect and you’ll see the text coming in from the remote system. As such and they have PERMANENTLY # moved back to the classic fstab approach # – https://github. 25 # # 12/08/17 – Fixed some spelling errors # # 12/07/17 – Move thed ax25mailutils and linpac downloads steps a bit # # 11/22/17 – Added top pictures of the LCD and RTC with click-on zoom # – Added reading the temp off the DS3231 RTC # # 11/20/17 – Added a new appendix section to display date, time, Internet health check, heard AX25 # packets, and CPU load to an I2C driven 20×4 LCD display # – Added a new appendix section to have the Rpi set it’s date via an I2C driven # DS3231 RTC. NOTE: If you get output like the following from the above test command: — /dev/sda: APM_level = not supported — This most likely means the drive you’re trying to use is very old NOTE#2: If you get output like the following from that above test command: — /dev/sda: SG_IO: bad/missing sense data, sb[]: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0a 00 00 00 00 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 APM_level = not supported — This means the USB to SATA/PATA bridge chip in your USB to HD adapter is not passing all the IDE commands codes though. Put the following lines ABOVE the stock Debian NTP server definitions # 2. I would recommend to leave this at “19200” which means 19200bps – the next field is the PACLEN or packet length or maximum transmission unit (MTU). You can learn more about BBS hierarchical addressing here: http://www. If you ever accidently delete a file, a directory, or have your SD card get corrupted, you can restore from this image. 7,M,,0000*53x0dx0a (49) $GPGSA,A,3,10,32,27,21,18,,,,,,,,6. Add in the the following rules (if not already present). Assuming say the local APRS frequency is busy in your area (144. Also notice # the D74 didn’t lightup the LCD and state “Connected Bluetooth Device”. You’ll probably find many strong signals (birdies) as many devices and sound cards have a poorly shielded 12Mhz crystal oscillators. # The system is now in standby. 25 sources, see: # # http://www. 1 no-dhcp-interface=lo,eth0,wlan0 #We now need this option bind-interfaces dhcp-range=192. As mentioned at the top of this section, a previous USB-based GPS receiver was showing the following bogus date (in the future. #Confirm that gpsd isn’t running but the GPS socket is still listening (thanks SystemD. Com/GlobalSat-BU-353-S4-USB-Receiver-Black/dp/B008200LHW | | | | This SiRF-IV based receiver unit gets a good lock within my home, seems | | to be reliable and offers quick Sat lock BUT. B – does it show “Mode:Master” meaning it’s in Access point mode. Once things are working, edit your direwolf. 3 release from -F beta version # also improved the installation steps and the Makefile. Setup a DS3231 battery backed up real time clock (RTC) with temperature sensor Building on the above section of getting an I2C-based LCD working, this section uses the same I2C bus to communicate to a DS3231 real time clock to set the system’s date/time upon power up. Let’s confirm some things ARE or AREN’T properly working # on your Raspberry Pi. Bug=763315 To work around this, edit the /etc/init. # # Select “OK” on the D74 to dismiss this script # On the Rpi, you should see: # # [agent] Confirm passkey 285481 (yes/no): yes # [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB UUIDs: 00001101-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb # [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB UUIDs: 00001112-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb # [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB ServicesResolved: yes # [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB Paired: yes # Pairing successful # [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB ServicesResolved: no # [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB Connected: no # Don’t worry about it showing “Connected: no”, this is normal # Now Save this pairing permanetly with trust 24:71:89:96:DE:AB # You should see the trust acknowledgement with: # # Changing 24:71:89:96:DE:AB trust succeeded # For whatever reason, if you wanted to remove the D74 pairing such as if you upgraded the # D74’s firmware and though you made a backup with the Kenwood MCP program, it didn’t save # any BT pairings and now you have to re-pair the radio, you can do: # remove 24:71:89:96:DE:AB # Ok, you should be good now. Py #sudo mv FVMK0WJIA0WRZBF. D/watchdog script Add watchdog https://hallard. Enable the software refresh daemon to start on boot (but it won’t start just yet) # Raspian Stretch # # TBD on it’s compatibility # Raspbian Jessie # At the moment, this watchdog package is not 100% Systemd compatible. Please note that this is an ALSA device. Now we need to get an example program going to confirm the LCD works ok. Disable_ipv6 = 1 net. Service #See what else might be running ls /etc/rc3. Temporarily start up hostapd and dnsmasq #Running these commnands won’t give any specific output #Do the individual commands to avoid some strange behavior on Stretch sudo systemctl stop hostapd sudo systemctl start hostapd sudo systemctl restart dnsmasq 2. Other information lines will display and continue to come but but gpsd is successfully running. Other HOWTOs on the internet use ISC’s DHCPd server and ISC’s Bind DNS servers but they are additional packages to install and using ISC’s industrial strength programs are major overkill for this simplier use-case To start off with, let’s make sure Linux sees the Wifi hardware. Wav and aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 /var/log/test. For example, I’m naming my unit “rpi3. Old Now package things up: sudo checkinstall –pkgname ax25-tools –pkgversion 1. It’s generally recommended to buy a Wifi device that uses the Realtek RTL8188CUS chipset. Prepare a new script to occasionally purge old kernels Raspbian (aka Debian for Raspberry Pis) has a nasty habit of keeping around old kernels, especially the “rpi-update” kernels. Com/wb2osz/direwolf ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libasound2,libgps22 ] 11 – Provides: [ tnc ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging NOTE #1: If you get a “disk full” error here, it’s important that you follow the above section on creating a temporary /tmp mount to a local USB HDD (NFS mount works fore Direwolf) too. Notice I’m using two F-keys for the mapping of SSID to terminal “view” or F-key views. 4 only wget https://github. If you bought the same DS3231 RTC as I did, the LEd on the unit should light up. Record from the Syba and playback throug the Rpi’s headphone jack # # This method is VERY helpful for getting the initial audio levels # # Don’t forget the trailing “-” at the end of the command line (this is the STDOUT # system) # arecord -D plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 -t wav -f S16_LE -r 48000 -d 10 – | aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 – — Once you edited that file, run the command: sudo newaliases This command will silently compile this new alias into the /etc/aliases. | | To fix that, run the commands: | | | | stty sane | | rm -f rm /var/lock/LinPac. Try reducing some of the line sizes here for say “chnlin” to a smaller number You can find more advanced Linpac configuration tips at: http://www. For this example, I’m using “N0ARY-1” which is my local, full service BBS. # No symbolic links allowed, either, since the daemon updates the file # by creating a temporary in the same directory and then rename()’ing # it to the file. D -f rsync disable 11. Log Next, go see if this new email was ultimately received on your chosen destination email address. One final note: – Make sure you built this reset button properly. While some people might like and even NEED this concept here (aka. I’m not sure why this happens. 3v line NOTE: I2C buses can be wired either in a serial or parallel fashion. Not cool but it’s happening regardless and this is the only | | real way to make sure that things are remaining OK. – Hostname – Make the hostname something unique – Boot options – Desktop / CLI – If you installed the “Lite” version of Raspbian, you’re not going to be running Xwindows and consuming all that RAM for the GUI. C – Setting up Bluetooth on the Rpi for pairing BT keyboards —————————————————- Assuming you didn’t disable the bluetooth support on your Rpiv3 via the raspi-config program, here is an example to associate to a BT keyboard to interact with the Rpi while viewing the display via the HDMI port. Sh # sudo mv firewall-confirm. H’, which is also in package libax25 1. If you typed in that command in time before the 30 second #timer expired, you should see: # # /tmp/fwok found. If it was, restore the previous backup that was put in /etc/ax25/Old. 0v) but the Raspberry Pi should stay up. Com/HAM/CentosDigitalModes/RPi/etc/ax25/ax25-down chmod 744 ax25-* sudo mv ax25-* /etc/ax25 4. See the following URL for more details: http://gis. It’s very chatty and creates a security risk. It went from ServicesResolved: Yes” to “ServicesResolved: no” # # For Item #1 above, that’s showing the found bluetooth “services” from the remote # BT device. ADDRESS = 0x3f 57c57 DIMENSIONS = (20, 4) Ok, give the program a try: sudo python examples. I’ve kept this older detail in a later section in this doc farther down in a “deprecated” section but with the new Rpi v3 / Rpi Zero W and their built-in wifi hardware, I wouldn’t recommend to go the RTL8192CUS route anymore. That APRS SSID would most likely configred in the direwolf. Disable_ipv6 = 1 net. Deb | | | | You can read more but this bug at: | | https://github. 06 that if you | | have the GPS output enabled and you simply leave the “rfcomm connect” | | command running, the GPS icon on the D74 will eventually stop blinking | | and the front interface on the D74 will eventually stop responding. To clean up all these IPTABLES lines from filling up your name /var/log/messages and dmesg logs, you can use the Ulog system to move them to a dedicated file(s). # 3) A unit may be started when needed via activation (socket, path, timer, # D-Bus, udev, scripted systemctl call. If you’ve made any changes to your Rpi via raspi-config, it’s time to reboot 4. Txt file, see the following URL. 25 stack for advanced packet functionality. 11 ESSID:off/any Mode:Managed Access Point: Not-Associated Tx-Power=31 dBm Retry short limit:7 RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:off Power Management:on — or the command “iw dev” In the next steps, you need to understand that the Stretch and Jessie versions of Raspbian uses the SystemD style of Linux system management. Now you need to make sure the Raspberry 0w, 3, or 3B+ has it’s bluetooth setup right (and bluetooth is enabled if you previously disabled it): sudo /usr/bin/bluetoothctl #Issue the following commands #Show available BT controllers list #Give more details on the local controller (change this example MAC address to match yours) show B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 #Show what might already be paired devices #Enable Bluetooth pairing agent on default-agent #Scan for available BT devices scan on # At this point, you’re going to want to WAIT until you see the D74’s BT MAC show up in # the scan output. [Y/n] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 00: — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10: — — — — — 15 — — — — — — — — — — 20: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 30: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 40: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 50: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 60: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 70: — — — — — — — — — The output above shows NOTHING which means it’s not correct. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols ] 2 – Name: [ ax25-apps ] 3 – Version: [ 1. Ifnames=0 biosdevname=0 | | — | | | | Reboot your Raspberry Pi and things will work from there on out. This will let you connect to the Rpi either directly or through an AP (which usually has Internet access). Some of the key fields to look for: Top box: Pos (position) : position is found and not moving wildly Time : Date and time is accurate for the UTC timezone Fix : You have at least 3 more more satellites locked onto Example bottom NMEA streaming data — (40) $GPGSV,3,3,10,15,03,041,,16,00,236,*7Ax0dx0a (72) $GPRMC,224315. 0,4h #NOT sure if we need this – dnsmasq should use DNS servers it sees in the resolf. Raspbian Jessie ONLY (NOT Stretch): sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces — allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 192. Just as a heads up for the curious, I connected a volt meter to physical pins 16 and 18 upon initial power up. New & — 2. Conf file #server=8. Ok, next, let’s wire up the button. Html That’s overkill for my needs but I thought I’d mention it. D ulogd2 reload > /dev/null endscript } — Once you’ve made these changes, no other command are required. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 at slot 0 gpsd:INFO: opening GPS data source type 3 at ‘/dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. 0 l 71m 64 0 0. Specifically, with the green LED, you can can indicate any of the following functions. Sh script to make that active. Take up your complaint with with the SystemD guys and not me. 1/24 on the wlan0 interface. Management section about other scripts to monitor the RPI’s # CPU and temp and other useful sysadmin scripts # # 07/05/17 – Extensively updated the Wifi AP and Linpac sections # – Updated the pyshutdown GPIO button section # – more clearly deprecated the legacy rtl8192 wifi sections # # 06/03/17 – Enhanced the manual-ampr-start. Com –provides linpac –requires libax25,ax25-apps,ax25-tools,libncurses5 make install Follow the checkinstall prompts: Should I create a default set of package docs. You may see lots of disconnections and reassociation on both the Wifi and BT sides. =warn |/dev/xconsole — If you still want to receive console errors, read the section BEFORE this xconsole section and enable that which will send errors to console vty 8 instead 2. Now remove the SD card from this secondary Linux machine and put it back into your Raspberry Pi 8. My Syba USB sound device shows up as the following: — plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 C-Media USB Audio Device, USB Audio Hardware device with all software conversions — Next, if you’re curious on getting more details, you can display the soundcard’s native sampling rates with this command: sudo lsusb -vv | grep -e Audio -e tSamFreq | grep -v -e Descriptor -e bInterfaceClass On my USB based Syba sound device, I see the following sampling rates — iProduct 1 C-Media USB Audio Device tSamFreq[ 0] 48000 tSamFreq[ 1] 44100 tSamFreq[ 0] 48000 tSamFreq[ 1] 44100 — Alternatively if you have a PCI-based card (or you’re doing all this in a virtual machine), use: sudo alsa-info –stdout | grep -A 12 -e “Codec:” -e “Audio Input” Next test, let’s record from the sound card for 10 seconds and puts a 960Kbyte file into the /tmp area: arecord -D plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 -t wav -f S16_LE -r 48000 -d 10 /tmp/test. 23,141016,,,A*7Ax0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224318. S Change Wi-fi Country –> US 3) Update your RPi v3’s firmware using “rpi-update”. Conf file to enable GPS PPS mode # The SHM keyword or “SHard Memory” keyword is an alias to the “type 28″ reference clock created by gpsd # # 1. V4-test” file will be used to TEST all firewall changes before they are made the default firewall upon every boot). Conf — interface=wlan0 no-dhcp-interface=eth0 domain=rpi-trinnet. 24 or older for Raspbian (please use 0. | +—————————————————————————–+ 28. 11n USB wifi device https://bogeskov. If you | | run the command “ifconfig” or “ip addr”, you will no longer see Ethernet | | interfaces with names like “eth0”, “eth1”, etc. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 #Run a work around trick for a checkinstall bug which incorrectly reads RPM spec files mv libax25. 231855] usbcore: registered new interface driver rtl8192cu [606161. NOTE2: A 16GB MicroSD card with 3. F=29&t=147501 | | https://github. Let’s confirm the hardware you have is compatible so go ahead and plug in your Wifi dongle into a powered USB hub that’s connected to your Rpi # NOTE: Do **NOT** plug the dongle directly into your Rpi or it will most likely reboot # due to the excessive power draw. Conf file and change or ADD the following lines to the bottom of the file: vi /etc/sysctl. V4-test This “rules. Please note, the seeing of REJECT in these top policy # lines is NOT allowed (only ACCEPT and DROP are allowed here). If you want to allow more packets, increase # these specific configuration items to suit your needs # IGTXLIMIT 6 10 — 24. 250 degrees Celcius or 73. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold ax25-tools | | | +—————————————————————————-+ #checkconfig will automatically install the package for you but if you manually # want to install it, use the following (configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb) # sudo dpkg –install ax25-tools_1. This issue is being tracked here: | | | | https://sourceforge. 000Z (1476226741) gpsd:INFO: speed 4800, 8N1 gpsd:INFO: /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Put the new, empty SD card into this other Linux computer and use the command: # Use the file name from what you entered above unxz -9c ki6zhd-jessie-w-linpac. Com/questions/45570/how-do-i-make-serial-work-on-the-raspberry-pi3 #3 – You need to enable the serial port on the Rpi with the following steps but unfortunately, this approach both enables the serial port AND the serial console support at the same time. 906308) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 14 az=199 el=47 (-0. Ax0 no wireless extensions. For example on my Rpi2: vi /etc/fstab # for Stretch that uses UUIDs, it looks like: — PARTUUID=92f034a6-02 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — # for Jessie, it looks like: — /dev/mmcblk0p2 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — Go ahead and reboot your Rpi right now. Screenrc-svxlink -S linpac sudo linpac — to — screen -d -m -S linpac sudo linpac #screen -d -r linpac — It’s important to have that last line commented out or screen will try to reconnect to the current TTY but no one is logged in. NOTE: If you’re going to use a TNC-Pi TNC, do NOT enable this option – 1-wire : If you plan on using the 1-wire slow speed devices, enable this – Remote GPIO: If you plan on enabling the remote GPIO via pigpio network functionality, enable this – Advanced options – “Expand the file system” – (OPTIONAL): If you noticed when you first booted your Raspberry Pi that it was “Expanding the Filesystem on the SD card”, you won’t need this step. 0 | +—————————————————————————————+ 19. Deb sudo make installconf +—————————————————————————-+ | NOTE: | | The above command will FAIL at the “Installing Debian package” stage | | due to install due to a recently introduced set of conflicts with | | axports. | | Please read the Direwolf tuning section above and make sure THESE settings here | | align with the settings you put in the direwolf. 1: New USB device found, idVendor=7392, idProduct=7811 [667667. Change the default SSH port 22 to some other port number – Doing this offers some reduction in drive by attacks but not for full attacks as port scanning will find your new port. 646 — In the above output, if you only see SHM to SHM, somethings isn’t working right. The easist way to do that is just start the service manually to start: sudo systemctl enable gpsd Now lets test the new daemon it for a single run in the foreground. If any new updates or new kernels were installed, reboot to make all updates active sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now 14. It seems to work. With the test beacon running every minute, you should see a log item like the following (using your configured callsign and SSID): [0L] KI6ZHD-6>APDW14,WIDE1-1:;TESTBCN *111111z4237. Its a very helpful indicator. These settings impact the key-up and key-down speed of your specific radio. With changing this, we can start this function from /etc/rc. Log # # Jan 30 18:49:01 ota3 CRON[14054]: pam_unix(cron:session): session opened for user zzz by (uid=0) # Jan 30 18:49:03 ota3 CRON[13055]: pam_unix(cron:session): session closed for user root edit /etc/pam. You can run the commands “gpsmod” or “cgps” to monitor the lock of the GPS. Sh # sudo mkdir -p /usr/src/archive sudo chown $USER /usr/src/archive mkdir -p /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/ #Download the current VE7FET sources for AX. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold libax25 | | | +—————————————————————————-+ == Ok, the base library for AX. The logrotate system is run by the cron system and it will rotate the logs on it’s regular schedule. 000/050/A=000319ENROUTE vhfdrop: fm K6TJS to APU25N via WR6ABD* ctl UI pid=F0(Text) len 74 @301626z3703. Uncompress it and go into the directory unzip 1. This effectively makes Linpac able to support simultaneous QSOs to the same callsign+SSID like KI6ZHD-6. 1: SerialNumber: 00e04c000001 [606161. 13 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://sourceforge. I see the following and my desired drive and partition is “/dev/sda1”: — [ 360. Conf — denyinterfaces wlan0 — Non-Raspbian Stretch users: ————————— Edit the interfaces file to create a static IP for the wlan interface. Diff #Prepare the package to be compiled – takes about 31 seconds on a Rpi3. Go ahead and reboot your Raspberry Pi. UTF-8 – Timezone – I selected US –> Pacific-New – Keyboard layout (this option is only seen when running raspi-config via the HDMI console): IMPORTANT: If you are in the US and you’re only presented with “English (UK)”, select OTHER, then select “English (US)” – Wifi country – If you have an Rpi v3 or Zero W, I selected “US United States” – Interfacing options – Camera : If you plan on using a Raspberry PI camera, – SSH : I recommend to enable SSH – VNC : If you installed the full version of Raspian Pixel and intend to manage it via a remote GUI, enable this – SPI : If you have any SPI high speed devices and plan to use then, enable this – I2C : If you have any I2C low speed devices and plan to use them, enable this – Serial : If you plan on using the hardware serial port for say serial console, either via bluetooth or the physical GPIO pins, enable this. +———————————————————————————+ | A note on picking a good GPS receiver: | | | | You get what you pay for. Html | | | | Work around: You MUST build to a local file system to the system be it the SD card | | (NOT RECOMMENDED) or attach a USB HDD or SDD (RECOMMENDED) | | | | See the previous section for how to use the USB HDD/SSD approach | +—————————————————————————————————————–+ I’m leaving this section in place just in case some people are curious on the NFS steps #Install NFS client programs sudo apt-get install nfs-common #This is required for mounting remote legacy NFS machines – the error seen is: # # mount. In this setup, I connected the Raspberry Pi to a breadboard. For now, here is the cited work around but I bet there is a way to delay this wlan0 bring up via Systemd (needs some research): /usr/local/sbin/start-ap-managed-wifi. New2 scripts to add more testing, Linpac start, # etc # # 08/29/17 – Added openssl-blacklist to the Email/Postfix section # – Made logrotate it’s own section and renumbered all other sections to fit # – Added the Ulogd logs into the logrotate system # – Added key missing “–” in the mailx test # – Noted that Watchdog support in Stretch is questionable; will revisit # # 08/28/17 – Signification improvements in documentation, clearer steps throughout, etc. To solve this, install the logrotate suite (if it isn’t already): sudo apt-get install logrotate Next, edit the /etc/logrotate. 529919) gpsd:WARN: SiRF: warning, write of control type 80 while awaiting ACK for a6. – I enhanced this script with improved system messaging that was previously mentioned in this second Ok, do the following: 1. Install the required tool-chains to be able to build Linux programs To build some of the programs that are either not available in the Debian repositories or to build newer verions, you need to install the compiler took chains. 15 l – 16 0 0. Prep the sources and compile Direwolf make -f Makefile. For Raspbian Stretch, temporarily follow the recommendations found in https://www. To do so, run the I2C command:. — Now try running this ncurses-based GPS display program (works well over an SSH terminal): gpsmon -n /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. It will throw an error on exit but go ahead and just ignore it. Conf file and now make the lines read: — interface=ap0 driver=nl80211 ssid=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-ME #Change this if you arent in the US country_code=US hw_mode=g channel=1 macaddr_acl=0 auth_algs=1 wmm_enabled=0 ieee80211n=1 ht_capab=[HT40][SHORT-GI-20][DSSS_CCK-40] wpa=2 wpa_passphrase=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-THIS wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK wpa_pairwise=CCMP — Next, we need to change the the /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant. 3 and the nl80211 driver so a setting of “channel=0” or “channel=acs_survey” will *not* work. | +———————————————————————————-+ To do this, simply do: sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now Let the Raspberry Pi reboot and once it’s back up, log into it and then run: sudo journalctl Spend some time and review at LEAST the items that are bolded or color coded. If your Raspberry Pi isn’t going to be directly connected to the raw Internet (not behind some form of a NAT/Router), you probably don’t need to do this. I recommend you connect an LED and a 500ohm resistor to a GPIO pin to use it. 07 was released today, 12/27/17 and it sounds like | | Kenwood have fixed this specific issue but I haven’t confirmed this yet | +——————————————————————————-+ # Next up, try dynamic Bluetooth binding. It should be noted that this is only used when the ax25mail-utils package is installed. Since this document focuses on being a minimalist GUI-less environment, this isn’t the direction I recommend for packet uses: http://youness. Zip Or and alternative download site: wget http://www. If there aren’t any speakers connected to the Rpi, you can use tools like scp to send the file to another computer that DOES have speakers connected aplay /usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center. Conf — net. If I then cycle the Wifi on my phone, I can re-establish a connection | to the Rpi0w but now, the association from the rpi0w to remote AP via the wlan0 interface | keeps flapping over and over. The more packets sent in a window, the faster the throughput BUT there is a risk. Py #example. Doing this on a Raspberry Pi’s SD card is dangerous as you can easily wear out the flash cells on the card. Unfortunately, this code doesn’t seemingly initialize the LCD properly 100% of the time so I load each of the two above programs to get things working. 212 2 u 172 256 373 85. The two UUIDs shown above # # 2. Confirm Clean Silence from the Soundcard This check is needed as a *lot* of USB sound devices will pass on noise from dirty power sources in the form of dirty audio. 0: pl2303 converter detected [262398. Aspx # In this example, I only want to receive APRS messages that are intended for stations # within 10km of my station’s location # IGFILTER m/10 #In addition to the APRS-IS system only sending you data you want, sometimes it will # still send too much or unexpected data. 25 port configured in /etc/ax25/axports. Com –provides “tnc” –requires libasound2,libgps22 make install Follow the checkinstall prompts: Should I create a default set of package docs. Local file and add this command before the end of the file (before the “exit 0” line): sudo vi /etc/rc. 0 network 192. This is NOT required if you only want to do APRS within Direwolf but it does allow you to perform advanced packet functions as well as play with classic AX. Com/HAM/CentosDigitalModes/RPi/etc/iptables/ # 09/06/18 – Added a note about IPv6 firewalls and how to do initial tests. Power back up your Raspberry Pi and everything is as it was but now you have a backup 9. You will see | | the issue where you’ll start Linpac and get “Segmentation faults” at various points | | in the program. 3: Manufacturer: Prolific Technology Inc. D/ulogd2 — /var/log/ulogd_traffic-emu1. Log) Displaying current system kissparms — AX25 protocol mode (0=Norm* 1=Extd) : 0 AX25 backoff type (0=Linear 1=Expon*) : 1 AX25 connect mode (0=none 1=network 2=all*) : 2 AX25 Extd window size (num of unacked packets 32*) : 32 AX25 idle timeout (idle session timeout in M 20*) : 0 AX25 AXIP mode (0=Datagram* 1=VirtConnection) : 0 AX25 max packet size (256*) : 256 AX25 max packet retry count (10*) : 10 AX25 protcol version (DAMA Slave) : 0 AX25 STD window size (num of unacked packets 2* ) : 2 AX25 T1 timer (unacked packet retry 10000mS*) : 10000 AX25 T2 timer (wait for 2nd RX packet 3000mS*) : 3000 AX25 T3 timer (link still up check 300000mS*) : 300000 Port vhfdrop attached to ax0 Listen started and displaying on tty8 ax25-up. Linpac will also crash upon start with | | | | /usr/bin/linpac: line 181: 9811 Segmentation fault $PKG_BINDIR/linpac $* | | | | Fortunately, if you disable predictable network interface names, things work fine. 3*30x0dx0a (72) $GPRMC,224317. Linux -j8 7. Py — #Find the line and change the GPIO pin to use what you chose from the above details # INT = 24 — and replace it with say (I’m using broadcom pin 24): — gpio_pin_number=24 — Next, edit the /etc/rc. | +———————————————————————————+ Configuration -> Bluetooth -> Bluetooth: ON Ok, the radio is now ready to go so on to the Raspberry Pi. Com/questions/157249/gpspipe-returns-correct-timestamp-but-wrong-date-21-dec-1995 Ultimately, this workaround DIDN’T work for me all the time. 1 u 825 1024 177 82. A – Monitoring the Raspberry Pi hardware and other scripts ————————————————————- I’ve posed various scripts to manage the hardware of your Raspberry Pi: – Monitor the CPU clocking, hardware temps, and serial number of your Raspberry Pi Get the script by running: cd /tmp wget http://www. Please note that this option is NOT possible on the 3B+ as they removed the solder pads. Xyz/ Alternatively, here are some other URLs to check out: Raspberry Pi B+ and Raspberry Pi-2: — http://www. No doubt, soldering up a TNC-Pi is a fun project and Bluetooth on a D74 is sexy but Direwolf’s performance is amazing and as such, I would recommend that you just switch gears to use this software-TNC to get the best possible performance. The key items in my setup to look for is: 1. New — #remove the # in front of this line /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Net/raspberry-pi/bluetooth-headset-raspberry-pi Problems devices not reconnecting on reboot, see the proposed SystemD script at: https://www. In my case, I would put in a hostname that has an MX record # configured to accept email for the “trinnet. If they show up, you should be good. Create an initial security based upon the rules from https://wiki. OPTIONAL: Placing your Rpi on the raw Internet (no firewall in front of it) and having SSH enabled is generally NOT recommended. Gz cd linpac-0. A – does the wlan0 interface exist. 913545) gpsd:INFO: Sats used (9): — The important lines to see ther is the “Sats used” lines. If you find a reliable way, please let me know. # # cd /tmp # wget http://www. Html 11/21/15 – ULOG w/ firewall log rotate 90. 1 netmask 255. Log and right after it, add: kern. I2c/i2c-1/1-0068/hwmon/hwmon0/temp1_input — 23250 — That’s showing it’s 23. You can put anything in here that helps identify this AX. Sh script) due to any typos. Accept that and reboot – Memory Split: If you’re running the Lite version of Raspbian, you can reduce the the amount of RAM given to the video system to 16MB and give as much back to the OS. Enter the compiling area and make it writable by users in the “adm” group cd /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/ mkdir direwolf cd direwolf 3. 25 system with a script Assuming that everything is configured from all the steps above, start up the Linux AX. Basic # A nice tool to confirm if your Rpi is stable and isn’t experiencing power brownouts as either identified # on your Rpi as: # # – The RED power LED blinks # – You see a yellow lightening bolt in the upper right corner of the Rpi’s HDMI console sudo apt-get install stress #This put a CPU load of 38 on an RPi v3 for 2 minutes # stress –cpu 20 –io 20 –vm 6 –vm-bytes 25M –timeout 120s 14. Gpsd:INFO: NTPD ntpshm_link_activate: 1 gpsd:INFO: device /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. The new way to configure the use of RAM drives (but is unclear how any changes here will be retained when/if that script is updated): #NOTE: In Raspbian Jessie and Stretch, the previous Wheezy approach of configuring # RAM drives (/etc/default/tmpfs) is broken. Html https://frillip. APRS Igate: If you intend on setting up an APRS Igate, below are the settings to create a receive-only APRS Igate for general packets but APRS-IS to RF enabled transmit Igate for APRS messages. Next, try making a fictious AX. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. 25 connection cannot gracefully disconnect via issuing the “b” command on a remote KPC3 TNC. Here is what I see for my system. Ini — port = /dev/ttyUSB0 — #You have to get the GPS running in NEMA mode first sudo gpsd -N -D3 -n /dev/ttyUSB0 /etc/tracker/tracker-up To view the current system, use: http://192. Sh – Blank empty space for smaller system backups and take an image copy of your removed Rpi micro-SD card for backup reasons http://www. 25 stack working with it. Since this chapter is about connecting a monitor after that stage, the display WILL come up but it might not look the best or might not be at the highest resolution. New firewall took effect. Consider # using your callsign # ssid=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-ME # Change this to the correct country you’re in – I’m in the US country_code=US # Use the 2. Conf — server 127. 187448] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Mode Sense: 33 00 00 00 [ 360. This might get improved over time. #For Jessie sudo systemctl disable hostapd #For Wheezy sudo update-rc. 4 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://github. 1 f3kt-0 f3kt. In this specific case, you can use the green LED to show Wifi activity: #show the possible options with the current firmware (changes over time) cat /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger * Anything wrapped with [ ] means it’s active none – does nothing kbd-scrollock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-numlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-capslock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-kanalock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-altgrlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-altlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftrlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrlllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrlrlock – status from the controlling keyboard [mmc0] – activity on the microSD card slot mmc1 – activity on the Wifi interface timer – monitor the timer oneshot – not sure on this one heartbeat – monitor the broadcom watchdog timer backlight – status of the DSI backlight gpio – monitor a specific GPIO pin cpu0 – status of cpu0 cpu1 – status of cpu1 cpu2 – status of cpu2 cpu3 – status of cpu3 default-on – on 100% input – not sure what this is rfkill0 – show if the BT signal is admin disabled via rfkill rfkill1 – show if the wifi signal is admin disabled via rfkill To change the green LED to show Wifi activity instead of microSD activity, issue the command: echo mmc1 > /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger This will be a temporary setting and the Rpi will revert to it’s stock behavior after a reboot. If you use the 3. 4 defaults with an IGFILTER setting equivlent to having the APRS-IS system # sending you APRS “Item” objects within 30km of your location with “IGFILTER i/30”. 8Ghz support nor 802. #Update the config – Dantracker currently ONLY supports devices like ttyUSB0 # (not /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Sh if [ $. If you don’t respond in 30 seconds, # the script will rollback to the previous working firewall ruleset. Conf section on how to enable APRS-IS RX-only Igate # and MSG only TX-Igate functionality # – Added a section on how to interactively test APRS-IS filters with TELNET # – Updated the Direwolf compiling section to reflect improvements and a repaired Direwolf-1. Now run the following command (you can use control-C to stop it) and you should see NOTHING. 5A # power supply # – Added the useful tool “stress” for checking Rpi power brownouts # – Updated the different Rpi comparison section a bit # # 12/16/17 – New release # # 12/11/17 – Updated the Linpac version to 0. 1: Cannot assign requested address | | | | The issue seems to be a race condition where hostapd isn’t required to be fully up before | | dnsmasq comes up. Sh http://www. For now, let it spin down. Sh chmod 755 review-rpi-cpu. Png The PTT connetion is connected to physical GPIO pin: Rpi pin 37 (Broadcom GPIO 26) :: connect this to the PTT circuit or RS232 DB9 pin7 (this is the RS232 RTS signal) Rpi pin 39 ( electrical GND ) :: connect this to the PTT circuit or RS232 DB9 pin5 (this is the RS232 GND signal) I initially set the Alinco DJ-580 volume knobs to: SQL knob: 0. On the D74, turn on the radio and use the A/B button to select the BOTTOM VFO or VFO-B as this is the only VFO that the built-in TNC works on. No SSID) keyboard to keyboard chat -1 :: PBBS mailboxes -2 :: not specifically used -3 :: not specifically used -4 :: not specifically used -5 :: for nodes and netrom -6 :: not specifically used -7 :: for nodes and netrom (alternate) -8 :: not specifically used -9 :: not specifically used -10 :: for Winlink nodes —- -11 through -15 are generally NEVER used since NETROM connections will automatically use these high SSID numbers starting with -15 and work it’s way down to lower SSIDs to manage link by link connections 11. Find the line: *. Install the Logrotate log management system for log rotation and compression Now that you have an email server running, are hopefully running an IPTABLES firewall with logging support going through Ulogd, etc, all going to a RAM drive, you need to manage your logs. Try running the program: gpsmon or alternatively for NEMA only mode: gpsmon -n or cgps – This program offers a slightly simplier, cleaner view to the number of satellites being used in the left-side box under the “Used” column or xgps If you’re running Raspbian Pixel with the full Xwindows GUI on the HDMI console *or* are SSHing into the Rpi from an Xwindows GUI computer with SSH X-forwarding enabled, this program will show a nice graphical representation of the received satellites with color coding based upon their signal strength. Most likely, you’ll want to select Postfix to be: “Internet with Smarthost” This means that your Rpi will need to contact another email server to “relay” the email to the Internet. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var –datadir=/usr/share –datarootdir=/usr/share make -j8 Now work around a checkinstall bug incorrectly reading RPM spec files: mv ax25tools. I will probe file /dev/i2c-1. Check and disabled unneeded services (the SystemD way) SystemD cheatsheet: http://www. Then other side of the momentary switch to Rpi pin 18 – GND Once the button is wired up and connected to the correct GPIO pins on the Raspberry Pi, go ahead and power up your Rpi. 7 KiB) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0 — Go ahead and try enabling Wifi on your desired Wifi client device (like a smartphone) where it should see your new Rpi based Access point as named above. If this overlflow to /tmp happens without having a large enough secondary mount, you will (at minimi) significantly reduce the life of your SD card due to many writes. To do this, run the following command: #Some additional required packages will be installed as well # sudo apt-get install postfix logwatch bsd-mailx dnsutils openssl-blacklist # As the Postfix package installs, it will prompt you for specific settings for your # environment. A temporary solution is to # out the line “bind-interfaces” line in the | | dnsmasq. New2 script and at least enable beacons and to have Linpac to auto-start. To test things a bit more, disconnect the PTT GPIO pin from the Raspberry Pi and connect an LED in series with a 1k resistor: – connect to cathode of LED (short lead / smaller metal inside LED) to GPIO pin – connect to anode of LED (long lead / larger metal inside LED) to GND pin You should see the LED light up every 60 seconds. Install the xz compression utility #These commands assume the other Linux computer is running a Debian-like OS sudo apt-get install xz 4. Once you’ve update the access database, now test the Rpi’s local email system by running: echo “test1 ” | mailx root There won’t be any output on the command line but you can see if there were any other issues by looking at the local email server log: sudo less /var/log/mail. If you’d like to put a copy of this newly created SD image onto another SD card 9. 105 2 u 50 64 1 84. If not add it # Start LinPac if [ -f /root/LinPac/macro/init. Seems this LCDs have seemingly TWO brightness levels but this one program is mistakenly showing the text in ultra-bright mode. Remove the power, wait 5 seconds, and re-connect it. 4 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. Reload the firewall set following the previous recommendations in the Firewall section of this doc and now things should be all logged in the /var/log/ulogd_traffic-emu1. For example, I’ve since moved to using a Alinco | | DJ-580 and it’s PTT connections are RADICALLY different than the Kenwood. Py script” | /usr/bin/systemd-cat python /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown. To work around this, one has to make a bunch of minor changes. =debug; auth,authpriv. Well, the Rpi1 and Rpi2 can have it’s various GPIO pins connected to several other “alternative” functions available in the Broadcom SOC ASIC depending on it’s pin “mode”. 00:1F:22:44:17:18 Ultrathin Keyboard Mini — From this point there are TWO ways to use Bluetooth: – The Raspberry Pi reaches out to the remote BT device to connect – The remote BT device reaches out to the Rpi to connect Here is an example Have the Rpi reach out and attach to a remote BT device (a keyboard): — # To pair to this BT wireless keyboard, use the following command which is more of an # interactive command prompt: # sudo /usr/bin/bluetoothctl #Issue the following commands #Show available BT controllers list #Give more details on the local controller (change this example MAC address to match yours) show B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 #Show what might already be paired devices #Enable BT pairing agent on default-agent #Scan for available BT devices scan on # Initiate the pairing to the keyboard found above (change the BT mac address with # the device found in your area # # NOTE: If you cannot read the displayed “Passkey” text, you need to # change your terminal’s background font color to something other than white. Make the script executable with: sudo chmod +x /etc/network/if-pre-up. Com — – Confirm that the host recognizes it’s new hostname with running: hostname -f #Update the FBB stuff update the details in /etc/ax25/fbb/beacon0. From the man page: # # -n : Don’t wait for a client to connect before polling whatever GPS is associated # with it. 1 netmask 255. — # If you see that, awesome, you’ve confirmed Bluetooth to the D74 is working. Conf file. New2 wget http://www. Check the output mixer settings, try a different sound device, etc. I agree with you that it’s totally backwards but it’s TRUE. | | To stop this, I have to either reboot (to disable the wlan0 interface from coming up) | oredit the /etc/network/interfaces file and disable the | two AP lines like: | | #iface AP1 inet dhcp | #iface AP2 inet dhcp | | sudo ifconfig wlan0 down +——————————————————————————————- +——————————————————————————————+ | IMPORTANT: 09/04/17 (was 08/14/16) | | | | This entire section and all of it’s sub-sections are DEPRECATED. 255 LEN=78 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=128 ID=8291 PROTO=UDP SPT=137 DPT=137 LEN=58 — If the wifi hardware was seen, it’s most likely the OS has automatically created the “wlan0” interface. For most ISP’s MTAs (remote email servers that accept email), this won’t be needed but if you run your own upstream “smarthost”, you might to need to update the “access” database. Zip cd direwolf-1. Xz | dd of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=1M NOTE: This command will not give any output until the process is complete and it can take in upwards of 10 minutes or more depending on the size of your SD card and the speed of your card reader 60. #For Raspbian Stretch sudo systemctl start ntp #For Raspbian Jessie sudo systemctl start ntpd When I say sit, I mean have it running for at LEAST 10 minutes (assuming your GPS was getting a strong lock on it’s various satellites. 83W) format using the “^” character (and the E/W indicator) b. NOT) ps aux | grep gpsd sudo lsof -nPi | grep 2947 #If you see that the socket is still listneing, you can shutdown the listening socket here sudo systemctl stop gpsd. Linux # – Increased the tmsfs size for /tmp from 1Mbyte to 10Mbyte # # 09/14/16 – Wifi support completed # – Added a new Bluetooth cheatsheet section # # 09/11/16 – Initial Wifi for Rpi v3 support started # 09/08/16 – Updates from W6ELA # – Added URLs for proper TXDELAY tuning # – Started a new section on configuring the Wifi AP using the Rpi3 wifi and # deprecating the RTL8192 support (hacky, poorly supported, etc) # # 08/26/16 – Added the video unix group # – Added a link to tuning your packet levels # # 08/17/16 – Moved up the connecting your radio and Wifi AP sections # 08/14/16 – Working on adding Raspbian Jessie based Wifi AP support # 08/07/16 – Added a note about allowing the HDMI port to always be enabled # 08/06/16 – Added the PiShutdown section # – Added more details on GPIO pinouts, selection for Direwolf DCD # # 08/04/16 – Added the part number to the Syba soundcard recommendation # 08/01/16 – HTMLized the document # 05/22/16 – reordered the initial security section # – implemented the firewall-confirm. If you don’t do this, you might loose connection and then break your access to the Rpi. Txt lat / long – position power – 5watts height (HAAT) – 20ft off the ground gain – 7dbi gain on 20m into a co-linear vertical antenna power / height / gain of transmitter in increments of the following (you can’t put in any other values) http://aprsisce. Ddd 48850 GPU temp temp=49. For now, put the radio into high power mode by pressing F + Menu until the display shows “H” for HIGH power 4. Ok, you have your backup. | | | | Why. Run “ifconfig” and confirm you see: 2. | +———————————————————————————+ 1. Run the “df” command and make sure you see key directories like: /run /run/lock /tmp /var/log/ Specifically, notice the use the “tmpfs” file system (or not) which is a ram drive. Get a copy of the Direwolf sources The current release version is v1. V4-test – If everything works, make sure you enable the new firewall ruleset to load every time with: sudo iptables-save Serial –> YES –> Ok –> Finish Select YES to reboot your Raspberry pi #4 – Make sure the serial console is not enabled Look at the /boot/cmdline. If you’ve configure any other AX. It supports multiple simultaenous keyboard to keyboard chats, sending unproto or UI packets through digi paths, sending and receiving packet messages, etc. 1 #Disable DNS and DHCP from running on the wired ethernet interface no-dhcp-interface=eth0 # Bind only to the defined interface so other interfaces don’t get unwanted traffic # # This is INTENTIONALLY commented out per the comment above # #bind-interfaces # Assign IP addresses between 192. Conf” — # Next, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file — auto lo eth0 wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 10. Sh script a bit # – Updated the packet to Kenwood D74 section a bit # – Fixed some jump links # # 03/08/18 – Added dual/simultaneous wifi client AP access and AP mode # # 02/03/18 – Enhanced the Bluetooth section a bit and updated the bt-kiss-bringup. If it shows “MM”, hit the “m” key Set the “Mic” (this is the monitor feature if it’s shown there at all) to MUTED by hitting the “m” key (that’s shown as MM in the bottom box of the vertical slider) Auto Gain control – (if shown on your specific sound card) is selected (that’s 00) [need to understand if this should be on or off – use “m” to disable] – F4 Capture Set the “Capture” to a level of 31 and make sure you can see the word “Capture” by using the space bar – F5 How All controls Some specific sound cards don’t show their AGC controls in the “F3 – playback” window so it’s best to double check here – Hit the Escape key to exit and leave the current audio level settings in place

Configure a USB-based GPS receiver with GPSD for position and time
34. For example, I’m naming my unit “rpi3” so the line would read: rpi3 – Next, edit the file /etc/hosts and update the line that has “127. So and now add the following line ABOVE it session [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if. Bogus-priv # Use interface wlan0 interface=wlan0 # Explicitly specify the address to listen on listen-address=192. Remember, the adjusting these levels is a combination of the levels coming in/out of your radio as well as the soundcard levels coming out of the Raspberru Pi. If you run the command again, # it will instantly re-associate to the D74. Log, # and ulogd_traffic-emu1. Setup and configure the “ax25spyd” program as a proxy (not documented here) Anyway, let’s focus on Linpac for now: 1. It seems that Realtek has never really support with Linux. Other information lines will display and continue to come but but gpsd is successfully running. F=29&t=147501 Seems this recommendation is avoiding the SystemD approach 3. If you | | run the command “ifconfig” or “ip addr”, you will no longer see Ethernet | | interfaces with names like “eth0” but instead, you’ll see something like | | “enxb827eb5f05”. My Syba USB sound device shows up as the following: — plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 C-Media USB Audio Device, USB Audio Hardware device with all software conversions — Next, if you’re curious on getting more details, you can display the soundcard’s native sampling rates with this command: sudo lsusb -vv | grep -e Audio -e tSamFreq | grep -v -e Descriptor -e bInterfaceClass On my USB based Syba sound device, I see the following sampling rates — iProduct 1 C-Media USB Audio Device tSamFreq[ 0] 48000 tSamFreq[ 1] 44100 tSamFreq[ 0] 48000 tSamFreq[ 1] 44100 — Alternatively if you have a PCI-based card (or you’re doing all this in a virtual machine), use: sudo alsa-info –stdout | grep -A 12 -e “Codec:” -e “Audio Input” Next test, let’s record from the sound card for 10 seconds and puts a 960Kbyte file into the /tmp area: arecord -D plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 -t wav -f S16_LE -r 48000 -d 10 /tmp/test. The sampling rate matches the configured rate. FL connector and using an external Wifi antenna. V4-test g. Ifnames=0 biosdevname=0 | | — | | | | Reboot your Raspberry Pi and things will work from there on out. 3: Manufacturer: Prolific Technology Inc. 4 only wget https://github. The Raspberry Pi will then blinks it’s GREEN activity LED 10 times. A temporary solution is to # out the line “bind-interfaces” line in the | | dnsmasq. 25 packet: 1. Dd #Fill up and clear out the “root” partition – this will be considerably slower # To fill 14. Add in that there is a lot of conflicting and stale setup information out on the web of how to do it and it’s become a bit of nightmare to setup. Sh /usr/local/sbin 18. The strange thing is that the wlan0 interface doesn’t automatically | come up. Conf and change: — #apm = 255 to apm = 127 — g. 25 system via a script
26. Sh | | | | This which will download the required glibc/libc packages, force install them, and exit. Errata # 09/09/18 – Added IPv6 firewall examples in the directory structure at # http://www. Py /usr/local/sbin/ Now I imagine you want to do something more useful with the LCD. The two UUIDs shown above # # 2. Some SBCs include a shutdown button on the device itself but the Rpi line doesn’t. Com/questions/45570/how-do-i-make-serial-work-on-the-raspberry-pi3 #3 – You need to enable the serial port on the Rpi with the following steps but unfortunately, this approach both enables the serial port AND the serial console support at the same time. V4 file and follow the process to use the /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. Direwolf’s PBEACON or Position Beacon has the following syntax: delay – delays the initial transmission of the packet 15 seconds after direwolf startup every – beacons every 60 minutes sentto – if NOT specified, beacon will go out on ALL interfaces (RF and Igate) messaging – set to 1 only if your station can receive and respond to APRS messages (default is 0) symbol – using the house symbol per http://www. Next test, if you have speakers connected to the Rpi’s speaker out jack, you can listen to the recorded file via the “Default” soundcard output. Conf file — 1. Socket | | | | then run to retry the package config: | | | | sudo apt-get -f install | +——————————————————————————————–+ 2. Tuning-direwolf for more details on tuning your various RF levels and timing — Unless you plan on using the TCP KISS (not the same as “serial KISS”) feature or the AGW/PE API support (Direwolf does *not* support connected sessions for things like Outpost, etc), then plan on disabling both of these: AGWPORT 8000 KISSPORT 8001 to AGWPORT 0 KISSPORT 0 — Depending on your use of your packet station, you might want to enable the FIX_BITS section to be either APRS centric or standard packet centric error prediction: – The first parameters of 1 or 2 is the number of bits Direwolf will try to correct – the second parameter of AX25 essentially disables the APRS-centric hinting which is useful if you’re a classic packet user and not an APRS user FIX_BITS 1 AX25 — GPS locations beacon for using on APRS: It’s a good idea that your packet system beacons it’s presence on the frequency. 25 packages and find the libax25 deb file | | cd /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/linuxax25/libax25/ | | cp libax25_*_armhf. 25 for Stretch and Jessie as of | | 12/11/17. | | If you intend to enable IPv6 on your Rpi, you MUST enable a | | similar ruleset for v6. If it wasn’t received, you need to check the local and remote email logs. For example on my Rpi2: vi /etc/fstab # for Stretch that uses UUIDs, it looks like: — PARTUUID=92f034a6-02 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — # for Jessie, it looks like: — /dev/mmcblk0p2 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — Go ahead and reboot your Rpi right now. Now you need to make sure the Raspberry 0w, 3, or 3B+ has it’s bluetooth setup right (and bluetooth is enabled if you previously disabled it): sudo /usr/bin/bluetoothctl #Issue the following commands #Show available BT controllers list #Give more details on the local controller (change this example MAC address to match yours) show B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 #Show what might already be paired devices #Enable Bluetooth pairing agent on default-agent #Scan for available BT devices scan on # At this point, you’re going to want to WAIT until you see the D74’s BT MAC show up in # the scan output. 1: new high-speed USB device number 6 using dwc_otg [606161. This wiring is very similar to the the LCD setup above but it uses the +3. I will research this where the fix could be simple symlinks # to a recommendation of removing the VE7FET AX. Read and edit the script to suit your needs. The key here is that it DOESN’T give any errors on loading. V4-test file and remove the # in front of the relevant three lines and then enable the temporary ruleset with: sudo iptables-restore Bluetooth -> Bluetooth: ON Ok, the radio is now ready to go so on to the Raspberry Pi. This will be the desired valid email address where you’ll # receive daily email reports from your Raspberry Pi. 11A or AC link support. Com/en/comparison/raspberrypi-models-comparison A nice set of benchmarks can be found here: https://www. 412 GHz Access Point: Not-Associated Sensitivity:0/0 Retry:off RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:off Power Management:off Link Quality:0 Signal level:0 Noise level:0 Rx invalid nwid:0 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0 Tx excessive retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0 lo no wireless extensions. To do this, edit the /boot/config. Conf file to connect your local Wifi AP (when it’s in range): — #Change this if you arent in the US country=US ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev update_config=1 #Your first AP you might want to connect to if it’s in range #Change the SSID and PSK lines to match that AP’s credentials network={ ssid=”YourSSID1″ psk=”YourPassphrase1″ id_str=”AP1″ } #Your second AP you might want to connect to if it’s in range #Change the SSID and PSK lines to match that AP’s credentials network={ ssid=”YourSSID2″ psk=”YourPassphrase2″ id_str=”AP2″ } — Now connecting all this together, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file — auto lo auto ap0 auto wlan0 iface lo inet loopback #If you plan on having an Ethernet USB-dongle attached auto eth0 allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp allow-hotplug ap0 iface ap0 inet static address 192. (there’s always a “but”). As such, I recommend you do the following: a. -ne 0 ]; then echo “pishutdown. 0 minpoll 4 maxpoll 4 fudge 127. Now it’s time to configure hostapd which makes the wireless device enter “Access Point” mode. Com/wb2osz/direwolf ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libasound2,libgps22 ] 11 – Provides: [ tnc ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging NOTE #1: If you get a “disk full” error here, it’s important that you follow the above section on creating a temporary /tmp mount to a local USB HDD (NFS mount works fore Direwolf) too. For Raspbian Jessie: Load the Broadcom watchdog kernel module at boot time: NOTE: Systemd will also automatically load the kernel module when it sees a change to the /etc/modules file #Stretch does not need this setting due to the tighter integration with Systemd #only for Jessie / 4. Do that now with: #Install the required programs and any of their dependencies # sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install build-essential sudo apt-get install autoconf sudo apt-get install libtool sudo apt-get install checkinstall sudo apt-get install git 17. On the breadboard, I connected up both the RTC as well as connected jumper cables to the LCD in parallel. Sh Or you can enter in as followins: vi /tmp/remove-old-kernels. Software TNC This document focuses on installing and using the Direwolf software TNC as this solution offers a cheaper yet superior solution for AX. For most ISP’s MTAs (remote email servers that accept email), this won’t be needed but if you run your own upstream “smarthost”, you might to need to update the “access” database. Err /var/log/mail. UTF-8 UTF-8″ (USA) – I unselected “en_GB. You can also run “ifconfig wlan0” which should now have an IP address on it: ifconfig wlan0 — wlan0: flags=4163 mtu 1500 inet 192. Net/projects/linpac/files/LinPac/ ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libax25,ax25-apps,ax25-tools,libncurses5 ] 11 – Provides: [ linpac ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] — If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging and install the resulting package +—————————————————————————–+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | With a recent change to Raspbian 9 / Debian 9 Stretch, changes to | | the version of GCC has made the Debian apt version of Linpac > /etc/modules 4. Temporarily start up hostapd and dnsmasq #Running these commnands won’t give any specific output #Do the individual commands to avoid some strange behavior on Stretch sudo systemctl stop hostapd sudo systemctl start hostapd sudo systemctl restart dnsmasq 2. This will let you connect to the Rpi either directly or through an AP (which usually has Internet access). 0/8 -j REJECT # Accepts all established inbound connections -A INPUT -m state –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT # Allows all outbound traffic # You could modify this to only allow certain traffic -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT # Allows SSH connections # # Placing your Rpi on the raw Internet (no firewall in front of it) and having # SSH enabled is NOT recommended. Install the hdparm utility: sudo apt-get install hdparm d. 3 2 u 149 1024 377 26. These two steps greatly reduces your security attack surface. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25/issues/1 | +—————————————————————————-+ +—————————————————————————————————————–+ | NOTE #2: | | As Raspbian gets updates, you will eventually see a glibc/libc updates break similar to the NOTE | | above. Seems this LCDs have seemingly TWO brightness levels but this one program is mistakenly showing the text in ultra-bright mode. V4 — k. From reputable sellers. Review the boot up logs to make sure things are working as expected
Backing up your work – imaged-based SD card backups:
49. As mentioned at the top of this section, a previous USB-based GPS receiver was showing the following bogus date (in the future. I bought an inexpensive USB GPS unit but | | it would never lock on more than one or two satellites when inside and | | that could take like ten minutes. When you’re done and unmount the USB HD, the previous mount will be still there # In this example, I’m mounting things via a script. In this example, Linpac will allow one incoming connection going to SSID KI6ZHD-6 on the F1 terminal but if a different packet radio station tries to connect to you, it will assign that connection to the F2 terminal. While I welcome the wireless support, the Rpi team unfortunately also made some disruptive changes: – the primary hardware serial console support connected on the GPIO pins to /dev/ttyAMA0 was taken over by the Bluetooth interface instead. Your setup might have even other lines showing IPv6 site-local, privacy address, etc. Btw, “ppm” is essentially errors in “Parts Per Million”: sudo hwclock -c -f /dev/rtc0 — hw-time system-time freq-offset-ppm tick 1511382606 1511382605. Conf file if you intend to use the built-in APRS functionality in Direwolf itself. Deb /home/dranch/libax25/ | | | | Finally, edit the update-glibc-ax25-workaround. There is most likely nothing you can do about this except use a different USB to HD adapter or enclosure. I personally feel this is an infrastructure level configuration (just like configuring Ethernet or Wifi interfaces) so this belongs in /etc somewhere. D -f bluetooth remove # Disable the Avahi mDNS system on the Rpi sudo update-rc. 23,141016,,,A*78x0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224316. # 2) A unit’s purpose may be to act as a helper for some other unit which has # a requirement dependency on it. We are at a bit of a cross roads where the VE7FET repo is becoming TOXIC for some distros yet it has fixes in it that aren’t the Official AX. B Setting up the Sound Card levels for 1200BAUD AFSK Packet Radio – This example is using a Alinco DJ-580 HT with a simple PTT circuit similar to the one shown here (more about this later): http://www. Get the newest ax25mail-utils sources – 0. For example, if you wanted to test receive APRS-IS APRS messages within 5km of your location, you’d run the following commands. 0 | +—————————————————————————————+ – You can either install it from the Debian repositories with: +—————————————————————————————+ | Critical / Mandatory NOTE: | | | | As of Raspbian 9 / Debian 9 Stretch, this distribution has upgraded the version | | of the GCC compiler that BREAKS Linpac with versions LESS than 0. I’m using “KI6ZHD-6” as I already have other packet stations on KI6ZHD (aka KI6ZHD-0), KI6ZHD-1, KI6ZHD-2, etc – the next field is the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) speed which is the speed between the computer and the TNC. Conf file: sudo make install-conf The checkconfig program will automatically install the resulting. # – Improved the TNC-Pi section formatting a little # 08/28/18 – Remove avahi-daemon and expanded on the SSH section to include updating the # firewall to handle the change in port numbers # 08/04/18 – Minor changes to the Rpi hardware section # 07/20/18 – Added a comment in the TNC-Pi section to reboot the TNC after making any # register changes # 07/19/18 – Added a note that a. Assuming say the local APRS frequency is busy in your area (144. 906308) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 18 az= 60 el=44 (0. I could go on and on here in the intro but I won’t. 0,W,A*0A $GPGGA,041221. That can REALLY slow things down if you have many retries. Will get confused where to start. Do be wary though. Alter your firewall to use the new Ulogd system Edit the /etc/iptables/rules. Sh and change the line that reads: — screen -c $HOME/. 4 apt-get install Xastir # ————————————————————— # Possibly Deprecated # ————————————————————— # —————————————————————. You can find this white antenna chip on your Rpi3 just to the right of the 40pin header when the HDMI port is facing you. Doing this on a Raspberry Pi’s SD card is dangerous as you can easily wear out the flash cells on the card. Debug stop Once edited, restart syslog with: sudo service rsyslog restart And then delete the old, abandoned logs (or reboot as all these logs are on the tempoary RAM drive now): rm -f /var/log/debug* 11. Shutdown the Rpi with the shutdown button (if you followed that section) or run the command: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now Wait for the Rpi to shutdown and watch the RPi’s green LED blink 10 times and then go completely off to mean it’s safe to remove the power. Limit=50#17de | | | | As such, it’s MANDATORY that you upgrade to Linpac 0. 2Ghz when above 70 degrees C) 3 : 1. Sh script) due to any typos. Record from the Syba and playback throug the Rpi’s headphone jack # # This method is VERY helpful for getting the initial audio levels # # Don’t forget the trailing “-” at the end of the command line (this is the STDOUT # system) # arecord -D plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 -t wav -f S16_LE -r 48000 -d 10 – | aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 – scan –> scan-results –> add_network –> set_network 0 ssid “enter-your-previously-shown-BSSID-here” –> set_network 0 psk “enter-your-wpa2-key-here” –> enable_network 0 –> save_config Get a copy of /usr/local/sbin/start-adhoc. 25 sources from GIT
Building up the Sound card system, PTT, and Software AX. If so, they both MUST be in-place to communicate to the TNC-Pi to change it’s settings (for either serial OR I2C mode). That’s a good question if you do have a GPS running but if your setup is in a static location, why consume the power or possibly suffer the GPS position jitter. # – Added that simultaneous wifi and BT support on the Rpi v3 doesn’t work well # – Corrected sudo command for iptables-save compound command # – Added how to use alternative SSH listening ports # – Added a key note that no IPv6 firewall is created and to disable IPv6 for now # – Completed the ulogd section and using the new NFLOG approach so no more iptables # filter hits in the /var/log/syslog nor dmesg logs. Take a hand help radio, QSY it’s VFO to 144. Gz cd linpac-0. Unfortunately, this board removes the u. Initial OS Tuning:
5. Conf HINT: If you started Direwolf with it’s coloring enabled and now all your console text is blinking, you can use the command “tput reset” to clear things out. Do NOT proceed past this step until this is resolved. Sh # chmod 700 mount-usb-hd. | | | | For now in this document, I will DISABLE IPv6 protocol support. I’m using 16MB 3. If your HW doesn’t’ report a “0” above, read the above URLS as well as this HW identification URL: https://help. Device activated 2. Larger PACLEN settings will provide higher performance assuming you don’t have many retries. Conf — denyinterfaces wlan0 — Non-Raspbian Stretch users: ————————— Edit the interfaces file to create a static IP for the wlan interface. On my computer, it shows up as /dev/mmcblk0 3. Why do you have to do something special. TXDELAY 40 TXTAIL 5 NOTE: If the TXTAIL setting is too short, I’ve seen where an AX. Cable up and power up your Rpi a. 1: New USB device found, idVendor=7392, idProduct=7811 [667667. 193 3 u 62 1024 377 16. Sh script that will automatically uncompress and copy the resulting image to the SD card. Local — echo -e “nStarting packet system” /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Can create very large amount of log entries – enable port knocking (potentially removes the need to change port numbers or mandate SSH-keys – Enable tools like fail2ban to block remote IPs after X number of failed login attempts, portscans, etc. Orig sudo vi axports — Comment out or delete all the port definitions except “vhfdrop” at the bottom of the file – On the “vhfdrop” line, the next field is the callsign and SSID. Com/port-aprs-is # IGSERVER noam. Edit the following file, and remove the # in front of the following line: sudo vim /etc/default/hostapd — DAEMON_CONF=”/etc/hostapd/hostapd. Append the “prefer” keyword to the pre-populated Debian NTP servers sudo vim /etc/ntp. If things work correctly, you should see the driver load up in the output of “dmesg” and when you run “date” after SSHing into your Rpi, it should have good time regardless if the Internet is up or not. Service #Remove any disabling of the wlan interface sudo rfkill unblock 0 At this point, not a whole lot will be changed as the wireless interface still doesn’t have any network associations but Raspbian Stretch: Won’t show any IP address in the output of “ifconfig -a” just yet Raspbian Jessie: If you run “ifconfig -a” should show the 192. Log file and no longer in your /var/log/syslog nor dmesg logs. Install Linpac for Connected and UnConnected packet QSOs and PBBS ———————— OPTIONAL for APRS users: ———————— Linpac is a classic packet program for Linux that runs in a terminal window which is similar to the Pakkratt or PKGold programs for DOS. Org/downloads/formatter_4/ Why. New file and at the bottom of the script, remove the #ed out line that will run the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Update the version in the below command to match Run the following command: sudo checkinstall –pkgname direwolf –pkgversion 1. Now remove the SD card from this secondary Linux machine and put it back into your Raspberry Pi 8. Conf file and disable the test OBEACON object line 24. If you’ve made any changes to your Rpi via raspi-config, it’s time to reboot 4. 105 2 u 50 64 1 84. Py script” echo “Starting pishutdown. Clear out all unallocated space in the file system for max compression #Fill up and clear out the “boot” partition – this will be fast (7 seconds) sudo time dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/sd-card/p1/bigfile. It should look like: tmpfs 441580 6012 435568 2% /run tmpfs 5120 4 5116 1% /run/lock tmpfs 441580 0 441580 0% /sys/fs/cgroup tmpfs 20480 128 20352 1% /var/log tmpfs 1024 0 10240 0% /tmp The use of the tmpfs RAM drives is the normal setup on Jessie based Raspbian installs but NOT Raspbian Stretch. 34717) format using the “. 25 packet decodes compared to almost any hardware TNC on the market (past and present) including: Kantronics KPC (version 2, 3, 3+, KAM, etc) MFJ 1270 / 1272 TNC2 TNCs PacComm TNCs Timewave / AEA PK96 TNCs) TNC-X (a PIC microcontroller based TNC) TNC-PI (the same PIC microcontroller based TNC on a Raspberry Pi HAT board) etc With that said, this documentation and some scripts DOES support elements of both the Coastal Chipworks TNC-Pi board and the Kenwood D74 Bluetooth-enabled handheld. 00:1F:22:44:17:18 Ultrathin Keyboard Mini — From this point there are TWO ways to use Bluetooth: – The Raspberry Pi reaches out to the remote BT device to connect – The remote BT device reaches out to the Rpi to connect Here is an example Have the Rpi reach out and attach to a remote BT device (a keyboard): — # To pair to this BT wireless keyboard, use the following command which is more of an # interactive command prompt: # sudo /usr/bin/bluetoothctl #Issue the following commands #Show available BT controllers list #Give more details on the local controller (change this example MAC address to match yours) show B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 #Show what might already be paired devices #Enable BT pairing agent on default-agent #Scan for available BT devices scan on # Initiate the pairing to the keyboard found above (change the BT mac address with # the device found in your area # # NOTE: If you cannot read the displayed “Passkey” text, you need to # change your terminal’s background font color to something other than white. Py script that includes debounding to avoid false shutdowns # due to say RFI, etc. Com/id/Simple-Raspberry-Pi-Shutdown-Button/ as an outline for this section and code BUT: – This person’s design does not use a resistor to protect the GPIO line. Maybe you’re seeing “”ACS: Unable to collect survey data” where you’ve configured Automatic Channel Selection (ACS). There are lots of them out ther ethough. 1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3 [667667. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ zlib1g ] 11 – Provides: [ ax25 ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] — Hit ENTER to start the packaging and attempt to install the package +—————————————————————————-+ | NOTE: | | The above command will FAIL at the “Installing Debian package” stage | | due to install due to a known conflict in the AX. On the D74, turn on the radio and use the A/B button to select the BOTTOM VFO or VFO-B as this is the only VFO that the built-in TNC works on. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0′ gpsd:INFO: gpsd_activate(2): activated GPS (fd 6) gpsd:INFO: KPPS checking /sys/devices/virtual/pps/pps0/path, /dev/ttyUSB0 gpsd:INFO: KPPS device not found. Be silently # dropped. See the above URL for more details and understanding of other geo-centric addresses. We’ll need to use in later so let’s move it to somewhere permanent: sudo mv RPi_I2C_driver. Net # Smarthost / SMTP relayhost – here, it’s not that you put in the # actual IP of the remote host but the domain name that will accept # this email. Html – Mitch AB6MW’s Wheezy based image with setup GUI which supports TNC-X and Direwolf https://sourceforge. It seems to work. Com/phg phgd Code: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Units Power: 0 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 watts Height: 10 20 40 80 160 320 640 1280 2560 5120 feet Gain: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 dB Directivity: omni 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 n/a degrees PBEACON delay=00:15 every=60 SYMBOL=/- lat=37^20. System running through SSH If you want gpsd to automatically start upon boot, use the command: sudo systemctl enable gpsd NOTES: – If you want to disable gpsd from auto-starting when the GPS is connected to the USB bus, see: http://astrobeano. Conf — #Wireless device name interface=wlan0 #The bridge interface to connect to eth0 bridge=br0 #Wifi device driver depends on your USB device found above # I’m using the LD-Link BL-LW05-AR5 device # # EXPERIMENT – 08/13/16 – for a rtl8192cu device, do NOT specify ANY driver # and let it auto-discover #driver=rtl871xdrv #driver=rtl8192cu #Control interface for hostapd ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd #SSID announcement for this device – change this to be whatever you want ssid=ki6zhd #Specific country you are locate in – this is for the Unite States country_code=US #limit the allowed frequencies to specified country ieee80211d=1 #This allows 802. Conf is in /etc/ax25 # – added missing zlib dependencies for ax25-tools # # 09/05/17 – Increase the RAM drives for /tmp to 10MB and /var/log/ to 50MB # – Added a log rotation max size limit of 10M to the /var/log/packet, ax25-listen. You can read the temperture off the DS3231 unit at any time by using this command: cat /sys/devices/platform/soc/3f804000. WATCH the upper right hand corner to see if you see a yellow lightening bolt icon or if the red LED on the Rpi occasionally blinks. If you need more advanced capabilities, you can consider replacing dnsmasq with the ISC dhcpd service instead https://learn. # Allow ping # note that blocking other types of ICMP packets is considered a bad idea by # some remove -m ICMP –icmp-type 8 from this line to allow all kinds of icmp: # https://security. Sh To make this script run at boot, add the following to the /etc/rc. Since this document focuses on being a minimalist GUI-less environment, this isn’t the direction I recommend for packet uses: http://youness. Some programs like Direwolf, Node. What does DHCP have to do with static IP addresses. If it’s NOT, you must work to improve that audio. If you do need to offer external SSH, at least change the answering port from say TCP/22 to something like TCP/2222. ADEVICE0: Sample rate approx. Com/pritambaral/hostapd-rtl871xdrv and https://github. Sh – Blank empty space for smaller system backups and take an image copy of your removed Rpi micro-SD card for backup reasons http://www. Log # # Jan 30 18:49:01 ota3 CRON[14054]: pam_unix(cron:session): session opened for user zzz by (uid=0) # Jan 30 18:49:03 ota3 CRON[13055]: pam_unix(cron:session): session closed for user root edit /etc/pam. Setting the right audio output level for non-distorted packet signals
21. Here is what I see for my system. Run “ifconfig” and confirm you see: 2. The audio should be completely noise free. Py Now edit the “RPi_I2C_driver. If it was, restore the previous backup that was put in /etc/ax25/Old. 3 and the nl80211 driver so a setting of “channel=0” or “channel=acs_survey” will *not* work. 0 b) — LEGACY notes for Realtek RTL8192cu support on Raspbian Wheezy (NOT recommended): — If you use a Wifi USB dongle using the Realtek RTL8192cu (aka RTL8188CUS) chipset like the tiny Edimax EW-7811n device and you’re using Raspbian Wheezy (not Jessie), you’re going need to read this below URL. Run the “dmesg” command on that Linux computer to confirm SD card device as being seen and to also identify what SD card reader’s device name is. To | | work arounds this, do the following (per the bug report): | | | | remove the line “ListenStream=[::1]:2947” from the /lib/systemd/system/gpsd. Now reboot your Raspberry Pi with either: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now or Press the shutdown button you build and created in the previous section of this doc Wait until the green LED on the Rpi blinks 10 times quickly and then goes out. Once your GPS has lock with at lease THREE satellites, you can move to the next step: 34. If you do try, your remote Wifi device should associate but hang on waiting to get an IP address. Next, see if you can hear some AX. Download and apply KI6ZHD’s Makefile. To use this approach, do the following: cd /tmp wget http://www. 1 k4gbb-0 k4gbb. 0 broadcast 192. Other alternatives can include: – Mount the /var/log and /tmp directories to an external USB device such as a USB HDD, SSD, or even a USB pendrive – Using a MUCH larger SD card than you require so the RPi can better wear level the writes across the SD card (still not a great idea in my opinion) +——————————————————————————————–+ | NOTE: | | Regardless of enabling the RAM drive logging or not shown in this section, I recommend | | you follow the Logrotate section below to manage and compress all log files so the | | file system doesn’t fill up. Pdf Anyway, for now, let’s move forward with the Hostap + dnsmasq approach +——————————————-+ | 08/14/16 | | This section is DEPRECATED as the RTL8192 | | is not well maintained. Differences in Raspberry Pi hardware versions, downloading the SD image and installing it I first want to highlight the key differences between the Rpi v1, v2, v3 and now 3B+ versions of the board. Though you’ll need a high power # Wifi amp to use it, you might as well start there # # You can also use the next sections recommendations to see what might be # a better channel to use but for now, use channel 1 channel=1 # Accept all MAC addresses macaddr_acl=0 # Use WPA authentication ONLY auth_algs=1 # Require clients to know the network name ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 # Enable Wireless MultiMedia class of service (WMM) wmm_enabled=1 # Enable 802. 1 4112 1764 ttyAMA0 Ss+ 08:24 0:18 /sbin/agetty –keep-baud 115200 38400 9600 ttyAMA0 vt102 — Disable the getty running on /dev/ttyAMA0 permanently the Jessie / SystemD way with: sudo systemctl stop [email protected] 522096 31 0 1511382640 1511382639. To confirm things started ok, run the command: ps aux | grep gps Which you should see something like: — gpsd 11074 0. Conf file and set the following parameters for your specific needs. Temporarily disconnect the packet radio from the USB soundcard’s playback jack, connect in a pair of headphones to the soundcard, and listen to the playback the silence sound file: aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 /tmp/15sec-silence. If you don’t do this, you might loose connection and then break your access to the Rpi. BEWARE of the soundcard and radio microphone bias DC voltage
22. Act like a wireless client and associate | | to a nearby AP | +——————————————————————–+ +——————————————————————–+ | TBD: Notes on how to add an external Wifi antenna to the Rpi v3 | | #2 (not 3B+) for better reach – read more for now at | | | | https://hackaday. Linpac will also crash upon start with | | | | /usr/bin/linpac: line 181: 9811 Segmentation fault $PKG_BINDIR/linpac $* | | | | Fortunately, if you disable predictable network interface names, things work fine. To do that, issue the command: # chmod 666 /var/run/sdp # At this point, let’s try connecting to the D74 with the following MANUAL test. Worst case, the /tmp will fill up. 25 startup scripts As part of my setup, I have several AX. Be sure to have all that. Enter the compiling area and make it writable by users in the “adm” group cd /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/ mkdir direwolf cd direwolf 3. 25 sources, see: # # http://www. Sh sudo mv review-rpi-cpu. 050Mhz — 3. I do NOT recommend to go over 50% of that space. Add the following line at the bottom of the file: Raspbian Stretch ONLY: sudo vim /etc/dhcpcd. Py file and find the lines: sudo vi /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown2. NOTE: —– We need to create another wifi device to act as the new wifi AP device. Various Rpi management, LED and Bluetooth tricks on the Rpi v3
32. The GPIO-pin connected serial port is now run by an emulated serial port which is variably clocked based on the speed of the GPU. Also notice # the D74 didn’t lightup the LCD and state “Connected Bluetooth Device”. 16 p – 64 0 0. The remote host with a “*” is the system I’m currently using for time: ntpq -c peers — remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== SHM(0). – Did it get an IP address. 3 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. The stock antenna’s range isn’t bad but can’t be greatly improved with hacking the Rpi v3’s hardware a bit by soldering on a U. If you instead see “call: no AX. 377356] usbcore: registered new interface driver pl2303 [262398. # # cd /tmp # wget http://www. Now we need to get an example program going to confirm the LCD works ok. Now, time to get things working with out a wired connection. Other gotchas and fixes will go HERE 6. 25 stack is properly working. From the included scripts: cd /usr/local/src/ Instax25. 681998) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 21 az=127 el=32 (0. 2 and other cleanups # 04/27/17 – Updated Direwolf to 1. D -f avahi-daemon remove # Disable the special key keyboard mapping tool sudo update-rc. Com/system/rsyslog-config/ It’s a little terse on what really needs to be done. NOTE: As mentioned above, I saw an issue here where I couldn’t SSH in with the password that was set for the newly created user when it was done on the Rpi console. Save yourself time and money and just buy a new Raspberry Pi. Now configure Ulog2 by editing it’s config file Find the following lines in the configuration file and make them look like the following: sudo vi /etc/ulogd. Txt file, see the following URL. This section is to NOT provide Internet access to any of the Wifi devices connected via the Raspberry Pi’s Wifi. Since this chapter is about connecting a monitor after that stage, the display WILL come up but it might not look the best or might not be at the highest resolution. 4 #If using an existing source directory, make sure it’s clean make clean 5. Edit the /etc/ax25/axports file by running the following commands and change it to reflect your own settings: sudo cp axports axports. For Raspbian Stretch, temporarily follow the recommendations found in https://www. NOTE #2 If you see the “Release” field show up as “1%{. Broadcom HW Watchdog: Automatic reboots if the system becomes unresponsive
Build Toolchain for Application Compiling:
16. – Are these pre-made images using the official Raspbian OS to benefit from the patches and security. Unfortunately, it also removes the u. Stuff that still needs to be updated from Wheezy to Jessie
N7NIX DanTracker – APRS tracking / messaging client with SmartBeacon support dnsmasq FBB BBS Xastir 80. DELETE the “pi” user Now that you created a new login and tested this new username, let’s now delete the “pi” account as the existance of the account, even being locked out as this document previously recommended still remains a security risk: a. The plan is to integrate this functionality into the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Plug in the micro-USB cable power cable which is connected to an appropreate power brick to power on your Raspberry Pi. Pdf doc found at https://github. —– The DS3221 includes a highly accurate temperature sensor as it’s ability to understand the environment is how it keeps far better track of time than NON-temperature compensated RTCs. Local file as root: sudo vi /etc/rc. 2) run the “raspi-config” program and make sure the following areas are properly set for your region (I’m in the US): Internationalization Options | +–> Change Wi-fi Country –> US 3) Update your RPi v3’s firmware using “rpi-update”. 25 should be installed. How to enable the HDMI port to always work even if the cable isn’t connected If you boot a Raspberry Pi without an HDMI monitor connected, the OS turns off the HDMI port to save power. Gz tar xzvf linpac-0. D’ # | xargs sudo apt-get -y purge echo -e “n”You can edit this script to add the following line to the above line to auto-purge these packages” echo -e “nRemoving left over rpi-update kernel modules that are not used for the current `uname -r` kernel” cd /lib/modules ls -1 | grep -v `uname -r` | xargs rm -Rf — Now go ahead and put it in the right place, give it execution permissins and run it: sudo mv /tmp/remove-old-kernels. Worse, if you have your hardened Raspberry Pi connected to the raw Internet and look at the contents of /var/log/messages or dmesg, you’ll probably notice an absolute ton of attack traffic. If they show up, you should be good. | | Please read the Direwolf tuning section above and make sure THESE settings here | | align with the settings you put in the direwolf. 25 | | stack testing” testing section to confirm your AX. Wav and aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 /var/log/test. Adding NTP support via GPS and/or Internet access
Intentional gap in chapters
Final things to review: Check your bootlogs:
48. Net/projects/linpac/ Ok, interested. It’s recommend to also setup a CLIENT side # APRS filter within Direwolf. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 Now work around a checkinstall bug incorrectly reading RPM spec files: mv ax25apps. First make sure there isn’t anything important in the /home/pi directory that you might want to keep: sudo ls -la /home/pi If there is anything you want to keep, copy out to somewhere else first b. 255 ether b8:27:eb:79:82:2c txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet) RX packets 344 bytes 24486 (23. Debs and the 3rd party VE7FET ax. 11N wifi : new / superior antenna design : has U. | +—————————————————————————–+ #Status of the BT interface # sudo hciconfig -a — hci0: Type: BR/EDR Bus: UART BD Address: B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 ACL MTU: 1021:8 SCO MTU: 64:1 UP RUNNING RX bytes:717 acl:0 sco:0 events:42 errors:0 TX bytes:1532 acl:0 sco:0 commands:42 errors:0 Features: 0xbf 0xfe 0xcf 0xfe 0xdb 0xff 0x7b 0x87 Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3 Link policy: RSWITCH SNIFF Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT Name: ‘rpi3’ Class: 0x000000 Service Classes: Unspecified Device Class: Miscellaneous, HCI Version: 4. You can either download this script with: cd /tmp wget http://www. If you implimented the above IPTABLES firewall, you’ll need to update it to first port TCP port 2222. It supports multiple simultaenous keyboard to keyboard chats, sending unproto or UI packets through digi paths, sending and receiving packet messages, etc. For example, I’ve since moved to using a Alinco | | DJ-580 and it’s PTT connections are RADICALLY different than the Kenwood. Deb package to install Direwolf on different Raspberry Pi’s assuming it’s: – Running the same CPU instruction set (RPi v1’s CPU is different from Rpi v2/3) – Running the same version of Raspbian (Wheezy, Jessie, Stretch) – You’ve also installed all the other required packages To install that deb package once it’s copied to that other Rpi, you would use the following command: NOTE: the example configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb package so those will have to be copied over manually into /etc/ax25/ NOTE#2: I choose to put the direwolf. # No symbolic links allowed, either, since the daemon updates the file # by creating a temporary in the same directory and then rename()’ing # it to the file. /bin/bash echo “running start-ap-managed-wifi. Instead, you’ll see names like | | “enxb827eb5f05”. The more packets sent in a window, the faster the throughput BUT there is a risk. If you want to use VNC to remotely control the Rpi via a GUI (and not via native SSH), go ahead and install the Pixel version. B Identify the REAL size of the SD card Here, you can see that m card is 15931539456 bytes large sudo fdisk -lu /dev/mmcblk0 — Disk /dev/mmcblk0: 15. I’m not sure why this happens. 0 network 192. There is no free lunch when it comes to security here but I bet 95% of the Rpi images out there are good. /pitnc_getparams 0 0 – if running on a TNC-Pi v2 board:. The challenge with using hard drives is that the Raspberry Pi defaults to leaving the hard drive spinning all the time and it will never spin down if it’s not in use. -d ${DIR} ]; then mkdir ${DIR} chmod 755 ${DIR} fi ;; stop) ;; restart) ;; reload|force-reload) ;; status) ;; *) echo “Usage: $SELF start” exit 1 ;; esac — chmod 755 /etc/init. /bin/sh /sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/iptables/rules. V6 # ruleset in the RPi direcory snapshot # 08/30/18 – Updated the TNC-Pi section to being up i2ckiss, etc. Setup a DS3231 battery backed up real time clock (RTC) with temperature sensor Building on the above section of getting an I2C-based LCD working, this section uses the same I2C bus to communicate to a DS3231 real time clock to set the system's date/time upon power up. 25 network stack, it can support eight concurrent connected sessions (QSOs) as well as send UNPROTO packets (UI) to any pre-configured ax25 digi path. Org/RPi_SD_cards for a lot more details but I would highly recommend the following: – NOTE: Newer Raspberry Pi units support booting from USB (Mass Storage Device – called MSD) which means you can boot from USB(hard drives and SSDs, USB flash pen drives, etc,). Once a system has gone bad, remote system can become unreachable and repairing it can be very difficult if not impossible until fixed packages are released. It should also be noted that Linpac and the message relay system ONLY supports F6FBB BBS type systems today. Choosing GPIO pin for the radio PTT line, pick a GPIO pin for your setup. In my case, I would put in a hostname that has an MX record # configured to accept email for the "trinnet. – The above script doesn't support a debouncing capability and I was experiencing false shutdowns due to I beleive RFI issues. – RAM Size The RPi 3B+, 3 and v2 have 1GB of LPDDR2 RAM (faster), the Zero W and v1 model B has 512MB of RAM 3B+ / v3 / v2 : 1GB of RAM W and v1 : 512MB of RAM – RAM Clocking: The 1GB of RAM on thew 3B+ / 3 / Zero-W is clocked 50Mhz faster than the Rpi v2 and v1 3B+ / v3 / Zero W : 450Mhz v2 and v1 : 400Mhz – GPU Clocking: The GPU video chip used on all Raspberry Pi models is the VideoCore IV but the RPi 3B+, 3 and Zero W run 50Mhz faster: 3B+ / 3 / Zero-W : 300Mhz v2, v1 : 250Mhz – Wifi Networking: 3B+ : dual band 2. Confirm Clean Silence from the Soundcard This check is needed as a *lot* of USB sound devices will pass on noise from dirty power sources in the form of dirty audio. Net rpi3 localhost – Now add your desired Rpi's hostname alias for local wireless network address – Add addresses to reflect any IP addresses enabled in the /etc/ax25/ax25ipd. 4,M,,*6F $GPRMC,041221. Well, the Rpi1 and Rpi2 can have it's various GPIO pins connected to several other "alternative" functions available in the Broadcom SOC ASIC depending on it's pin "mode". New starting up Wed Aug 30 21:27:27 PDT 2017 axudp port not enabled in /etc/ax25/axports. Adding NTP support via GPS and/or Internet access Stock Raspberry Pi SBCs don't include a real time clock as it would add too much to the cost. As such, I recommend you remove it: sudo dpkg -r avahi-daemon libnss-mdns 3. Html If that runs well, have it start at boot up with adding the following to the /etc/rc. Once the Rpi is back up and you SSHed back into it, install some key I2C packages: sudo apt-get install i2c-tools python-smbus Once those tools are installed, try running the following command to see if the I2C display is detected: # detect all I2C IDs on the second I2C bus: sudo i2cdetect -y 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 00: — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 20: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 30: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3f 40: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 50: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 60: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — As you can see here, my LCD display has an I2C address of 0x3f. Can be as simple as using SSH and running the following commands to start an upgrade and reboot (with checking the Unix exit code for each step). Compile, Configure, and Test Direwolf
24. Err to mail. I'm currently having decent | | luck with the following device: | | | | https://www. The level settings are stored in /var/lib/alsa/asound. 255 scope global enxb827eb2532fc valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 fe80::c8c1:a034:5b63:a614/64 scope link valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever — To disable IPv6, edit the /etc/sysctl. 4 (final release version) # 04/24/17 – Added a test OBEACON object # 04/20/17 – Updated the Direwolf build a bit # 04/07/17 – Corrected required Direwolf checkinstall packages as we don't need the -dev versions # 03/16/17 – updated checkconfig package description to be all on one line # 03/09/17 – Updated the SD card imaging section to recommend using larger card sides, pre-format it, # – Updates on the RPiv3 vs RPiv2 boards # – Updated GPS setup section # # 02/28/17 – Added a URL for Bluetooth audio support # 02/26/17 – Added a note to remove the unattended-upgrades package # 02/21/17 – Updated setting the proper hostname and FQDN for the Rpi # 02/20/17 – Added systemd logging to the pyshutdown section to better monitor when it's # being activated # # 01/13/17 – Added sending an email to root when the pi is rebooted # – Updated the watchdog section a bit # # 12/12/16 – Added HW watchdog support # – Added the beginnings of ulogd2 support to send iptables log lines to # a different file # # 12/10/16 – Added specific links for the firewall-confirm. Let's install the required dependencies to build Direwolf sudo apt-get install libasound2-dev unzip If you want to include GPS support for later support of connecting an external GPS for position, date/time, etc, then add the following additional packages: sudo apt-get install gpsd libgps-dev +——————————————————————————————–+ | IMPORTANT: | | | | If you disabled IPv6 above, you might run into an error installing gpsd and this | | is a known bug per https://bugs. Patch patch -p0 Configuration –> Interface –> # PC Output (GPS): Bluetooth # PC OUtput (APRS): Bluetooth # KISS : Bluetooth # DV/DR : Bluetooth # # 3. Connect up your powered USB hub to the Raspberry Pi 1. OPTIONAL: Placing your Rpi on the raw Internet (no firewall in front of it) and having SSH enabled is generally NOT recommended. If you want to allow more packets, increase # these specific configuration items to suit your needs # IGTXLIMIT 6 10 — 24. Gz cd ax25mail-utils-0. Disable auto-login Double check: If you installed the GUI version of Raspbian (not the Lite version), the system by default will auto-login the “pi” user to the LXDE desktop. /bin/bash echo -e “nListing old Raspbian based kernels that can be removed” dpkg -l ‘linux-*’ | sed ‘/^ii/. Jump to the “no-Test-Equipment packet adjustment system” section to learn how to tune your radio’s levels to be pretty close to perfect. Sh script # – added the removal of the Avahi daemon # # 11/27/16 – Added libgps-dev to add gps support to direwolf # – Add some clarifying points for compiling Direwolf 1. Sh script to bring up AX. 59W power=4 height=20 gain=6 comment=”Santa Clara, CA” via=WIDE1-1 c. Com/neo/groups/Raspberry_Pi_4-Ham_RADIO/conversations/topics/4755 100. Review the boot up logs to make sure things are working as expected
49. Hopefully you didn’t just loose your network connection to your Rpi (you wouldn’t if you use my recommended firewall-confirm. Disconnect the DB9 connection going from the TNC-Pi to your radio. =info; *. As a tempoary alternative, try using: aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 /usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center. That APRS SSID would most likely configred in the direwolf. Com/using-your-raspberry-pi-3-as-a-wifi-access-point-with-hostapd/ but I’ve added informational and troubleshooting commands, modernized it’s commands to use native Systemd commands and added IPTABLES firewall sections to protect your system IP Addressing: This doc will use the 192. These are very inexpensive to buy and sometimes even come with the new micro SD card. D/iptables — #. I recommend that you look them over and make them your own to fit your needs. 4 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. For known reasons to the AX. Create an initial security based upon the rules from https://wiki. 16 p – 64 0 0. Type in “Y” and hit enter Description for the package: — A set of utilities for packet radio mail exchange with the BBS. Conf file to enable bzip compression sudo vi /etc/logrotate. 0-3+deb7u2 was broken for the RTL8192 chip but was resolved in Jessie. It’s key to get that set as early as possible so the system creates properly dated logs, etc. This suppport is either mentioned indirectly in this document’s appendix and in the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Read about filters here: http://www. It’s eash to do as long as you have a micro-sd card reader on an already functioning Windows, Linux, or Mac machine: https://www. Use electrical tape or better yet, heat-shrink tubing to avoid any short circuits to the other GPIO pins, etc. If you don’t, recheck your configuration until you get things working. New2 scripts to add more testing, Linpac start, # etc # # 08/29/17 – Added openssl-blacklist to the Email/Postfix section # – Made logrotate it’s own section and renumbered all other sections to fit # – Added the Ulogd logs into the logrotate system # – Added key missing “–” in the mailx test # – Noted that Watchdog support in Stretch is questionable; will revisit # # 08/28/17 – Signification improvements in documentation, clearer steps throughout, etc. 119 2 u 707 1024 377 52. F=29&t=147501 | | https://github. Login to your new Rpi as the user “pi” and create a new user. A Identify and test the soundcard Anyway, to start, plug in your sound device directly into the Raspberru Pi (do NOT plug it into an attached USB hub {a known issue with Direwolf). Setup a 20×4 LCD via I2C to display various system details
60. Put this in a directory which the daemon can write to. All you need to do is edit the script to use the TNC-Pi routines vs. There is lots to learn and it can be intimidating at times. Try running the program: gpsmon or alternatively for NEMA only mode: gpsmon -n or cgps – This program offers a slightly simplier, cleaner view to the number of satellites being used in the left-side box under the “Used” column or xgps If you’re running Raspbian Pixel with the full Xwindows GUI on the HDMI console *or* are SSHing into the Rpi from an Xwindows GUI computer with SSH X-forwarding enabled, this program will show a nice graphical representation of the received satellites with color coding based upon their signal strength. That in itself is substantial performance increase and remember: that’s 30% better x 4 cores or 120% faster. 8Ghz support nor 802. 1 no-dhcp-interface=lo,eth0,wlan0 #We now need this option bind-interfaces dhcp-range=192. You *can* optionally enable IP forwarding on your RPIv3 which will share it’s Internet access to all associated Wifi devices. It’s also worth noting that I’m *NOT* enabling NAT here to allow Wifi devices to access say the Internet via the Rpi’s wired eth0 interface. Deb sudo make installconf == Next compile job: ax25-tools —————————- The sources were already downloaded via the previous git command) so let’s get started: cd /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/linuxax25/ax25tools #This command can seemingly look hung for 20 seconds before it starts to show output autoreconf –install. If you you’re starting out with a pre-imaged microSD/SD card and /etc/os-release doesn’t show Debian 9. | | Upon boot, the ap0 interface comes up fine and I can both associate to it and | SSH into the Rpi0w. Conf file and change or ADD the following lines to the bottom of the file: vi /etc/sysctl. Configuring Direwolf To configure Direwolf, edit the /etc/ax25/direwolf. Enable power management for attached USB HDs For some program compiling tasks, running the compiles via a remotely mounted NFS share doesn’t work as for some reason, the “autoconf” stage of configuring the Makefiles fail. 255 ether b8:27:eb:0a:50:6e txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet) RX packets 52 bytes 7688 (7. – Enable ntpd to get time from gpsd #Ok, let’s make a backup of your ntp. Using the username and password you created in an earlier section of this doc, can you log in. 25 and Raspbian Stretch | | | | I have confirmed that with Raspian Stretch, there is some sort of conflict with | | it’s newly enabled predictable network interface names. Conf” — # Next, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file — auto lo eth0 wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 10. For now, here is the cited work around but I bet there is a way to delay this wlan0 bring up via Systemd (needs some research): /usr/local/sbin/start-ap-managed-wifi. Run the Raspian OS configuration tool: sudo raspi-config 2. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ This library is used for applications that use the ax25 protocol. Let’s create the “ap0” device name by editing the right Udev file: sudo vim /etc/udev/rules. This document hopes to provide some guidance here with a specific application in mind (see the intro at the beginning of this document of it’s goals). 4GHz band and disable legacy 802. # /var/log items go into the tmpfs ram drive anyway Suppress 1000s of cron lines like the following in /var/log/auth. (OPTIONAL) On Jessie based systems as of 12/11/15, I would see /var/log/syslog errors that show up like: rsyslogd-2007: action ‘action 17’ suspended, next retry is Fri Dec 11 15:18:31 2015 [try http://www. Configure your Rpi to support BOTH being an Access Point and Wifi client (managed mode) Configuring a Raspberry Pi 3/0w to act as either a standard Wifi client to connect to an existing Wifi AP or act as a full Access Point is pretty strait forward. Package and install Direwolf 7. Some even have tools to help with the configuration. F=28&t=138145&start=100 33. Dd bs=1M sudo rm -f /media/sd-card/p1/bigfile. Git cd linuxax25/libax25/ Next, we need to install the Zlib and zlib-dev libraries as programs in this package requires it sudo apt-get install zlib1g zlib1g-dev #This command can seemingly look hung for 20 seconds before it starts to show output autoreconf –install. Install screen with: sudo apt-get install screen 2. Good to know things work but it’s the wrong function. Auto start the packet system and advanced services Ok. Html https://frillip. The Raspberry Pi v2, Zero W, and v1 are only 32bit cores. See the above referenced rules. To do this, run the following command: #Some additional required packages will be installed as well # sudo apt-get install postfix logwatch bsd-mailx dnsutils openssl-blacklist # As the Postfix package installs, it will prompt you for specific settings for your # environment. Run “iwconfig” and confirm you see: 3. You *will* eventually corrupt the OS if you do this. Configure temporary RAM file systems to minimize writes As your Rpi runs, it will accumulate logs in the /var/log directory. If it doesn’t have Internet access, Direwolf should work just fine for local uses NOTE2: The APRS-IS system MUST have your station’s location as set above in the “PBEACON” (Position Beacon) entry above. Dist}”, this incorrect text is coming from the direwolf. To get this “second” connection working, we need some information first. Conf — interface wlan0 static ip_address=192. Make the script executable with: sudo chmod +x /etc/network/if-pre-up. X kernels but also won’t show up at all # sudo modprobe bcm2835_wdt sudo lsmod | grep bcm2835_wdt — bcm2835_wdt 4133 0 — NOTE: Notice the trailing “0” here. | | Unpacking libc6-dev:armhf (2. D gpm remove # Install a very useful serial terminal program to troubleshoot serial ports, TNCs, etc # sudo apt-get install minicom Next, if /boot partition on the SD card gets corrupt, you can fix it if you install these tools ahead of time (if not already): Please note that the Raspbian Wheezy version of dosfstools is broken # http://www. Py You can find other examples of programs here: #C and Python examples : Missing URL for libraries https://www. P=495156 sudo apt-get install dosfstools # Personal Preference: Enable Vim as system default text editor and not Nano # # http://raspberrypi. 25 kernel | | maintainers, in the sa_data kernel data structure, both the stock Raspbian AX. We need the Ethernet MAC address of your specific Rpi’s wifi chip. New file to suit your needs but the key parameters to change are: cd /etc/ax25 sudo vim ax25-up. 0 | +—————————————————————————————+ 19. If you do have to make changes to the access database, make sure to also compile a new version of the database and restart your email server. # Alternatively, try copying that line and pasting it into a different terminal # window to see if you can read it # pair 00:1F:22:35:17:18 # If challenged for a “PIN code”, enter that “PIN code” on your BT keyboard # and press ENTER on the bluetooth keyboard #Remember the device trust 00:1F:22:35:17:18 #reconnect to the device on reboot connect 00:1F:22:35:17:18 #to permanently remove a pairing disconnect 00:1F:22:35:17:18 remove 00:1F:22:35:17:18 #to exit bluetoothctl but leave BT fully working exit —————————————————————————- 32. Intro to setting up a Raspberry Pi Welcome to the world of the Raspberry Pi, Amateur Radio, and all the possibilities. A – Add the NTP binaries and initially set the time/date # install the ntpdate program which allows immediate time/date setting vs using # ntpd approach with slews in the new time/date over a period of days or week # sudo apt-get install ntp ntpdate # On Raspbian Stretch system, the default #Stop the newly installed and started ntpd from running for a moment # sudo systemctl stop ntp #Set the date/time assuming so you have a sane starting point for ntpd # # – You currently have a working internet connection # – The NTP servers specified in the stock ntp. Txt lat / long – position power – 5watts height (HAAT) – 20ft off the ground gain – 7dbi gain on 20m into a co-linear vertical antenna power / height / gain of transmitter in increments of the following (you can’t put in any other values) http://aprsisce. Conf — – Un# out the line “#compress” – Add the following lines just below the “compress” line — # use bzip2 with higher compression than gzip compresscmd /bin/bzip2 uncompresscmd /bin/bunzip2 compressoptions -9 compressext. There should NOT be any hiss, whine, or any other noise. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. Testing Direwolf
24. Make a copy of the preinstalled ruleset: sudo cp rules. The | | recommendation from me is to overwrite the impacting file ANYWAY with | | the following command: | | | | sudo dpkg –force-overwrite –install libax25_1. Next, check that on your remote Wifi device, you no longer see your Rpi’s Wifi SSID. Add that rule in the /etc/iptables/rules. 500 — Ok, let’s update the DS3231 clock. 372576] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial [262398. 1GB of free space, it took my system 29minutes. To fix this, run: sudo usermod -aG dialout nobody You ultimately want to see something like the below output that shows SHM to GPS #There could be problems where it’s not polling very often (notice the 71m delay) # Sometimes if another program is running like cgps, then ntpd works. A – Bringing up a Coastal Chipworks TNC-Pi on Raspbian Jessie The above mentioned /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Linpacconfig 13. Test and make sure you can both login using this new username and also run sudo commands c. Sh script to make that active. Xyz/ Alternatively, here are some other URLs to check out: Raspberry Pi B+ and Raspberry Pi-2: — http://www. 000 Other Great NTP + GPS urls: http://www. Cd /tmp wget http://www. Xz NOTE: This command will not give any output until the process is complete and it can take quite a while to do depending on the size of your SD card and the speed of your system. – I enhanced this script with improved system messaging that was previously mentioned in this second Ok, do the following: 1. A little board like an Rpi doesn’t have a lot of RAM so it makes little sense. In the future, I might reverse everything around in the above section but for now, I’m not going to do that. Removing or disabling unwanted services a. # Recommended: hostapd and dnsmasq HostAP and a LB-Link BL-LW05-AR5 802. If you want the HDMI port to always work even if the cable isn’t connected, edit the /boot/config. Add the following lines to the interfaces file and you can change the management IP address of this bridge group to whatever subnet you like: vim /etc/network/interfaces — auto br0 iface br0 inet static address 192. E – Setting the right audio output level for non-distorted packet signals Now that you’re familiar how to change the levels on the soundcard side, I recommend to read and re-read: http://www. Connecting your Radio to the Soundcard with tips
Configuring the AX25 system and Linpac for Classic Packet Support:
24. Checked j. In troubleshooting, there might be an issue with the GPS being accessed by gpsd. # I’ve seen this play both ways $ ntpq -p remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== +carbon. New2 $TNCTYPE — Next, let’s edit the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Now re-connect the USB power to the Raspberry Pi: – Do you see the Rpi Wifi SSID. Pdf – A slick solution is to get a nice PCB version of WB2OSZ’s circuit which is available for order here as designed by James N7SET: https://github. 119 2 u 100 256 377 74. 0 network 192. 1: Manufacturer: Realtek [667667. I recommend to read this excellent URL on how to tune your TNC’s transmission levels to ensure you have a good signal (recommended above as well): https://www. If you see a bunch of new command line Bash prompts, things are good. 5 KiB) RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 14 bytes 1787 (1. Step one is to to NOT try to get a DHCP client IP address on the wlan0 interface. | | | | D74 firmware v1. 2Ghz per core Zero W: 1. Well, a few things I’ve learned in Aug, 2016: – It seems that Realtek never bothered to offer support of hostapd after they initially contributed to the linux kernel and hostapd 0. – Use a quality USB power supply and not just some old cellphone charger you had laying around the house. If you don’t do this, your Raspberry Pi could get hacked especially if you chose not to disable the default “pi” account that has a well known password. For test #2 – put the GPS into NEMA mode and display the raw output heard: gpsctl -f -n /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. It was totally not intended by him but it happened regardless. Broadcom HW Watchdog: Automatic reboots if the system becomes unresponsive If your Raspberry Pi unit happens to lock up, crashes, or otherwise becomes non-responsive, a hardware watchdog has the ability to automatically “reset” the hardware. Change the following areas NOTE: The raspi-config program has changed a LOT over they years and this following prompts reflect the layout and settings for Raspbian Stretch. The next step is to get the Linux AX. That assumes you configured the other D74 menus items as mentioned above That’s it. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] Setting up the Sound device Ok, assuming you’re going with the Direwolf software-TNC approach, you first need to get your soundcard setup tuned up. 250 degrees Celcius or 73. 1 u 49 64 1 49. 4 as of 04/26/17 – size is 16. There are only defacto standards here and they can vary from region to region. # – Added that users now need to disable apt-daily. D -f rsync disable 11. Conf file | +———————————————————————————+ Please understand that the AX. I recommend you uninstall what you don’t need. Sh – Clean up the file system a bit and remove old kernels http://www. Things should come automatically. They are not meant to be enabled # using systemctl. DEPRECATED: Configure your Rpi Wifi in Adhoc mode using the RTL8192 Wifi devices
Raspberry Pi tricks for hardware monitoring, manage the onboard LEDs, using Bluetooth connectivity:
32. Install important sysadmin and monitoring packages
15. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold ax25-tools | | | +—————————————————————————-+ #checkconfig will automatically install the package for you but if you manually # want to install it, use the following (configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb) # sudo dpkg –install ax25-tools_1. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. 25 on a D74 HT # – Enhanced section 19 to say that if you aren’t going to use Direwolf and, instead # are going to use a TNC-Pi or D74, skip to section 25 to get that going # # 12/30/17 – Updated the OS installation chapter to recommend installing Raspbian Stretch at all # costs. To support larger /tmp and general build area storage, I recommend doing something like the following temporary setting. Remove any unneeded or unwanted applications Depending on the Linux distro you installed on your Rpi (Pixel), you probably brought in a bunch of stuff you won’t need. NOTE: —– I’ve seen that many programs just barely show any text on the LCD display If you look very closely, at an angle, you’ll be able to tell the text is but it’s way too faint. Old #work around a busted makefile sudo /bin/mkdir -p /var/ax25/ax25rtd Finally, package things up: sudo checkinstall –pkgname ax25-apps –pkgversion 1. Txt DanTracker currently does NOT support gpsd and – only supports GPSes on /dev/ttyUSB* – only supports NEMA GPSes – does not initialize SiRF GPSes to send NEMA – does support for setting the time via GPS once a day concerns: – even if I disable DanTracker GPS and gpsd and just run: cat /dev/ttyUSB0 > /dev/null the impact hits direwolf where it under-samples and then fails to do decodes: Past 100 seconds, 4275495 audio samples, 0 errors. Tap the function + 5 key until the D74’s display says “KISS 12″ 3. Conf file and towards the end: — #These #s will disable the previous wlan0 DHCP scope as configured in the previous section #interface wlan0 #static ip_address=192. Bz2 sharedscripts create 640 ulog adm postrotate invoke-rc. Org/magpi/raspberry-pi-3-specs-benchmarks/ A complete 3B+ breakdown: http://blog. Log” sync=1 — 5. Py This program should: – light up the backlight – Show some text – Show a smiley face icon – Show a filling bar from the left to the right – Show a smiley face icon – turn the backlight off If that worked, you’re in business. Com/products/2310 and you’ll then have a very slick setup that you can easily move from Raspberry Pi to Raspberry Pi. — Now try running this ncurses-based GPS display program (works well over an SSH terminal): gpsmon -n /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. This means it’s not currently in use 5. Don’t worry about these settings as they won’t start polling for packet messages, etc. 25 # # 12/08/17 – Fixed some spelling errors # # 12/07/17 – Move thed ax25mailutils and linpac downloads steps a bit # # 11/22/17 – Added top pictures of the LCD and RTC with click-on zoom # – Added reading the temp off the DS3231 RTC # # 11/20/17 – Added a new appendix section to display date, time, Internet health check, heard AX25 # packets, and CPU load to an I2C driven 20×4 LCD display # – Added a new appendix section to have the Rpi set it’s date via an I2C driven # DS3231 RTC. If you’re now logged in as your new user, make sure you can use the “sudo” command such as: sudo ls -la /root Did that work too. As a work around to this busted time/date, you can do the following (or just get a better GPS receiver): sudo fake-hwclock save systemctl enable fake-hwclock This should resolve this for the Rpi’s next reboot. Building Linpac and ax25mail-utils from sources: Assuming a USB HD is mounted per the previous section. – Hostname – Make the hostname something unique – Boot options – Desktop / CLI – If you installed the “Lite” version of Raspbian, you’re not going to be running Xwindows and consuming all that RAM for the GUI. Management section about other scripts to monitor the RPI’s # CPU and temp and other useful sysadmin scripts # # 07/05/17 – Extensively updated the Wifi AP and Linpac sections # – Updated the pyshutdown GPIO button section # – more clearly deprecated the legacy rtl8192 wifi sections # # 06/03/17 – Enhanced the manual-ampr-start. To fix this in Raspbian Jessie, edit the /lib/systemd/system/watchdog. 7,M,,0000*5Dx0dx0a (49) $GPGSA,A,3,10,32,27,21,18,,,,,,,,6. Thoughts on SSIDs —————– It’s important to note that depending on the specific radio frequency you intend to operate on, there can be different SSID schemes in use. Below is one of the better GPIO pin diagrams out on the web showing the different pins and their various modes. After exiting, we need to continue to configure Linpac 10. Avoid GPS noise which might shift your location around from position to position. Consider buying | | a Rpi v3 with built-in Wifi instead and | | read the above section | +——————————————-+ 31. P=1 and http://unix. I recommend people to either start with the v3+ or upgrade to the v3+ due to many of it’s substantial improvements: – CPU Cores: Rpi 3B+, 3, and 2 : four ARM cores Rpi Zero W and v1 A/B : one ARM cores – CPU Core types: Rpi 3B+, 3 : Cortex-A53 ARM8 cores Rpi 2 : Cortex-A7 ARM7 cores Rpi Zero W, v1 A/B : ARM1176JZF-S ARM6L core Performance: Rpi 3 / 3B+ have four Cortex-A53 ARM8 CPU with 32kB Level 1 and 512kB Level 2 cache memory. 8) and the status of the NTP session (do we have Internet time) – The current running callsign and the number of received AX25 packets – The system load with 1min / 5min / 15min details You can grab a copy of my modified script here: wget http://www. To protect your system from having Apt overwriting your custom | | compiled version of the Linpac package, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold linpac | | | | Linpac 0. Py sudo chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown2. | +———————————————————————————+ Assuming you have a USB-based GPS receiver (or a serial-port based GPS receiver with a serial to USB adapter), follow these steps: To get started, plug in your the USB based GPS device to determine what device name it gets by running either: dmesg or sudo journalctl I see: — [262398. If you don’t do both of these, the radio will either miss part of the beginning packets and/or have the radio go to sleep on you. Changing this value is a compromise that you must find. Once all that is completed, any incoming SSH program will have to be specifically told use port 2222 to connect: ssh -p 2222 [email protected] Future: Advanced security thoughts that I’ll add into this doc some day – use SSH keys ONLY (no passwords) – Makes brute force attacks almost impossible as long as your version of sshd doesn’t have bugs. F=29;amp;t=147501 | | it seems that there is confusion / issues with enabling the watchdog system via | | systemd vs. At this point, a set of configurations will go into /root/LinPac/ and Linpac will automatically start up. 25 # repo # – Enabled another F-key in the example for Linpac # – Added a final testing section # – Updated the ax25-up. Com/thread/60690 Here are some of my legacy notes for this older install: If using a Realtek 8192 device, you need an alternative hostapd daemon: sudo mv /usr/sbin/hostapd /usr/sbin/hostapd. I recommend you follow this URL as step one: http://www. NOTE: Using your smartphone as a display and a keyboard will work in a pinch but it’s pretty cumbersome and doesn’t work well for full-screen programs like Linpac. 1 netmask 255. Org/documentation/usage/gpio/ Per the Direwolf documentation, it has the following recommendations: Raspberry Pi physical pin 11 – Broadcom GPIO 17 Raspberry Pi physical pin 15 – Broadcom GPIO 22 Raspberry Pi physical pin 16 – Broadcom GPIO 23 Raspberry Pi physical pin 18 – Broadcom GPIO 24 Raspberry Pi physical pin 22 – Broadcom GPIO 25 The Raspberry Pi A+, B+, 2, and 4 have the larger 40pin connector with additional GPIO pins: Raspberry Pi physical pin 29 – Broadcom GPIO 5 Raspberry Pi physical pin 31 – Broadcom GPIO 6 Raspberry Pi physical pin 32 – Broadcom GPIO 12 Raspberry Pi physical pin 33 – Broadcom GPIO 13 Raspberry Pi physical pin 35 – Broadcom GPIO 19 Raspberry Pi physical pin 36 – Broadcom GPIO 16 Raspberry Pi physical pin 37 – Broadcom GPIO 26 Advanced Options –> Serial –> YES –> Ok –> Finish Select YES to reboot your Raspberry pi #4 – Make sure the serial console is not enabled Look at the /boot/cmdline. As such, you can skip ahead to Chapter 25 to take it from there. D/common-session-noninteractive At the end of the file, find the line: session required pam_unix. Com/questions/22711 -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp –icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT #Allow DHCP incoming addresses -A INPUT -p udp –sport 67 –dport 68 -j ACCEPT # Block but don’t log local samba traffic – expand to whatever you need -A INPUT -p udp –sport 138 –dport 138 -j DROP # log iptables denied calls (access via ‘dmesg’ command) -A INPUT -m limit –limit 5/min -j LOG –log-prefix “iptables denied: ” –log-level 7 # Reject all other inbound – default deny unless explicitly allowed policy: -A INPUT -j REJECT -A FORWARD -j REJECT COMMIT — f. Read the Direwolf User Guide for other recommended devices but I recommend: Syba SD-CM-UAUD sound device which can be had for — https://www. This means booting via a micro-SD is technically no longer required (I beleive PXE is only available on the 3B+ but MSD support is available on the 3) – NOTE #2: The new 3B+ version also supports PXE booting off Ethernet – Use a quality brand name SD card like Sandisk, Samsung, etc. 25 sources have fixes for these items. It’s generally recommended to buy a Wifi device that uses the Realtek RTL8188CUS chipset. Disconnect the USB power cable to the Rpi. While this CPU is still supported in Raspbian, many other ARM-enabled Linux distrubutions have DROPPED it. C – Setting up Bluetooth on the Rpi for pairing BT keyboards
32. Conf — loglevel=1 [log1] group=0 [log2] group=1 [emu1] file=”/var/log/ulogd_traffic-emu1. So #If some of the above packages are missing, you can explicitly install them with: sudo apt-get install libnetfilter-log1 libnfnetlink0 libnetfilter-conntrack3 2. Com –provides ax25 –requires libax25 make install When prompted for “Should I create a default set of package docs”, Select Y Next, when prompted for the description, enter in the following: — This package provides specific user applications for hamradio that use AX. Here is an example of this “log noise” that you might see: — iptables denied: IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:60:57:18:ca:a3:32:08:00:45:00:00:4e:20:63:00:00:80:11:97:71 SRC=192. 61 3 u 48 64 1 77. None -/var/log/syslog and change it to the following (adds the “,mail”) *. If there are newer versions of Direwolf at https://github. Skipping TNC Type: direwolf Restoring audio levels on soundcard Starting direwolf Installing one KISS connection on PTY port /tmp/kisstnc PTS0 device: /dev/pts/3 Setting kissparms (changes only shown in /var/log/packet. Most likely you will only allow access from # certain IPs. Disable_ipv6 = 1 net. Enable the software refresh daemon to start on boot (but it won’t start just yet) # Raspian Stretch # # TBD on it’s compatibility # Raspbian Jessie # At the moment, this watchdog package is not 100% Systemd compatible. Linpacconfig Anyway, to get you started, once you SSH into your Raspberry Pi and configure your packet system to auto-start upon boot (starts Linpac too), you’ll be able to connect to the “screened” Linpac session at any time by running the command: sudo screen -dr linpac At this point, you should see the Linpac main interface where: – At the top are the commands to send to either Linpac or to the remote station you’ve connected to – In the middle is the text your station receives from the remote station – At the bottom is all the packets your system is hearing A few quick commands to get you around: – To connect to a remote station, say the remote “lprc3” node that in my area, I would issue the following command INCLUDING the first “:” character too: :c lprc3 The system should then connect and you’ll see the text coming in from the remote system. 11n Wifi dongles with an attached 5dbi large Wifi antenna looks like: — [606160. OPTIONAL: Connect your Ethernet cable if you have a Raspberry Pi Model B with an RJ45 jack or have a support USB to Ethernet adapter connected to any Raspberry Pi If you want to update your Raspberry Pi and install additional software, you’ll need and Internet connection. Please note that this option is NOT possible on the 3B+ as they removed the solder pads. Sh | | chmod 700 update-glibc-ax25-workaround. Bug=763315 To work around this, edit the /etc/init. It’s possible to update the hostap binary to fix this http://blog. As wlan0 operation | is currently unreliable | | | * So what’s busted. Sh # sudo mkdir -p /usr/src/archive sudo chown $USER /usr/src/archive mkdir -p /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/ #Download the current VE7FET sources for AX. It seems the systemd approach | | is more granular and might be more compatible with the Out of Memory (OOM killer) | | but it doesn’t seem to always work for system hangs. I would say that all users need to follow this recommendation for Raspberry Pi v2 and even v1s as well. You *MUST NOT* just unplug the Raspberry Pi’s power cord when you turn it off. I personally tried using a “quality” LG power brick that stated 5. New wget http://www. Log that records the start/stop and direwolf sudo vi /etc/logrotate. Com/raspberry-pi-stratum-1-ntp-server/ 48. – To force a disconnection of the current session, use: :d – If you configured Linpac to use to different SSIDs, you can use the respective F1, F2, F3, etc keys to use which can either initiate or receive multiple, simultaneous connections. None; news. Conf-`date +%m%d%y` 7. 23,141016,,,A*7Ax0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224318. 0v pin on the Rpi and not 3. Wav’ : Signed 16 bit Little Endian, Rate 44100 Hz, Stereo b. | | | | If you’re not sure if you have an IPv6 address already running, | | try the command: | | | | netstat -6 -rn | grep UG | | | | If you see something come back, you INDEED have IPv6 connectivity. 0 l 71m 64 0 0. Sh sudo /usr/local/sbin/remove-old-kernels. 11n support ieee80211n=1 # Enable 40MHz channels with 20ns guard interval ht_capab=[HT40][SHORT-GI-20][DSSS_CCK-40] # Use WPA2 wireless security only wpa=2 # The network passphrase wpa_passphrase=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-THIS # Use a pre-shared key wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK # Use AES, instead of TKIP rsn_pairwise=CCMP — Temporaryily testing the wifi setup ———————– Ok, you should have the basis of a working Wifi setup. State when run with “sudo”. Just too bad there is only one LED to use. A – Monitoring the Raspberry Pi hardware and other scripts
32. Soundcard Mixer settings The following levels are an example of properly tuned levels for my specific setup (Syba and Alinco HT). I know because I killed one SD card this way. Put the new, empty SD card into this other Linux computer and use the command: # Use the file name from what you entered above unxz -9c ki6zhd-jessie-w-linpac. Log and right after it, add: kern. Conf — # ADEVICE plughw:1,0 to ADEVICE plughw:1,0 — change the line: MYCALL N0CALL to MYCALL “Desktop / CLI” and select “Desktop GUI, requiring user to login” 8. 1 IP address on the interface. Deb | | | | You can read more but this bug at: | | https://github. To do this, edit the /etc/rc. | | To fix that, run the commands: | | | | stty sane | | rm -f rm /var/lock/LinPac. Bz2 — Finally, if you followed the instructions on the Ulogd section for IPTABLES logging, I recommend to rotate those logs as well. It’s very chatty and creates a security risk. 25 parameters configured in the ax25-up. Sh available below that does the basic bring up steps: http://www. Todo 03/06/15 – Add NTP via GPS support – http://www. Sh script with the new ampr-ripd 2. New — #remove the # in front of this line /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Old Now package things up: sudo checkinstall –pkgname ax25-tools –pkgversion 1. I’m using the following pins: Direwolf PTT on Rpi2: Rpi pin 37 (Broadcom GPIO 26) :: connect this to RS232 DB9 pin7 (this is the RS232 RTS signal) Rpi pin 39 (Broadcom for GND) :: connect this to RS232 DB9 pin5 (this is the RS232 GND signal) Direwolf DCD on Rpi2: Rpi pin 33 (Broadcom GPIO 13) :: connect to cathode of LED (short lead / smaller metal inside LED) Rpi pin 34 – GND :: connect to anode of LED (long lead / larger metal inside LED) PiShutdown Rpi pin 18 (Broadcom GPIO 24) :: connect to 10k resistor, then one side of a momentary switch Rpi pin 20 – GND :: Connect to other side of momentary switch I used to use http://www. Since you cannot send say SIGUSR1 to re-evaluate their new file handle for the newly created file NOTE2: Once these files are present, the logrotate system will automatically start using them the next time the cron system runs logrotate 28. Conf file – If you’re going to be operating your station on an APRS frequency, make sure that Linpac isn’t using one of the primary APRS SSIDs. D/ulogd2 file and append the following lines: sudo vi /etc/logrotate. If you have a public IPv6 address and | | you don’t have a firewall on it, your system is VULNERABLE. 5A power supply is even *more required* than it was before. Now install the required GPS software: sudo apt-get update #Unfortunately, you must install all the additional package dependencies here # (something like +30 packages are require) # sudo apt-get install gpsd gpsd-clients libgps-dev We now need to configure gpsd to use the new device. Specifically, you might need to alter the lines to reflect what you want to use: Raspbian Stretch ONLY: Do NOT edit the /etc/network/interfaces file at all. Prepare a new script to occasionally purge old kernels Raspbian (aka Debian for Raspberry Pis) has a nasty habit of keeping around old kernels, especially the “rpi-update” kernels. For my example, I’m using “#NCA. It’s important to check and make /tmp and other log directories go to the RAM drive or they will wear down your limited write SD card. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold libax25 | | | +—————————————————————————-+ == Ok, the base library for AX. Alternatively, I’ve used this simple transistor circuit with my Kenwood TH-F6A HT:: http://www. The crux of the issue is that the IPTABLES system in Linux logs everything to the “kernel” syslog facility which has a a LOT of ramifications. Then other side of the momentary switch to Rpi pin 18 – GND Once the button is wired up and connected to the correct GPIO pins on the Raspberry Pi, go ahead and power up your Rpi. If it’s a brand new bridge chip, maybe Linux needs more time to add support for it but once that support is added, you most likely will have to upgrade your Linux distribution (with kernel) to get the new support. 15-2 which is supposedly fixed | | but the documentation hasn’t caught up. This CPU is substantially slower and is less efficent than even a Raspberry Pi v2. Fl solder pads which could be used to add an external wifi antenna – Bluetooth Connectivity: 3B+ – BT v4. The second command will aga read from the chip and confirm the correct date/time: sudo hwclock -w -f /dev/rtc0 sudo hwclock -r -f /dev/rtc0 — 2017-11-20 17:18:52. 3 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://github. Now remove power from the Raspberry Pi. If you disagree and prefer putting it in say /home/pi, that’s fine but make sure you update all the various configuration and execution scripts to match. D/nfs-common file and change their start up/down priorities from: # Default-Start: S # Default-Stop: 0 1 6 to: # Default-Start: 1 2 3 4 5 # Default-Stop: 0 6 Once that’s in place, you need to reboot but maybe you can’t. If there aren’t any speakers connected to the Rpi, you can use tools like scp to send the file to another computer that DOES have speakers connected aplay /usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center. B – does it have the expected IP address on it (192. Py #This is the running program but doesn’t aways init properly python /usr/local/sbin/lcdui-modified. Lazy or inattentive people), it’s probably NOT good idea for amateaur radio applications and I’ve just seen too many upgrades cause problems. | | | | Keeping this section around for posterity and it might help some Rasbpian Wheezy users | +——————————————————————————————+ Configure your Rpi Wifi in Adhoc mode using the RTL8192 Wifi devices ——————————————————————– – I have a Wifi device that has the 8192cu chipset but so many sites only talk to Atheros (ath9k) and Broadcom (b43) chipsets and rarely give details about Realtek chips. I agree with you that it’s totally backwards but it’s TRUE. Sh — Current CPU speed governor: (valid is ‘powersave’, ‘ondemand’): ondemand Current CPU frequency: 600000 Max allowed frequency 1200000 SOC Temp (in Celius) – DD. ): 2036-06-03T02:35:12. 1 f3kt-0 f3kt. #As such, disable gpm from starting at boot time sudo update-rc. NOTE: If you plan on running Netrom, the max PACLEN you can use is 236 – the next field is the WINDOW field which is related to the PACLEN field. Com/community/WifiDocs/MasterMode AP or client mode —————– There are a few ways to do this but I chose to use a GPIO switch to select if the Wifi should be an AP or a client. Conf — IGNORE ME- I’m leaving this legacy entry in this document for now to ensure I don’t see any strange behavior and might need to re-add it: disable SystemD from trying to associate to any local APs: — #Find the line that looks like the following and it DOESN”T have a # in front of it allow-hotplug wlan0 — Ok, now let’s activate this base wlan0 configuration. Enable log rotation for packet logs Now that your system has a working packet radio system and we’re going to enable it upon every boot, you’ll need to rotate the generate logs so they don’t fill the RAM drive: # add log rotation for ax25-listen log sudo vi /etc/logrotate. You won’t see anything else in this terminal window as # this program doesn’t display anything. Com/nf8m/rig-control-and-keying/ This would be easily connected to a Raspberry Pi’s GPIO pins. If you’re not # sure, contact your ISP for the proper MX relay or “smarthost” hostname and # domain name or full qualified domain name (FQDN). 25 startup and shutdown scripts available. Zip # If the above links don’t work, try looking for a different version of # the “PITNCParams” filename. 1 u 825 1024 177 82. The F10 key is dedicated to sending and monitoring unproto or UI packets for unconnected chats, etc. 898794) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 18 az= 61 el=43 (0. This is covered in this doc. Add an email notification when your Rpi is rebooted
13. Now type in control-c in this window and you’ll # instantly see the bluetooth icon on the D74 go out. Enable local storage for demanding builds
17. This guide specifically ONLY enables basic KISS TNC functionality to the Linux AX. That’s the IPv6 link local address. Sh # sudo chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. Zip Or and alternative download site: wget http://www. 11n USB wifi device https://bogeskov. Png The official documentation as well: https://www. Check and disabled unneeded services (the SystemD way)
11. 3v pin and not the +5. Org/iptables # # Please note that the above URL file points to the WRONG files installed by # iptables-persistent # # (modified to allow SSH, not allow HTTP and HTTPS) # # You can also find a copy of this file at: # http://www. #Update the config – Dantracker currently ONLY supports devices like ttyUSB0 # (not /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 #Run a work around trick for a checkinstall bug which incorrectly reads RPM spec files mv libax25. 24 or older for Raspbian (please use 0. # The system is now in standby. A – does the wlan0 interface exist. Go ahead and reboot your Raspberry Pi. Xyz/ — Rpi pin LCD pin ——–+——————+——– 2 : +5V display : VCC 3 : I2C DATA : SDA 5 : I2C Clock : SCL 6 : ground : GND — Now power back up the Rpi with the connected display. A such, select “Console” – International options – Locale – I selected “en_US. – To disconnect from the current screen session but leave Linpac running, simply issue the screen command: control-a d and you’ll disconnect from the session but it keeps running. 11n if your hardware supports it ieee80211n=1 #Select the least used Wifi channel in your area – ch 0 will auto-select on the # most available channel – alternatively, use 1,6,11 for the US channel=0 #How often to send SSID broadcasts beacon_int=100 #Station MAC address -based authentication # 0 = accept unless in deny list # 1 = deny unless in accept list macaddr_acl=0 #If you want to hide your SSID broadcasts, set this to 1 ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 #allow WPA/WPA2 only – # 1=wpa, 2=wep, 3=both auth_algs=1 #enable WPA2 only wpa=2 #enable multi-media priority wmm_enabled=1 #disassociate remote sessions that are taking on high errors # enable this for better battery life; disable this to keep the link up at all costs #disassoc_low_ack=1 #The WPA2 64 character HEX key or 8 to 63 character passphrase for your network #wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef wpa_passphrase=YOURPASSPHASE #Use PSK and not EAP wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK #Use AES encryption rsn_pairwise=CCMP #Support high performance wifi # HT40+ : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel ABOVE the primary channel # HT40- : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel BELOW the primary channel # SHORT-GI-40 : Short GI for 40 MHz # RX-STBC12 : one or two spatial streams # ht_capab=[HT40+][HT40-][SHORT-GI-40][RX-STBC12] #Don’t refuse association with remote client if they don’t support HT Phy negotiation require_ht=0 — Now update the SysV config startup script to load a custom config file: sudo vi /etc/default/hostapd — DAEMON_CONF=”/etc/hostapd/hostapd. Connect your USB sound card directly to the RPI’s USB ports (more on this in a later section) e. 4Ghz band and there isn’t any 5. It’s worth noting that Debian includes an auto-updating package. 25 TNC:
19. Compile, Configure, and Test Direwolf Assuming your external storage is mounted per the previous document section, lets compile up the newest version of Direwolf. If you already created this username before hand and are now adding some of these Unix groups after the fact, you must log out and log back in to use these new permissions. Look at the output of the command to confirm things look like you expect them to: sudo iptables -L h. 1/24 static routers=192. Socket file and change the line: sudo vim /lib/systemd/system/gpsd. NOTE: If you get output like the following from the above test command: — /dev/sda: APM_level = not supported — This most likely means the drive you’re trying to use is very old NOTE#2: If you get output like the following from that above test command: — /dev/sda: SG_IO: bad/missing sense data, sb[]: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0a 00 00 00 00 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 APM_level = not supported — This means the USB to SATA/PATA bridge chip in your USB to HD adapter is not passing all the IDE commands codes though. B Since you’re compiling for Debian, don’t let the older RPM spec file fake out the checkinstall program (this is a work around for a known bug in the checkinstall program). _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 — You should see a TUI (textual user interface) screen printing both top level details from your GPS on the top with the incoming streaming NMEA data on the bottom. Sh script # – Changed the method to lock the pi account, groupadds, etc # # 05/06/16 – Added a point to install rpi-update if it’s not installed already # 04/30/16 – Added to the HDD powerdown section # 04/15/16 – Added an alternative way to find sound card input sampling rates # – Added rough notes to set NTP time ASAP # # 03/16/16 – Added recommend to create a new sudo-enabled account and DISABLE # the pi account # # 03/06/16 – Added an additional todo item # 03/05/16 – Added a gotcha section on how to fix an Rpi not being able to reboot # 03/04/16 – Added references to alternative / pre-build Rpi images # 02/27/16 – Added a new interactive GPIO pinout website URL # 12/12/15 – Added DHCP client support to the firewall # 12/11/15 – Updated iptables example to drop but not log chatty network traffic # – Added changes to the /etc/rsyslog. It will save you from countless amount of anger of “stability issues” and the setup will last a LOT longer (but it won’t last forever). This is an EXTREMELY bad idea and can physically damange your Rpi due to sinking too much current though the monitoring GPIO pin. For this example, I’m using “N0ARY-1” which is my local, full service BBS. I am actively researching how to fix this within SystemD but this | | may take some time. Com/post/38010690418/raspberry-pi-access-point-using-rtl8192cu This URL also gives more details and a possibly more supportable approach: https://communities. Delete that rule in the /etc/iptables/rules. D prepare-dirs defaults 01 99 # ———————————————————————— Check out http://dantracker. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 identified as type NMEA0183, 2. Ok, you have your backup. As such, it’s CRITICAL that you insert a 10uF capacitor between the soundcard and your radio. Get the script on the Rpi cd /tmp wget http://www. Maybe this can be fixed through newer firmware for | | the Raspberry Pi but I haven’t seen much movement here. # # 11/17/17 – Updated the USB APM section and added a script to manually spin down the drive # # 11/05/17 – New publish # # 11/01/17 – Updated the Linpac configuration section regarding SSIDs to be a bit clearer # # 10/31/17 – Clarifications on BBS hierarchical addressing in Linpac # # 10/30/17 – Align the axports file to use a speed of 19200 though it doesn’t really matter here # – Mentioned that WD Blue and WD Green series drives also do NOT support APM_level # # 10/26/17 – Added a new hostapd issue and work around where dnsmasq won’t come up # # 10/25/17 – Added a new review the bootup logs chapter to confirm that the system is booting up without # errors. IMPORTANT: ———- Now, from this point forward, I *highly* recommend you either do this configuration on the Rpi’s console (connected HDMI monitor and keyboard) or via a wired USB-based Ethernet connection. Now use the following command where “mmcblk0” is the name of your SD card device shown above from the bottom output of the “dmesg” command: dd if= of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=2M 4. – Install the Raspbian OS on it :: Raspbian Stretch to be specific – I *highly* recommend you run Rasbian Stretch and not any other older versions of Raspbian.

John Willis: PXE, Sys etherboot gPXE and iPXE

Chage manual page says “The chage command changes the number of days between password changes and the date of the last password change. This information is used by the system to determine when a user must change his/her password”. Linux has built-in command which named chage.

Shutdown the Rpi with the shutdown button (if you followed that section) or run the command: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now Wait for the Rpi to shutdown and watch the RPi’s green LED blink 10 times and then go completely off to mean it’s safe to remove the power. It seems to work. -ne 0 ]; then echo “pishutdown. IMPORTANT: ———- Now, from this point forward, I *highly* recommend you either do this configuration on the Rpi’s console (connected HDMI monitor and keyboard) or via a wired USB-based Ethernet connection. Wav’ : Signed 16 bit Little Endian, Rate 48000 Hz, Mono You can also play the file you just recorded with: aplay /tmp/test. 000Z (1476226741) gpsd:INFO: speed 4800, 8N1 gpsd:INFO: /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Powering your external hard drive +————————————————————————————————-+ | IMPORTANT: | | ———- | | Some USB hard drives are purely powered via the USB bus but the Raspberry Pi CANNOT supply very | | much power. First make sure there isn’t anything important in the /home/pi directory that you might want to keep: sudo ls -la /home/pi If there is anything you want to keep, copy out to somewhere else first b. #Update the config – Dantracker currently ONLY supports devices like ttyUSB0 # (not /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Restart Ulogd to get the new settings sudo service ulogd restart 6. * -/var/log/kern. For Raspbian Stretch, temporarily follow the recommendations found in https://www. 1/8 scope host lo valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: enxb827eb2532fc: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link/ether b8:27:eb:25:32:fc brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192. 15 l – 16 0 0. P=1 and http://unix. | | Please read the Direwolf tuning section above and make sure THESE settings here | | align with the settings you put in the direwolf. Back to it, you first need to install some key software: #Update your software list sudo apt-get update #Accept all additional package dependencies sudo apt-get install dnsmasq hostapd rfkill Next, you need to enable the dhcpcd service and configure a static IP of 192. Com/itm/231880855190 Assuming you enabled the I2C bus per the previous section, shutdown your Rpi with: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now Now unplug the power from your Rpi and wire up the RTC. You can find more tips at http://www. Consider buying a compact bluetooth keyboard and pairing it with your smartphone. After that, run the following command to install the example config files: sudo make installconf +—————————————————————————-+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | With a recent toxic release of the AX. 4 defaults with an IGFILTER setting equivlent to having the APRS-IS system # sending you APRS “Item” objects within 30km of your location with “IGFILTER i/30″. Now, time to get things working with out a wired connection. That’s not to say there aren’t important fixes in the VE7FET repo that # aren’t in the Official AX25 repo either. Pyshutdown: Building a shutdown button for an Rpi much like a PC’s ATX power button One of the critical issues with the entire Raspberry Pi SBC line (and many other Linux SBCs btw) is there is no way to safely shutdown the OS w/o logging into the device via the console, SSH, etc. A few points here: – Do not configure any SSIDs in Linpac that are also configured in the /etc/ax25/direwolf. The next step is to get the Linux AX. Gpsd:WARN: SiRF: warning, write of control type a6 while awaiting ACK for 80. You’ve set the time on it. This test # will read the output of the GPS and send it to the Bluetooth interface # # 1. 5 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. 25 stack for advanced packet functionality. 23,141016,,,A*7Bx0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224317. I bought an inexpensive USB GPS unit but | | it would never lock on more than one or two satellites when inside and | | that could take like ten minutes. H’, which is also in package libax25 1. NOAM” for my geo-centric location. Pdf Anyway, for now, let’s move forward with the Hostap + dnsmasq approach +——————————————-+ | 08/14/16 | | This section is DEPRECATED as the RTL8192 | | is not well maintained. Now configure Ulog2 by editing it’s config file Find the following lines in the configuration file and make them look like the following: sudo vi /etc/ulogd. Check the output mixer settings, try a different sound device, etc. 250 degrees Celcius or 73. Com/u/31910649/i2ckiss #11 – Uncompress and make sure the pitncgetset binaries are executable #Uncompress the archive sudo unzip pitncgetset. I recommend you just set this up *AS IS* since using other facility levels have other ramifications like sending messages to the console, dmesg, etc. Py This program should: – light up the backlight – Show some text – Show a smiley face icon – Show a filling bar from the left to the right – Show a smiley face icon – turn the backlight off If that worked, you’re in business. If your version looks different or has things in different places, that’s ok. Change this to # match both your Rpi’s system’s hostname and domain name # rpi3. 746 +cpe-70-114-179- 45. 1, if one of those packets is corrupted, the entire window of packets will be resent. 16 p – 64 0 0. Com — – Confirm that the host recognizes it’s new hostname with running: hostname -f #Update the FBB stuff update the details in /etc/ax25/fbb/beacon0. 25 should be installed. Service RecHandle: 0x10000 Service Class ID List: “Headset Audio Gateway” (0x1112) “Generic Audio” (0x1203) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) “RFCOMM” (0x0003) Channel: 1 Language Base Attr List: code_ISO639: 0x656e encoding: 0x6a base_offset: 0x100 Profile Descriptor List: “Headset” (0x1108) Version: 0x0102 Service Name: Serial Port Service RecHandle: 0x10001 Service Class ID List: “Serial Port” (0x1101) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) “RFCOMM” (0x0003) Channel: 2 Language Base Attr List: code_ISO639: 0x656e encoding: 0x6a base_offset: 0x100 Profile Descriptor List: “Serial Port” (0x1101) Version: 0x0100 — # As you can see above, the D74 is offering both audio in/out, and a serial port. Conf file for a broken setting that # creates a huge amount of of logs as well as other overly chatty logs # and duplication # – Added a critical fix for proper keyboard mappings to log in via the # local HDMI console # # 12/10/15 – Updated logrotate configs to be more aggressive # 12/06/15 – Added a note on the FIX_BITS option # 11/30/15 – Fixed raspi-config typo # 11/29/15 – Updated the Linpac section # – Updated the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. 07 was released today, 12/27/17 and it sounds like | | Kenwood have fixed this specific issue but I haven’t confirmed this yet | +——————————————————————————-+ # Next up, try dynamic Bluetooth binding. Sh script to activate those changes. It sounds like this could be limitations on the | | Raspberry Pi hardware. A 16GB card took 51 minutes to copy and compress. V4 file and follow the process to use the /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. If you’d like to use a different TCP/IP subnet, make your changes here and as appropriate in all future configuration stanzas. Alternatively, you can try increasing the tmpfs RAM drive size for /tmp (1MB is not enough) but also remember that you only have 1GB of RAM available. – Enable ntpd to get time from gpsd #Ok, let’s make a backup of your ntp. It will throw an error on exit but go ahead and just ignore it. If you don’t use Debian Stretch (x86) or Debian Buster (x86), staying with the VE7FET repos is currently safe to use — Anyway, assuming you’ve setup some scratch compile space and /tmp overflow, let’s get started in building out the AX. You can read more about # this here: # # https://raspberrypi. | | To fix that, run the commands: | | | | stty sane | | rm -f rm /var/lock/LinPac. Setup a DS3231 battery backed up real time clock (RTC) with temperature sensor Building on the above section of getting an I2C-based LCD working, this section uses the same I2C bus to communicate to a DS3231 real time clock to set the system’s date/time upon power up. The 12th harmonic of 12Mhz is 144MHz. That can wear out your hard drive prematurely too (that and consume excess power). Confirm it’s been already started ps ax | grep ulogd 4. Run gpsd from the command line with the device-by-id string found from above. Org/iptables # # Please note that the above URL file points to the WRONG files installed by # iptables-persistent # # (modified to allow SSH, not allow HTTP and HTTPS) # # You can also find a copy of this file at: # http://www. Add the following lines to the interfaces file and you can change the management IP address of this bridge group to whatever subnet you like: vim /etc/network/interfaces — auto br0 iface br0 inet static address 192. 7 GiB) [ 360. Conf file: NOTE: The “#” character in front of the filter lines are REQUIRED for them to be accepted by the APRS-IS server — telnet rotate. # Recommended: hostapd and dnsmasq HostAP and a LB-Link BL-LW05-AR5 802. I see the following and my desired drive and partition is “/dev/sda1”: — [ 360. | | | | For now in this document, I will DISABLE IPv6 protocol support. But that’s beyong the scope of this document 10. Sh # sudo chown root mount-usb-hd. 9 KiB) RX errors 0 dropped 1 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 266 bytes 33726 (32. Zip — +——————————————-+ | 08/14/16 | | This section is DEPRECATED as the RTL8192 | | is not well maintained. Net/projects/linpac/files/LinPac/ ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libax25,ax25-apps,ax25-tools,libncurses5 ] 11 – Provides: [ linpac ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] — If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging and install the resulting package +—————————————————————————–+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | With a recent change to Raspbian 9 / Debian 9 Stretch, changes to | | the version of GCC has made the Debian apt version of Linpac Configuration –> Interface –> # PC Output (GPS): Bluetooth # PC OUtput (APRS): Bluetooth # KISS : Bluetooth # DV/DR : Bluetooth # # 3. If not, you MUST fix this before moving on. After that, run the following command to install the example config files: sudo make installconf +—————————————————————————-+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | With a recent toxic release of the AX. Consider buying | | a Rpi v3 with built-in Wifi instead and | | read the above section | +——————————————-+ 31. Testing Direwolf Test out Direwolf in it’s stand alone more and enable all it’s settings to better tune it’s levels #Other options you might be interested in #-q d : suppress APRS decodes #-q h : suppress heard levels #-t 0 : disable colors #-d o : show output for asserting DCD and PTT lines #-a n : print out number of samples for N sections # sudo direwolf -t 0 -d o -a 100 -c /etc/ax25/direwolf. Sh script # – added the removal of the Avahi daemon # # 11/27/16 – Added libgps-dev to add gps support to direwolf # – Add some clarifying points for compiling Direwolf 1. NOTE: If you intended to use a Coastal Chipworks TNC-Pi, Kenwood D74, or other hardware TNC, there is NO reason to configure up a sound card, install the Direwolf, etc. B Setting up the Sound Card levels for 1200BAUD AFSK Packet Radio – This example is using a Alinco DJ-580 HT with a simple PTT circuit similar to the one shown here (more about this later): http://www. Find the line: *. Larger PACLEN settings will provide higher performance assuming you don’t have many retries. Conf — – Un# out the line “#compress” – Add the following lines just below the “compress” line — # use bzip2 with higher compression than gzip compresscmd /bin/bzip2 uncompresscmd /bin/bunzip2 compressoptions -9 compressext. Please see http://www. Linux tocalls-symbols #Pre-compile the sources using all the cores on your RPi make -f Makefile. Or your transmissions won’t be decoded very well or at all. System running through SSH If you want gpsd to automatically start upon boot, use the command: sudo systemctl enable gpsd NOTES: – If you want to disable gpsd from auto-starting when the GPS is connected to the USB bus, see: http://astrobeano. 193 3 u 62 1024 377 16. 1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3 [606161. Append the “prefer” keyword to the pre-populated Debian NTP servers sudo vim /etc/ntp. Py script failed to start” echo “pishutdown. 000/050/A=000319ENROUTE vhfdrop: fm K6TJS to APU25N via WR6ABD* ctl UI pid=F0(Text) len 74 @301626z3703. 654767 sec @ 4800bps gpsd:WARN: can’t use GGA time until after ZDA or RMC has supplied a year. 11 Trying. After exiting, we need to continue to configure Linpac 10. # To shutdown this dynamic Bluetooth association, run the command: rfcomm release hci0 NOTE: —– # It’s worth mentioning that you can also put the D74 either into the “APRS12” or “KISS12” # mode and put bottom VFO (VFO-B) on a packet frequency say like 144. Thoughts on SSIDs —————– It’s important to note that depending on the specific radio frequency you intend to operate on, there can be different SSID schemes in use. The key items in my setup to look for is: 1. D -f rsync disable 11. D/iptables k. Conf file off any other Rpi and use this build. When it comes back up, make sure the various mounts now are mounted to a “tmpfs” file system 7. Device activated 2. Com/raspberry-pi-stratum-1-ntp-server/ 48. I’ve checked with the CM108 schematics and programming API and this voltage cannot be turned off. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ This package provides specific user applications for hamradio that use AX. Again try the above command and make sure NO garbage or any out text output is coming #13 – Try running the pitnc_getparams program: – If running on a TNC-Pi v1 board:. Now that you’ve created the required radio interface cable to connect the radio to sound the soundcard CONSIDERING: – You’ve ensured that the microphone jacks on both the radio AND the soundcard don’t have a DC bias voltage (above). Next, Noatime File system optimization Enable the noatime option to minimize file system writes on your root file system. Why do you have to do something special. F=29&t=147501 Seems this recommendation is avoiding the SystemD approach 3. Rpi pin 18 (Broadcom GPIO 24) connected to on 10K Ohm resistor (resistor color code: brown, black, orange, gold) 2. 0 network 192. Ok, next, let’s wire up the button. Sh Look in http://www. OPTIONAL: Placing your Rpi on the raw Internet (no firewall in front of it) and having SSH enabled is generally NOT recommended. Py Now edit the “RPi_I2C_driver. For now, let’s do beacons and Linpac: sudo vi /etc/ax25/ax25-up. If you need help with this, feel free to | | reach out to me. 25 resolves this issue and I’ve requested the debian-hams | | packaging team to release Linpac 0. This will let you connect to the Rpi either directly or through an AP (which usually has Internet access). Conf — *. C – Start up ntpd and let things sit. Now REMOVE the power connection from the Raspberry Pi for 30 seconds and then reconnect power. Add this new user into the following UNIX groups: – “audio” (allow users to access the soundcard) – “dialout” (allow serial port access – if needed) – “gpio” (allow access to the GPIO pins) – “sudo” (allow root access) – “video” group (allow diagnostic permissions to the GPU) sudo usermod -a -G audio,dialout,gpio,sudo,video dranch b. BEWARE of the soundcard and radio microphone bias DC voltage IMPORTANT: Microphone Bias Voltage: ———————————– Before you connect your radio to your soundcard, it’s CRITICAL that you check to see if: 1) Your soundcard’s microphone jack does or doesn’t provides a “bias” voltage for condenser-type microphones. Com –provides “tnc” –requires libasound2,libgps22 make install Follow the checkinstall prompts: Should I create a default set of package docs. Diff patch -p1 ki6zhd-16gb-stretch-w-linpac-090417. Sh /usr/local/sbin # Attach the USB HD # sudo /usr/local/sbin/mount-usb-hd. | | | | Why. Fl connector for external # antennas # – add a link to EOL dates for Rasbpian (Jessie went EOL early) # – Updated the update-glibc-ax25-workaround. Fl connector and an external wifi antenna (mentioned below – not possible on the Rpi 3B+): NOTE: Previous doc versions focused on working with an RTL8192CUS based Wifi device but no longer https://www. You *must* use an alternative way to power the # AP dongle (such as a USB powered hub or maybe you’re using a Wifi HATT with external # power support First, confirm your Wifi USB device is seen by running: dmesg | less This is what one of these very small USB Wifi nubs look like from Edimax: http://www. Py sudo mv lcdui-modified. Once all that is completed, any incoming SSH program will have to be specifically told use port 2222 to connect: ssh -p 2222 [email protected] Future: Advanced security thoughts that I’ll add into this doc some day – use SSH keys ONLY (no passwords) – Makes brute force attacks almost impossible as long as your version of sshd doesn’t have bugs. Sh script’s “FET_LIBAX25_PATH” variable to point to the | | directory where the libax25 package is available. 9 out of 10 Configuration -> Bluetooth -> Pairing Mode # # Now issue the command to start the pairing: pair 24:71:89:96:DE:AB # You should now see on the D74’s display, the BT pairing code. Take up your complaint with with the SystemD guys and not me. Confirm Clean Silence from the Soundcard This check is needed as a *lot* of USB sound devices will pass on noise from dirty power sources in the form of dirty audio. Statd is not running but is required for remote locking. Io/2017/09/26/raspberry-pi-zero-w-simultaneous-ap-and-managed-mode-wifi/ there is a race condition of the wlan0 interface coming up first and blocking the ap0 interface from loading. S /sys/class/i2c-adapter/i2c-1/new_device exit After that, Linux should have already loaded the DS1307 kernel module which also supports the DS3231 chip. Todo 03/06/15 – Add NTP via GPS support – http://www. To do this, run the following command: #Some additional required packages will be installed as well # sudo apt-get install postfix logwatch bsd-mailx dnsutils openssl-blacklist # As the Postfix package installs, it will prompt you for specific settings for your # environment. The Raspberry Pi will then blinks it’s GREEN activity LED 10 times. Bz2 } — # add log rotation for the packet. The plan is to integrate this functionality into the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. It’s a pain and something I’ve never liked about IPTABLES when the old stateless IPCHAINS system never did. In this specific case, you can use the green LED to show Wifi activity: #show the possible options with the current firmware (changes over time) cat /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger * Anything wrapped with [ ] means it’s active none – does nothing kbd-scrollock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-numlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-capslock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-kanalock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-altgrlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-altlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftrlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrlllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrlrlock – status from the controlling keyboard [mmc0] – activity on the microSD card slot mmc1 – activity on the Wifi interface timer – monitor the timer oneshot – not sure on this one heartbeat – monitor the broadcom watchdog timer backlight – status of the DSI backlight gpio – monitor a specific GPIO pin cpu0 – status of cpu0 cpu1 – status of cpu1 cpu2 – status of cpu2 cpu3 – status of cpu3 default-on – on 100% input – not sure what this is rfkill0 – show if the BT signal is admin disabled via rfkill rfkill1 – show if the wifi signal is admin disabled via rfkill To change the green LED to show Wifi activity instead of microSD activity, issue the command: echo mmc1 > /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger This will be a temporary setting and the Rpi will revert to it’s stock behavior after a reboot. Now, connect up the following simple circuit (this example uses Broadcom GPIO 24): 1. 00W power=50 height=20 gain=4 OBJNAME=TESTBCN comment=”test beacon” via=WIDE1-1 +———————————————————+ | Optional: | | Enabling APRS IGate functionality in Direwolf | +———————————————————+ d. 92W_169/000g000t059r000p000P000h83b10154 vhfdrop: fm K6ODX to APOT30 via WA6YLB-7* N6ZX-3* WIDE2* ctl UI pid=F0(Text) len 50 /162640h3637. 4 but if newer versions of # Direwolf are available, I recommend to give them a try # – Fixed a broken index link # 05/15/18 – Updated the download URL for the TNC-Pi utility # 04/21/18 – Enhanced the iptables-ulog section to install any missing packages # – other typo fixes # 04/05/18 – Added notes about enabling Wifi or SSH on a fresh install of Rasbian to enable remote # over-the-network only configuration # 03/24/18 – Updated Direwolf # 03/23/18 – More Hardware section formatting improvements # 03/18/18 – Added a note in the AX. For known reasons, Rasbian allowed very long interface names | | and in the AX. Conf file # so that Dnsmasq can start and run to give IP addresses to Wifi users # – Added additional thoughts on installing Rasbian Pixel vs Rasbian Lite # – Added some specific recommendations to NOT connect your Rpi directly to the Internet # or have a port SSH port forward going to it until you harden it’s configuration with # say exclusively using SSH keys and disabling SSH passwords, installing Fail2ban, etc. 25 version or newer sudo apt-get install linpac ax25mail-utils – Or you can build it from sources Below are the steps on how to build the newest version of Linpac from sources but if you choose to install it via apt-get, skip this build section and go to the configure section below. Assuming say the local APRS frequency is busy in your area (144. Py script” echo “Starting pishutdown. D/ulogd2 file and append the following lines: sudo vi /etc/logrotate. If you followed the email section, root should also receive an email that the Rpi was rebooted if the watchdog ever kicks in 16. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ Linpac is a modular console-oriented packet radio terminal for Linux with a built-in messaging client. Linpacconfig 13. Though you’ll need a high power # Wifi amp to use it, you might as well start there # # You can also use the next sections recommendations to see what might be # a better channel to use but for now, use channel 1 channel=1 # Accept all MAC addresses macaddr_acl=0 # Use WPA authentication ONLY auth_algs=1 # Require clients to know the network name ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 # Enable Wireless MultiMedia class of service (WMM) wmm_enabled=1 # Enable 802. If it’s not installed, this section of Linpac won’t function but it won’t error out either. That APRS SSID would most likely configred in the direwolf. Now if you’re curious how accurate the RTC is compared to NTP over time, you can try running commands like this one at any time where “hw-time” is the RTC and the “system-time” is the NTP set Raspberry Pi time. A – Monitoring the Raspberry Pi hardware and other scripts ————————————————————- I’ve posed various scripts to manage the hardware of your Raspberry Pi: – Monitor the CPU clocking, hardware temps, and serial number of your Raspberry Pi Get the script by running: cd /tmp wget http://www. # # 11/17/17 – Updated the USB APM section and added a script to manually spin down the drive # # 11/05/17 – New publish # # 11/01/17 – Updated the Linpac configuration section regarding SSIDs to be a bit clearer # # 10/31/17 – Clarifications on BBS hierarchical addressing in Linpac # # 10/30/17 – Align the axports file to use a speed of 19200 though it doesn’t really matter here # – Mentioned that WD Blue and WD Green series drives also do NOT support APM_level # # 10/26/17 – Added a new hostapd issue and work around where dnsmasq won’t come up # # 10/25/17 – Added a new review the bootup logs chapter to confirm that the system is booting up without # errors. 11n if your hardware supports it ieee80211n=1 #Select the least used Wifi channel in your area – ch 0 will auto-select on the # most available channel – alternatively, use 1,6,11 for the US channel=0 #How often to send SSID broadcasts beacon_int=100 #Station MAC address -based authentication # 0 = accept unless in deny list # 1 = deny unless in accept list macaddr_acl=0 #If you want to hide your SSID broadcasts, set this to 1 ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 #allow WPA/WPA2 only – # 1=wpa, 2=wep, 3=both auth_algs=1 #enable WPA2 only wpa=2 #enable multi-media priority wmm_enabled=1 #disassociate remote sessions that are taking on high errors # enable this for better battery life; disable this to keep the link up at all costs #disassoc_low_ack=1 #The WPA2 64 character HEX key or 8 to 63 character passphrase for your network #wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef wpa_passphrase=YOURPASSPHASE #Use PSK and not EAP wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK #Use AES encryption rsn_pairwise=CCMP #Support high performance wifi # HT40+ : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel ABOVE the primary channel # HT40- : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel BELOW the primary channel # SHORT-GI-40 : Short GI for 40 MHz # RX-STBC12 : one or two spatial streams # ht_capab=[HT40+][HT40-][SHORT-GI-40][RX-STBC12] #Don’t refuse association with remote client if they don’t support HT Phy negotiation require_ht=0 — Now update the SysV config startup script to load a custom config file: sudo vi /etc/default/hostapd — DAEMON_CONF=”/etc/hostapd/hostapd. I personally feel this is an infrastructure level configuration (just like configuring Ethernet or Wifi interfaces) so this belongs in /etc somewhere. Now type in control-c in this window and you’ll # instantly see the bluetooth icon on the D74 go out. Wav If this works ok, you should see the output: Recording WAVE ‘/tmp/test. There should NOT be any hiss, whine, or any other noise. To properly check for this, do the following a. New2 starting up beacon started mheardd Started ax25-up. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols ] 2 – Name: [ ax25-tools ] 3 – Version: [ 1. 521910 16 0 — Now all you have to do is have things load up at boot time. On my Android device, go into the Android sytem settings, go to the Wifi setup area and in there, I click on the three vertical “. To fix this in Raspbian Jessie, edit the /lib/systemd/system/watchdog. New That command should look something like: — ax25-up. As such, I recommend you do the following: a. Once that’s run, | | you can again run: | | | | sudo apt-get upgrade | | | | and your machine will now download and install all the other packages You should be good to go at that | | point. Below is one of the better GPIO pin diagrams out on the web showing the different pins and their various modes. =warn |/dev/xconsole — If you still want to receive console errors, read the section BEFORE this xconsole section and enable that which will send errors to console vty 8 instead 2. You *will* # need to change it to meet your needs: # # cd /tmp # wget http://www. Log” sync=1 — 5. New firewall took effect. Sudo time dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/sd-card/p2/bigfile. /configure –prefix=/usr #build it – takes about 31 seconds on a Rpi3 make -j8 NOTE: There seems to be some strange bugs with Linpac’s installer on Debian Stretch/ Jessie where it’s not creating the correct directories for the first time install. Conf” — # Next, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file — auto lo eth0 wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 10. Once you’ve update the access database, now test the Rpi’s local email system by running: echo “test1 ” | mailx root There won’t be any output on the command line but you can see if there were any other issues by looking at the local email server log: sudo less /var/log/mail. When the Rpi comes back up, log back into the Rpi a look for: – If you’re using a Syba USB soundcard, check that it’s green LED is slowly blinking – Running “ifconfig” will show the “ax0” interface – Run the following commands to make sure they are running: ps aux | grep pishutdown ps aux | grep direwolf ps ax | grep listen #There will be three of these ps ax | grep linpac ps ax | grep beacon ps ax | grep mheardd If all of these process are listed. Even for static IP addresses. Install screen with: sudo apt-get install screen 2. Run the Raspian OS configuration tool: sudo raspi-config 2. Run the “df” command and make sure you see key directories like: /run /run/lock /tmp /var/log/ Specifically, notice the use the “tmpfs” file system (or not) which is a ram drive. | | | | If you have a recommended, not too expensive GPS receiver unit that’s more | | RF quiet, please email me on your recommendation. Go ahead and reboot your Raspberry Pi. D/rsyslog file to have the follow items at the TOP of the file and delete any duplicate lines from any of the other stanzas in the file. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. As such, I don’t know if I can recommend enabling this | | at this time. I am actively researching how to fix this within SystemD but this | | may take some time. Requires a lot more space than 512MB or 1GB of RAM when you compile them. Ini — port = /dev/ttyUSB0 — #You have to get the GPS running in NEMA mode first sudo gpsd -N -D3 -n /dev/ttyUSB0 /etc/tracker/tracker-up To view the current system, use: http://192. | +—————————————————————————————+ #NOTE #2: There might be issues with these binaries looing for axlisten instead of # listen. If you ever accidently delete a file, a directory, or have your SD card get corrupted, you can restore from this image. 0-3+deb7u2 was broken for the RTL8192 chip but was resolved in Jessie. 0 l 71m 64 0 0. Read about filters here: http://www. There I select “Advanced Wifi”, and scroll down to the very bottom until I see the Wifi Ethernet MAC address and it’s IP address. Py #This is the running program but doesn’t aways init properly python /usr/local/sbin/lcdui-modified. For those who are curious, you can learn a little more about # these Bluetooth UUIDs with: # info 24:71:89:96:de:AB — Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB Name: TH-D74 Alias: TH-D74 Class: 0x620204 Icon: phone Paired: yes Trusted: yes Blocked: no Connected: no LegacyPairing: no UUID: Serial Port (00001101-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb) UUID: Headset AG (00001112-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb) RSSI: -71 TxPower: 4 — # Notice a few things the above bluetooth output: # # 1. Com/community/WifiDocs/WirelessAccessPoint and http://lcdev. To get this “second” connection working, we need some information first. Then, carefully the bottom of the next section area at the bottom of this section on how to complete the setup Anyway, let’s make the minimim changes to allow DHCP on wlan0 by do the following: #First, make a backup of the running rules now sudo cp /etc/iptables/rules. If you ran that above patch file or you did and it didn’t work for whatever reason, you can alternatively run the following commands and then try the checkconfig command again. Warn -/var/log/mail. If you do have to make changes to the access database, make sure to also compile a new version of the database and restart your email server. TRS0&_nkw=easydigi&_sacat=0 – Another option to consider is to build the time-limited PTT circuit that’s found in Direwolf’s Raspberry-Pi-APRS. Html If that runs well, have it start at boot up with adding the following to the /etc/rc. IMPORTANT: Update the RPI’s firmware and possibly move to a better, bleeding edge kernel, etc sudo rpi-update If the above program is not installed, do the following and then try again: sudo apt-get install rpi-update 13. Com/questions/5367/how-do-i-change-the-editor-used-by-visudo sudo update-alternatives –set editor /usr/bin/vim. Auto start the packet system and advanced services Ok. Wav You should see something like the following on the command line: Playing WAVE ‘/usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center. Now remove the SD card from this secondary Linux machine and put it back into your Raspberry Pi 8. V4-test file and remove the # in front of the relevant three lines and then enable the temporary ruleset with: sudo iptables-restore Configuration -> Bluetooth -> Bluetooth: ON Ok, the radio is now ready to go so on to the Raspberry Pi. Accordingly, waiting for a watch request to open the device # may save battery power. New2 $TNCTYPE — Next, let’s edit the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Make sure this new SD card is the same size OR bigger (use the fdisk command shown above to see it’s size in blocks) 9. 25 sources are # working fine. NOTE: It’s importnt to connect LCD to 5. If you implimented the above IPTABLES firewall, I’d recommend to update it again to REMOVE the original TCP port 22. This risk is no different than having to do a manual power cycle +———————————————————————————————-+ | IMPORTANT : 08/29/17 on Raspbian Stretch | | | | Per the thread at https://www. No SSID) keyboard to keyboard chat -1 :: PBBS mailboxes -2 :: not specifically used -3 :: not specifically used -4 :: not specifically used -5 :: for nodes and netrom -6 :: not specifically used -7 :: for nodes and netrom (alternate) -8 :: not specifically used -9 :: not specifically used -10 :: for Winlink nodes —- -11 through -15 are generally NEVER used since NETROM connections will automatically use these high SSID numbers starting with -15 and work it’s way down to lower SSIDs to manage link by link connections 11. I’ve kept this older detail in a later section in this doc farther down in a “deprecated” section but with the new Rpi v3 / Rpi Zero W and their built-in wifi hardware, I wouldn’t recommend to go the RTL8192CUS route anymore. If this overlflow to /tmp happens without having a large enough secondary mount, you will (at minimi) significantly reduce the life of your SD card due to many writes. Thought completely optional, I would recommend to install some of these useful programs: vim – better version of Vi tcpdump – network monitor lsof – tool to see what ports / files are open on the machine gpm – mouse program for cutting/pasting when in CLI mode telnet – make simple outgoing TCP connections for various network tests #Install them and their required dependencies # sudo apt-get install vim tcpdump lsof gpm telnet #I would also recommend to ONLY run GPM it when you’re on the actual console (HDMI) and it’s needed. Maybe this can be fixed through newer firmware for | | the Raspberry Pi but I haven’t seen much movement here. That’s the IPv6 link local address. It should look like: tmpfs 441580 6012 435568 2% /run tmpfs 5120 4 5116 1% /run/lock tmpfs 441580 0 441580 0% /sys/fs/cgroup tmpfs 20480 128 20352 1% /var/log tmpfs 1024 0 10240 0% /tmp The use of the tmpfs RAM drives is the normal setup on Jessie based Raspbian installs but NOT Raspbian Stretch. That’s NOT a common capability for packet radio software and most systems would just say that KI6ZHD-6 is busy. Configure Linpac ———————– +——————————————————————————————-+ | IMPORTANT: | | | | Before you get started, it’s very important that you completed the above “Linux AX. To make sure the HD’s auto-spin down feature is enabled, do the following: NOTE: One challenge here is that some hard drives might be different and not work with these settings. Com/jaymzx/RPi-WD-Packet-Interface – You could then put either these two circuits or the little PCB on a Raspberry Pi proto HAT: https://www. Confirm that your HD APM level is set to 127 (not 128 or higher : default is 254) Any values of 127 or lower allow the HD to power down sudo /sbin/hdparm -B /dev/sda — /dev/sda: APM_level = 254 — That’s a good output and it means the drive is running and has all power management disabled. I’d recommend to only beacon once an hour if your station is always up and available. Please note, the seeing of REJECT in these top policy # lines is NOT allowed (only ACCEPT and DROP are allowed here). Configure temporary RAM file systems to minimize writes As your Rpi runs, it will accumulate logs in the /var/log directory. I’ve personally tested and have things working with the +3. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 — You should see a TUI (textual user interface) screen printing both top level details from your GPS on the top with the incoming streaming NMEA data on the bottom. Com/questions/45570/how-do-i-make-serial-work-on-the-raspberry-pi3 #3 – You need to enable the serial port on the Rpi with the following steps but unfortunately, this approach both enables the serial port AND the serial console support at the same time. Sh Put the D74 into KISS12 mode by toggling the Function-APRS button (that’s the 5 key) twice and you’ll see the “KISS 12″ icon in the upper middle right of the D74’s display. If you need this, I would recommend additional # protections (not covered in this document at the moment) # – change the default SSH port 22 to something else # – port knocking # – use SSH keys ONLY (no passwords) # # The –dport number is the same as in /etc/ssh/sshd_config -A INPUT -p tcp -m state –state NEW –dport 22 -j ACCEPT # Now you should read up on iptables rules and consider whether ssh access # for everyone is really desired. Conf is in /etc/ax25 # – added missing zlib dependencies for ax25-tools # # 09/05/17 – Increase the RAM drives for /tmp to 10MB and /var/log/ to 50MB # – Added a log rotation max size limit of 10M to the /var/log/packet, ax25-listen. Py https://gist. Sh # sudo mv firewall-confirm. Gz cd ax25mail-utils-0. I recommend that you look them over and make them your own to fit your needs. Com/using-your-raspberry-pi-3-as-a-wifi-access-point-with-hostapd/ but I’ve added informational and troubleshooting commands, modernized it’s commands to use native Systemd commands and added IPTABLES firewall sections to protect your system IP Addressing: This doc will use the 192. D -f avahi-daemon remove # Disable the special key keyboard mapping tool sudo update-rc. The display’s backlight should light up but nothing be on the display. If you want better range, consider doing a hardware modification to add a u. Log that records the start/stop and direwolf sudo vi /etc/logrotate. 377549] usbserial: USB Serial support registered for pl2303 [262398. Com/e/2007 This is evidently due to the xconsole not running (when you Rpi isn’t running Xwindows because you’re using Raspbian Lite). Once the Rpi is back up and you SSHed back into it, install some key I2C packages: sudo apt-get install i2c-tools python-smbus Once those tools are installed, try running the following command to see if the I2C display is detected: # detect all I2C IDs on the second I2C bus: sudo i2cdetect -y 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 00: — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 20: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 30: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3f 40: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 50: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 60: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — As you can see here, my LCD display has an I2C address of 0x3f. Screenrc-svxlink -S linpac sudo linpac — to — screen -d -m -S linpac sudo linpac #screen -d -r linpac — It’s important to have that last line commented out or screen will try to reconnect to the current TTY but no one is logged in. Html | | | | Work around: You MUST build to a local file system to the system be it the SD card | | (NOT RECOMMENDED) or attach a USB HDD or SDD (RECOMMENDED) | | | | See the previous section for how to use the USB HDD/SSD approach | +—————————————————————————————————————–+ I’m leaving this section in place just in case some people are curious on the NFS steps #Install NFS client programs sudo apt-get install nfs-common #This is required for mounting remote legacy NFS machines – the error seen is: # # mount. 1GB of free space, it took my system 29minutes. Sh script # # 01/25/18 – Noted that the official SD formatter program is now available for Mac too # # 01/19/18 – Added a few URLs for an opto-isolated PTT circuits # # 01/12/18 – Updated in the index a bit # # 01/05/18 – Intentionally included the #ed out bind-interfaces line in the dnsmasq. 25 startup and shutdown scripts available. You’ll probably find many strong signals (birdies) as many devices and sound cards have a poorly shielded 12Mhz crystal oscillators. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0” — Now try to start the service with: sudo systemctl start gpsd If all goes well, you’ll just be dropped back to the command prompt without any specific output. As such, I recommend you remove it: sudo dpkg -r avahi-daemon libnss-mdns 3. Com/system/rsyslog-config/ It’s a little terse on what really needs to be done. Make sure the Broadcom watchdog kernel module is present: NOTE: The path and the name of the kernel module for watchdog has changed over time with the various Rpi kernel versions #Correct name in Raspbian Stretch – kernel version: 4. This guide specifically ONLY enables basic KISS TNC functionality to the Linux AX. Unless you | | modify the connections to suit your radio (ensure key DC blocking capacitors are in | | place), you run the very real risk of damaging your USB sound card *and* the radio | | itself. The | | recommendation from me is to overwrite the impacting file ANYWAY with | | the following command: | | | | sudo dpkg –force-overwrite –install libax25_1. Deb Ok, now let’s now move on and compile / install Linpac Get the newest Linpac sources – 0. For example, let’s see if the HD is spinning now: sudo /sbin/hdparm -C /dev/sda — /dev/sda: drive state is: active/idle — e. Since you cannot send say SIGUSR1 to re-evaluate their new file handle for the newly created file NOTE2: Once these files are present, the logrotate system will automatically start using them the next time the cron system runs logrotate 28. Setting up the Sound device Ok, assuming you’re going with the Direwolf software-TNC approach, you first need to get your soundcard setup tuned up. To confirm things started ok, run the command: ps aux | grep gps Which you should see something like: — gpsd 11074 0. Conf — loglevel=1 [log1] group=0 [log2] group=1 [emu1] file=”/var/log/ulogd_traffic-emu1. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols — Hit ENTER again to accept the description Next, confirm the checkinstall fields all look ok and similar to the following: — 0 – Maintainer: [ [email protected] I will research this where the fix could be simple symlinks # to a recommendation of removing the VE7FET AX. Local — #Send a message to root when the Rpi reboots date | mailx -s “host: `uname -n` was rebooted” — root — 13. Sh – Clean up the file system a bit and remove old kernels http://www. Pdf – A slick solution is to get a nice PCB version of WB2OSZ’s circuit which is available for order here as designed by James N7SET: https://github. Old Now package things up: sudo checkinstall –pkgname ax25-tools –pkgversion 1. Ifnames=0 biosdevname=0 | | — | | | | Reboot your Raspberry Pi and things will work from there on out. It won’t give any output as it runs. 1: SerialNumber: 00e04c000001 [606161. For my machine, I see it as device: /dev/mmcblk0 4. Included are routines to do ax25 address parsing, common ax25 application config file parsing, etc. NOTE: If you get output like the following from the above test command: — /dev/sda: APM_level = not supported — This most likely means the drive you’re trying to use is very old NOTE#2: If you get output like the following from that above test command: — /dev/sda: SG_IO: bad/missing sense data, sb[]: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0a 00 00 00 00 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 APM_level = not supported — This means the USB to SATA/PATA bridge chip in your USB to HD adapter is not passing all the IDE commands codes though. Php/2012/04/hdparm-power-down-drives-when-not-in-use/ f. Field-keywords=SD-CM-UAUD It’s is proven reliable and also doesn’t spew RF noise on 144. Sh chmod 755 review-rpi-cpu. Avoid GPS noise which might shift your location around from position to position. | | | | +————————————————–+ | | | CURRENT STATUS — Sort of works, sort of broken | | | | see the bottom of this section | | | +————————————————–+ | +———————————————————————————-+ +———-+ | OPTIONAL | +———-+ One excellent feature of the new Raspberry Pi3/ZeroW hardware is that it’s Wifi system can act as both a Wifi client and be a Wifi access point *at the same time*. It should also be noted that Linpac and the message relay system ONLY supports F6FBB BBS type systems today. This reflects my Syba USB device: sudo vi /etc/ax25/direwolf. Conf — denyinterfaces wlan0 — Non-Raspbian Stretch users: ————————— Edit the interfaces file to create a static IP for the wlan interface. 11N networks # If Wifi compatibility is more important than performance; set this to “g” hw_mode=g #enable 802. Final things to review: Check your bootlogs:
48. Once the Rpi is fully booted, let’s give the shutdown button a try. Sh /usr/local/sbin | | | | # Next, you need to find the libax25 package you built and make it always available for the script to | | # find it. | | | | If you’re not sure if you have an IPv6 address already running, | | try the command: | | | | netstat -6 -rn | grep UG | | | | If you see something come back, you INDEED have IPv6 connectivity. You can also force another timer in /etc/hdparm. Com –provides “ax25” –requires zlib1g When prompted for “Should I create a default set of package docs”, Select Y Next, when prompted for the description, enter in the following: — This library is used for applications that use the ax25 protocol. I beleive the proper solution now is to | | exclusively use the Systemd approach and NOT use the watchdog package. Select YES 3. Add ULOG to remove IPTABLES lines from /var/log/messages Once you enabled the IPTABLES firewall from the previous section, you probably noticed it begins log too much stuff to too many places. | | To do this, do the following steps: | | | | sudo vi /boot/cmdline. | +—————————————————————————–+ #Status of the BT interface # sudo hciconfig -a — hci0: Type: BR/EDR Bus: UART BD Address: B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 ACL MTU: 1021:8 SCO MTU: 64:1 UP RUNNING RX bytes:717 acl:0 sco:0 events:42 errors:0 TX bytes:1532 acl:0 sco:0 commands:42 errors:0 Features: 0xbf 0xfe 0xcf 0xfe 0xdb 0xff 0x7b 0x87 Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3 Link policy: RSWITCH SNIFF Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT Name: ‘rpi3’ Class: 0x000000 Service Classes: Unspecified Device Class: Miscellaneous, HCI Version: 4. The below script comes from: https://www. NOTE: Using your smartphone as a display and a keyboard will work in a pinch but it’s pretty cumbersome and doesn’t work well for full-screen programs like Linpac. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] IMPORTANT: c. Debs and the 3rd party VE7FET ax. (infrastructure mode”): Assumptions ———– Like everything Linux, there are several ways to do everything. 646 — In the above output, if you only see SHM to SHM, somethings isn’t working right. V4-test” file will be used to TEST all firewall changes before they are made the default firewall upon every boot). Sys needs updating too –RESEARCH– dir /etc/ax25/fbb needs sed search/replace for all CAPS F6BVP #Update the default editor update-alternatives –config editor # —————- #Now configure your primary Wifi interface ifconfig wlan0 down sudo wpa_cli # Note: if this program won’t start, pull out the USB Wireless device and put it # back in again that should re-prod NetworkManager to get it running #Now, get the name of any pre-configured wireless devices and put them into the # start-adhoc script wpa_cli –> scan –> scan-results –> add_network –> set_network 0 ssid “enter-your-previously-shown-BSSID-here” –> set_network 0 psk “enter-your-wpa2-key-here” –> enable_network 0 –> save_config Get a copy of /usr/local/sbin/start-adhoc. The new way to configure the use of RAM drives (but is unclear how any changes here will be retained when/if that script is updated): #NOTE: In Raspbian Jessie and Stretch, the previous Wheezy approach of configuring # RAM drives (/etc/default/tmpfs) is broken. Btw, you can force the HD to spin down ASAP by running the command: sudo /sbin/hdparm -y /dev/sda — /dev/sda: issuing standby command — You can then use the “sudo /sbin/hdparm -C /dev/sda” command to see that the drive is spun down. Make a backup of your MicroSD card This section will let you make complete image backups of you Raspberry Pi SD card to a heavily compressed file on another computer. 0,12h — #Make the required dnsmask dir if it was removed mkdir /var/run/dnsmasq/ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces — #if there is any other line that has “auto lo” in it, REMOVE it auto lo eth0 wlan0 iface lo inet loopback iface eth0 inet dhcp #This is intentionally set to manual to support the selection of client or server AP mode iface wlan0 inet manual allow-hotplug wlan0 — Verify / Update the system’s hostname: – Edit the /etc/hostname file and put the name of your raspberry Pi in there. 4 #If using an existing source directory, make sure it’s clean make clean 5. Html Other helpful sites: https://help. 9 GB, 15931539456 bytes 4 heads, 16 sectors/track, 486192 cylinders, total 31116288 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x92f034a6 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/mmcblk0p1 8192 93813 42811 c W95 FAT32 (LBA) Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary. The level settings are stored in /var/lib/alsa/asound. This is an EXTREMELY bad idea and can physically damange your Rpi due to sinking too much current though the monitoring GPIO pin. If you want to know why these # sources vs the official AX. Unfortunately, ACS does not work in hostapd v2. 3v line NOTE: I2C buses can be wired either in a serial or parallel fashion. Html for more RPi optimizations, etc # ———————————————————————— # This note is only relevant for F6BVP’s based Rpi image (obsolete) You can update the various F6BVP code, AX25 stack, etc. Dd bs=1M sudo rm -f /media/sd-card/p2/bigfile. # Type in control-C in the “rfcomm connect” window to disconnect the # bluetooth system as well as in the “sudo cat /dev/rfcomm” window +——————————————————————————-+ |NOTE: I can reliably reproduce a bug in the D74 firmware v1. So #If some of the above packages are missing, you can explicitly install them with: sudo apt-get install libnetfilter-log1 libnfnetlink0 libnetfilter-conntrack3 2. Aspx # In this example, I only want to receive APRS messages that are intended for stations # within 10km of my station’s location # IGFILTER m/10 #In addition to the APRS-IS system only sending you data you want, sometimes it will # still send too much or unexpected data. Create a new user and disable the Pi user Many Raspberry Pis connected to the Internet are getting compromised as people aren’t changing the default username and password CRITICAL NOTE: It should be noted that though I could ssh into my Rpi2 as a newly created user like “dranch” with my privately configured password, I could *NOT* log in to the directly connected HDMI/keyboard console. Some SBCs include a shutdown button on the device itself but the Rpi line doesn’t. Conf allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet manual wpa-roam /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant. To do this, edit the /etc/rc. 3 2 u 149 1024 377 26. 212 +ha3. You can find this white antenna chip on your Rpi3 just to the right of the 40pin header when the HDMI port is facing you. Create an initial security based upon the rules from https://wiki. 372576] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial [262398. | | Upon boot, the ap0 interface comes up fine and I can both associate to it and | SSH into the Rpi0w. 25 sources, see: # # http://www. – There aren’t any Wifi or BT network traffic LEDs to indicate that the AP is active, being used, etc Anyway, for now, let’s move forward with first enabling the Rpiv3 to act as a Wifi AP ONLY (aka. It also seems to spew out | | all kinds of RF noise on 144. The heard packet should have an audio level that should be clear, have no clipping or other distortion, have no background noise, whine, or clicking sounds and be completely undistorted. 372686] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial_generic [262398. After xz compression, it was only 395MB. 23,141016,,,A*78x0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224316. 1: Manufacturer: Realtek [667667. Com/pritambaral/hostapd-rtl871xdrv and https://github. If I issue: | | sudo ifconfig wlan0 up | | everything then seems to work. This will be the desired valid email address where you’ll # receive daily email reports from your Raspberry Pi. This can be dangerous as the SD card can fill up and over time, it can actually wear out the SD card. Management section about other scripts to monitor the RPI’s # CPU and temp and other useful sysadmin scripts # # 07/05/17 – Extensively updated the Wifi AP and Linpac sections # – Updated the pyshutdown GPIO button section # – more clearly deprecated the legacy rtl8192 wifi sections # # 06/03/17 – Enhanced the manual-ampr-start. 25 on a D74 HT # – Enhanced section 19 to say that if you aren’t going to use Direwolf and, instead # are going to use a TNC-Pi or D74, skip to section 25 to get that going # # 12/30/17 – Updated the OS installation chapter to recommend installing Raspbian Stretch at all # costs. NOTE: Check out the HW-Tricks section below in this doc on how you can change the onboard RPI v3 LEDs from being the SD card read/write activity indicator to say Wifi network activity, etc. For now, here is the cited work around but I bet there is a way to delay this wlan0 bring up via Systemd (needs some research): /usr/local/sbin/start-ap-managed-wifi. Prep the sources and compile Direwolf make -f Makefile. Txt file and Look for the string: console=serial0,115200 If you see it, you’ll need to edit the file with sudo rights, remove that portion of text, save the file and get ready to reboot the Rpi #5 – Now reboot your rpi with: sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now #6 – Make sure the /dev/ttyAMA0 serial port is recognized ls -la /dev | grep AMA — lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Nov 6 09:44 serial0 -> ttyAMA0 crw-rw—- 1 root dialout 204, 64 Nov 6 09:44 ttyAMA0 — If it’s NOT seen, you need to try using the “sudo raspi-config” step again #7 – Make sure there aren’t any console sessions configured to use /dev/ttyAMA0 ps aux | grep getty If you see something like the following, you need to fix this — root 1077 0. We need the Ethernet MAC address of your specific Rpi’s wifi chip. Com/phg phgd Code: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Units Power: 0 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 watts Height: 10 20 40 80 160 320 640 1280 2560 5120 feet Gain: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 dB Directivity: omni 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 n/a degrees PBEACON delay=00:15 every=60 SYMBOL=/- lat=37^20. NOTE: These are temporary settings and are required to be re-applied every reboot when you need to recompile a larger project NOTE #2: There is no need to unmount /tmp as you can just mount the USB HD on top of the existing /tmp mount. This is a decision you might not like if you’re having instability issues and want to capture all logs to troubleshoot the issue. Once you’ve checked the soundcard side, check the radio side as well and if it also provides an bias voltage, it too will need a capacitor. Add in the the following rules (if not already present). A OPTIONAL: Create remote NFS mounts for compile scratch space (save the SD card) +—————————————————————————————————————–+ | IMPORTANT | | ——— | | It seems that you CANNOT use autoconf (at least v2. Recommended to periodically do after applying OS patches to make sure things didn’t # break # – Fixed some HTML character encoding issues like &, etc # # 10/22/17 – Removed the delaycompress option from all the logrotate configuration files # – Fixed the logrotate section to properly manage the ulogd_traffic-emu1. This program can confuse your I2C bus, cause data loss and worse. Not PulseAudio or PortAudio but the lower level ALSA device name and syntax. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 ) vi /etc/tracker/aprs_tracker. 3v supply, you won’t be able to read the text on the display To get started, you first need to run the setup tool and enable the I2C bus: sudo raspi-config Goto : – Interfacing options – I2C : If you have any I2C low speed devices and plan to use them, enable this Exit the program to save the new settings and shutdown your Rpi with: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now Now unplug the power from your Rpi and wire up the display. Now reboot your Raspberry Pi with either: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now or Press the shutdown button you build and created in the previous section of this doc Wait until the green LED on the Rpi blinks 10 times quickly and then goes out. NOTE #2 If you see the “Release” field show up as “1%{. Until configured later. If it was, restore the previous backup that was put in /etc/ax25/Old. Evidently this is a known issue and is mentioned here: https://bugs. Jump to the “no-Test-Equipment packet adjustment system” section to learn how to tune your radio’s levels to be pretty close to perfect. For example on my Rpi2: vi /etc/fstab # for Stretch that uses UUIDs, it looks like: — PARTUUID=92f034a6-02 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — # for Jessie, it looks like: — /dev/mmcblk0p2 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — Go ahead and reboot your Rpi right now. V6 # ruleset in the RPi direcory snapshot # 08/30/18 – Updated the TNC-Pi section to being up i2ckiss, etc. Linux patch which fixes several path, permission and build issues wget http://www. Zip and http://www. New script but, for now, I’ve created a basic script called bt-kiss-bringup. Do NOT proceed past this step until this is resolved. 521630 21 0 1511382629 1511382628.

Com/HAM/CentosDigitalModes/RPi/etc/iptables/ # 09/06/18 – Added a note about IPv6 firewalls and how to do initial tests. After exiting, we need to continue to configure Linpac 10. As such, I recommend you remove it: sudo dpkg -r avahi-daemon libnss-mdns 3. 25 stack for advanced packet functionality. Removing or disabling unwanted services a. | +—————————————————————————–+ 28. Service file and in the [Install] section, add the line: WantedBy=multi-user. Sh & #Once you start this command, you’ll start seeing a timer run, showing # text like: [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] # Since you can see the timer, that means the network is still working. Net/projects/linpac/files/LinPac/ –maintainer ki6zhdattrinityos. # [1]+ Done sudo /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. Checked #enable the following line in the rules. Adding this button is very easy but takes a little project work (some wire, a resistor, a momentary button, and setting up a simple script). We are at a bit of a cross roads where the VE7FET repo is becoming TOXIC for some distros yet it has fixes in it that aren’t the Official AX. The GPIO-pin connected serial port is now run by an emulated serial port which is variably clocked based on the speed of the GPU. You’ve proved all the basics are working. To do so, run the I2C command:. Pyshutdown: Building a shutdown button for an Rpi much like a PC’s ATX power button One of the critical issues with the entire Raspberry Pi SBC line (and many other Linux SBCs btw) is there is no way to safely shutdown the OS w/o logging into the device via the console, SSH, etc. 521910 16 0 — Now all you have to do is have things load up at boot time. You can see what different APRS SSIDs are recommended here: http://aprs. ] 2 – Name: [ linpac ] 3 – Version: [ 0. 3v line NOTE: I2C buses can be wired either in a serial or parallel fashion. If it’s not installed, this section of Linpac won’t function but it won’t error out either. In the discussion thread at https://www. To do this, edit the /boot/config. Linpacconfig 13. Pdf doc found at https://github. I’ve asked | | the repo owner to revert the change or fix the conflicts. Append the “prefer” keyword to the pre-populated Debian NTP servers sudo vim /etc/ntp. Thoughts on SSIDs —————– It’s important to note that depending on the specific radio frequency you intend to operate on, there can be different SSID schemes in use. I had to change the TXTAIL variable from 10 to 50 to get things to work properly. Deb | | | | You can read more but this bug at: | | https://github. Also notice # the D74 didn’t lightup the LCD and state “Connected Bluetooth Device”. 25 stack working with it. This means, when they boot, their date and time will always be WRONG. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ This package provides specific user applications for hamradio that use AX. To keep this version of the firewall runningi, type in the command: # touch /tmp/fwok #Your typing of the command above might get intermixed with the timer running but #it will work fine. Be sure to have all that. So service in cron quiet use_uid 80. Configuring Direwolf
24. Deb sudo make installconf +—————————————————————————-+ | NOTE: | | The above command will FAIL at the “Installing Debian package” stage | | due to install due to a recently introduced set of conflicts with | | axports. Socket | | | | then run to retry the package config: | | | | sudo apt-get -f install | +——————————————————————————————–+ 2. 25 interface names named “vhfport” when they should have been # vhfdrop # – Philosphy mention of why the direwolf. Net # Specify your CALLSIGN, SSID, and APRS passcode # Contact the author if you can’t figure out how to generate the APRS passcode # IGLOGIN N0CALL-6 #Enable Igate to RF transmissions on Direwolf “channel 0” being sent to the local WIDE1-1 # IGTXVIA 0 WIDE1-1 #Direwolf v1. Conf file # so that Dnsmasq can start and run to give IP addresses to Wifi users # – Added additional thoughts on installing Rasbian Pixel vs Rasbian Lite # – Added some specific recommendations to NOT connect your Rpi directly to the Internet # or have a port SSH port forward going to it until you harden it’s configuration with # say exclusively using SSH keys and disabling SSH passwords, installing Fail2ban, etc. In this example, we will transmit only APRS “messages” # Direwolf on channel 0 # FILTER IG 0 t/m # To avoid sending out too much data which might overheat your radio, discharge your battery # too quickly, etc, I recommend to enable the packet rate limiter. NOTE: If you plan on running Netrom, the max PACLEN you can use is 236 – the next field is the WINDOW field which is related to the PACLEN field. This issue is being tracked here: | | | | https://sourceforge. 1: Manufacturer: Realtek [667667. New script but, for now, I’ve created a basic script called bt-kiss-bringup. 1 netmask 255. Add the following lines to the interfaces file and you can change the management IP address of this bridge group to whatever subnet you like: vim /etc/network/interfaces — auto br0 iface br0 inet static address 192. Now you need to make sure the Raspberry 0w, 3, or 3B+ has it’s bluetooth setup right (and bluetooth is enabled if you previously disabled it): sudo /usr/bin/bluetoothctl #Issue the following commands #Show available BT controllers list #Give more details on the local controller (change this example MAC address to match yours) show B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 #Show what might already be paired devices #Enable Bluetooth pairing agent on default-agent #Scan for available BT devices scan on # At this point, you’re going to want to WAIT until you see the D74’s BT MAC show up in # the scan output. To permanently allow this drive to spin down when idle, edit the /etc/hdparm. 255 LEN=78 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=128 ID=8291 PROTO=UDP SPT=137 DPT=137 LEN=58 — If the wifi hardware was seen, it’s most likely the OS has automatically created the “wlan0” interface. Deb package for you but also save a copy of the built deb package as well in the /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/direwolf/direwolf-1. Sh Or you can enter in as followins: vi /tmp/remove-old-kernels. Run “iwconfig” and confirm you see: 3. Delete the lines: mail. Alter your firewall to use the new Ulogd system Edit the /etc/iptables/rules. 4Ghz per core (below 70 degrees C and 1. Net/projects/ax25mail –maintainer ki6zhdattrinityos. If any new updates or new kernels were installed, reboot to make all updates active sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now 14. Sh – Mounting and Unmounting external USB hard drive with a Linux LVM/EXT3 file system http://www. This is now so lets fix it. Uncompress it and go into the directory unzip 1. While I welcome the wireless support, the Rpi team unfortunately also made some disruptive changes: – the primary hardware serial console support connected on the GPIO pins to /dev/ttyAMA0 was taken over by the Bluetooth interface instead. The previous watchdog daemon approach. We’ll come back to this in a bit. Or your transmissions won’t be decoded very well or at all. Zip is the current image version at the time of this writing. For known reasons, Rasbian allowed very long interface names | | and in the AX. Gz cd linpac-0. 681998) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 21 az=127 el=32 (0. New2 — #Make sure the Linpac section is present. 16 p – 64 0 0. 177269] scsi 0:0:0:0: Direct-Access IC35L080 AVVA07-0 PQ: 0 ANSI: 0 [ 360. I’m currently having decent | | luck with the following device: | | | | https://www. 4-patch # file # – updated the /usr/local/sbin/mount-usb-hd. Sh chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/start-adhoc. — Type in control-c to exit. 119 2 u 100 256 377 74. Raspbian Jessie ONLY (NOT Stretch): sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces — allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 192. D/watchdog script Add watchdog https://hallard. Sh # Essentially, these scripts mount a partition onto /tmp and creates some symlinks to # /usr/src/archive for a build area # # Attach the USB HD # mount /dev/mapper/vg_dranchlt3-lv_home /mnt/lvm/root/home/ # mount /dev/mapper/vg_dranchlt3-lv_root /mnt/lvm/root # mkdir -p /mnt/lvm/root/home/ # ln -s /mnt/lvm/root/usr/src/archive/ /usr/src/archive # mount /dev/mapper/vg_dranchlt3-lv_root /tmp # rm /usr/src/archive # ln -s /tmp/usr/src/archive/ /usr/src/archive 17. Sh sudo /usr/local/sbin/remove-old-kernels. Com/GlobalSat-BU-353-S4-USB-Receiver-Black/dp/B008200LHW | | | | This SiRF-IV based receiver unit gets a good lock within my home, seems | | to be reliable and offers quick Sat lock BUT. The following commands will help work around the issue before you start the next packaging step: sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/share/linpac/contrib” sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/share/doc/linpac/czech” sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/share/linpac/macro/cz” sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/libexec/linpac” Now let’s package and install Linpac: sudo checkinstall –pkgname linpac –pkgversion 0. | +———————————————————————————+ Assuming you have a USB-based GPS receiver (or a serial-port based GPS receiver with a serial to USB adapter), follow these steps: To get started, plug in your the USB based GPS device to determine what device name it gets by running either: dmesg or sudo journalctl I see: — [262398. A Identify and test the soundcard Anyway, to start, plug in your sound device directly into the Raspberru Pi (do NOT plug it into an attached USB hub {a known issue with Direwolf). | | | | If you’re not sure if you have an IPv6 address already running, | | try the command: | | | | netstat -6 -rn | grep UG | | | | If you see something come back, you INDEED have IPv6 connectivity. Sh # chmod 700 mount-usb-hd. Put the following lines ABOVE the stock Debian NTP server definitions # 2. Run the command “dmesg” on you Linux computer to confirm SD card showed up. Sh & — Assuming you setup the Iptables firewall per this documeent, you’ll need to allow: – allow DHCP client traffic on the new ap0 interface – allow DHCP server traffic on the wlan0 interface – allow DNS client traffic on the new ap0 interface – SSH traffic was already allowed on all interfaces before Edit the /etc/iptables/rules. Bogus-priv # Use interface wlan0 interface=wlan0 # Explicitly specify the address to listen on listen-address=192. Uncompress the downloaded ZIPed image with the command: unzip 2017-08-16-raspbian-stretch-lite. Various Rpi management, LED and Bluetooth tricks on the Rpi v3
32. That’s a pretty long string but it makes things easy. If you need all this detail right now, there are other guides on the Internet on getting this initially working. F=29;amp;t=147501 | | it seems that there is confusion / issues with enabling the watchdog system via | | systemd vs. It should also be noted that Linpac and the message relay system ONLY supports F6FBB BBS type systems today. Dist}”, this incorrect text is coming from the direwolf. If it’s a brand new bridge chip, maybe Linux needs more time to add support for it but once that support is added, you most likely will have to upgrade your Linux distribution (with kernel) to get the new support. This changes the above sections naming conventions as we’ll now have: wlan0 – Interface used for connecting to your local AP (this is standard) ap0 – Interface used for devices connectng TO the Rpi One thing I did notice in writing this section up is that the previous section to make the Rpi act as an AP, it output of “iw dev” shows the wlan0 device STILL as a wifi client (managed) when in fact it was acting as an AP. Spec RPM file that you were supposed to delete above. Will get confused where to start. 5 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. Html – Mitch AB6MW’s Wheezy based image with setup GUI which supports TNC-X and Direwolf https://sourceforge. Local — find the line that says “exit 0” exit 0 — just above it, add the lines: — echo “Starting pishutdown. If your version looks different or has things in different places, that’s ok. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ A set of utilities for packet radio mail exchange with the BBS. I’ve checked with the CM108 schematics and programming API and this voltage cannot be turned off. Did it work and you were able to login. 25 resolves this issue and I’ve requested the debian-hams | | packaging team to release Linpac 0. 694658) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 27 az=241 el=46 (-0. I recommend to shut down your TNC-Pi with “sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now”, wait to see the green power LED blink 7 times. From Linux: You can use my image-raspbian-zip-to-rpi-sd-card. The weaker it’s reception, the longer this can take (if it ever works). Looking at the 22. Conf /etc/ax25/ 24. For Rpi installations that will never have a monitor attached to it and you’ll most likely always SSH into it, I recommend to install the *Lite* version. Conf” — +—————————————————————————————+ | Channel Tuning: | | | | If you’re worried about the Wifi channel you selected above, you can look at look at | | what other wifi networks are around you and their signal strength by running: | | | | iwlist wlan0 scanning | less | +—————————————————————————————+ Back to it. Sh http://www. Com/port-aprs-is # IGSERVER noam. (OPTIONAL) On Jessie based systems as of 12/11/15, I would see /var/log/syslog errors that show up like: rsyslogd-2007: action ‘action 17’ suspended, next retry is Fri Dec 11 15:18:31 2015 [try http://www. 4Ghz spectrum 2, 1, and Zero-nonW – No BT support – Wired Ethernet Connectivity: 3B+ : Gigabit Ethernet (1000Mbps) 3, 2, 1 : Fast Ethernet ( 100Mbps) Zero, Zero-W : No wired Ethernet 3B+ – Gigabit Ethernet (1000Mbps) using the Microchip LAN7515 chipset. Org/projects/pishutdown 14. # As such, leave these lines to DROP for now # sudo vi rules. Install Linpac for Connected and UnConnected packet QSOs and PBBS ———————— OPTIONAL for APRS users: ———————— Linpac is a classic packet program for Linux that runs in a terminal window which is similar to the Pakkratt or PKGold programs for DOS. Without these “holds” in place, # your locally built packages will get overwriten with the known toxic versions # – Updated the Linpac section to apply a new patch to avoid some issues when built with newer # versions of GCC. Net # Smarthost / SMTP relayhost – here, it’s not that you put in the # actual IP of the remote host but the domain name that will accept # this email. The 12th harmonic of 12Mhz is 144MHz. Then other side of the momentary switch to Rpi pin 18 – GND Once the button is wired up and connected to the correct GPIO pins on the Raspberry Pi, go ahead and power up your Rpi. For example: | | | | FET_LIBAX25_PATH=”/home/dranch/libax25″ | | | | After that, simply run the update script: | | | | sudo /usr/local/sbin/update-glibc-ax25-workaround. +———————————————————————————+ | A note on picking a good GPS receiver: | | | | You get what you pay for. 377549] usbserial: USB Serial support registered for pl2303 [262398. – Use a quality USB power supply and not just some old cellphone charger you had laying around the house. Sh /usr/local/bin Now try running it: /usr/local/bin/review-rpi-cpu. Add packages that are dependent for these scripts #Need killall apt-get install psmisc #Need ifconfig apt-get install net-tools 5. Fixing some current Raspbian issues (Gotchas) 1. Bring up the AX. 25’s sa_data kernel data structure, both the stock Raspbian AX. Give the momentary switch a push (the voltmeter shows the voltage going in 0. At that point, feel free to email me or join some of the various help lists like the excellent [email protected] 11n USB wifi device https://bogeskov. It’s HIGHLY recommended that you put your Rpi behind a home “router” or NAT device which doesn’t have any SSH or other port forwards pointing to the Raspberry Pi. 1″ to reflect your desired raspberry pi fully qualified hostname (FQDN). – I enhanced this script with improved system messaging that was previously mentioned in this second Ok, do the following: 1. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 You should see the following output and the command should complete and go back to the Unix prompt — gpsctl:SHOUT: switching to mode NMEA. Com/HAM/CentosDigitalModes/RPi/ to see other potentially interesting scripts and tools as I add them. At first, I saw 0 volts but as the Rpi finished it’s booting, I saw the voltage jump to +3. Com/questions/22711 -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp –icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT #Allow DHCP incoming addresses -A INPUT -p udp –sport 67 –dport 68 -j ACCEPT # Block but don’t log local samba traffic – expand to whatever you need -A INPUT -p udp –sport 138 –dport 138 -j DROP # log iptables denied calls (access via ‘dmesg’ command) -A INPUT -m limit –limit 5/min -j LOG –log-prefix “iptables denied: ” –log-level 7 # Reject all other inbound – default deny unless explicitly allowed policy: -A INPUT -j REJECT -A FORWARD -j REJECT COMMIT — f. 0 network 192. Install important sysadmin and monitoring packages. Py script failed to start” echo “pishutdown. Mac — [email protected] KI6ZHD — In this example, I ONLY only want to associate the KI6ZHD-6 callsign and SSID to the F1 and F2 keyboard keys (by default, it has F1-F8 associating). If they do, it’s CRITICAL that you install a small DC blocking capacitor on both lines to remove those voltages – On the radio, make sure the squelch is all the way open (static noise all the time) and that the output speaker volume on the radio is LOW (but not off) to start off with – If you’re using an HT type radio, make sure that you disable the “RX power saver” as well as the Automatic power off features of the radio. The Raspberry Pi (v1/v2/v3,etc) boards do NOT support a microphone or line-in so you MUST buy an external USB sound device. Log” sync=1 — 5. Now use the following command where “mmcblk0” is the name of your SD card device shown above from the bottom output of the “dmesg” command: dd if= of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=2M 4. Dk/2012/11/18/raspberry-pi-tutorial-connect-to-wifi-or-create-an-encrypted-dhcp-enabled-ad-hoc-network-as-fallback/#comment-640 and http://xmail. Also, if the “delaycompress” parameter is present, comment it out by adding a “#” in front of it: sudo vi /etc/logrotate. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols — Hit ENTER again to accept the description Next, confirm the checkinstall fields all look ok and similar to the following: — 0 – Maintainer: [ [email protected] I see the following and my desired drive and partition is “/dev/sda1”: — [ 360. It’s important to know that this command will not start spewing out NMEA sentences. =info; *. Do that now with: #Install the required programs and any of their dependencies # sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install build-essential sudo apt-get install autoconf sudo apt-get install libtool sudo apt-get install checkinstall sudo apt-get install git 17. Disconnect the USB power cable to the Rpi. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 activated gpsd:INFO: running with effective group ID 20 gpsd:INFO: running with effective user ID 114 gpsd:INFO: startup at 2016-10-11T22:59:01. Install screen with: sudo apt-get install screen 2. 25 system with a script Assuming that everything is configured from all the steps above, start up the Linux AX. 8 # Forward DNS requests to Google DNS — Next, if you configured the IPTABLES firewall from the section above, you’ll need to update the firewall ruleset to now enable DHCP for the wlan0 interface. Other alternatives can include: – Mount the /var/log and /tmp directories to an external USB device such as a USB HDD, SSD, or even a USB pendrive – Using a MUCH larger SD card than you require so the RPi can better wear level the writes across the SD card (still not a great idea in my opinion) +——————————————————————————————–+ | NOTE: | | Regardless of enabling the RAM drive logging or not shown in this section, I recommend | | you follow the Logrotate section below to manage and compress all log files so the | | file system doesn’t fill up. 08GB worth of files on it dd’s to a raw file size of 15560867840 bytes (15. Increasing this value allows more data will flow per packet (with risk). NOTE: Using your smartphone as a display and a keyboard will work in a pinch but it’s pretty cumbersome and doesn’t work well for full-screen programs like Linpac. Gpsd:WARN: SiRF: warning, write of control type a6 while awaiting ACK for 80. Restart Ulogd to get the new settings sudo service ulogd restart 6. 4GHz band and disable legacy 802. See the above referenced rules. New2 scripts to add more testing, Linpac start, # etc # # 08/29/17 – Added openssl-blacklist to the Email/Postfix section # – Made logrotate it’s own section and renumbered all other sections to fit # – Added the Ulogd logs into the logrotate system # – Added key missing “–” in the mailx test # – Noted that Watchdog support in Stretch is questionable; will revisit # # 08/28/17 – Signification improvements in documentation, clearer steps throughout, etc. Here are the design choices this document is making: Use an existing If you’re using Wifi on your Rpi today being it’s primary Internet connection, or *be* an AP: these steps will BREAK that network connection. Jump to the “no-Test-Equipment packet adjustment system” section to learn how to tune your radio’s levels to be pretty close to perfect. I recommend to use a 10k Ohm resistor in-line to the shutdown switch to protect the Pi. 1: New USB device found, idVendor=7392, idProduct=7811 [667667. Sh chmod 755 review-rpi-cpu. Why waste all that RAM and CPU cycles running the Xwindows system if you’re never going to use it. Png +—————————————————————————————+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | ————– | | Every radio is different and the above connections will need to be changed to | | conform to your specific radio. With that said, there are some good alternative / pre-configured images that you might consider. Io/project/10091-raspberry-pi-3-external-antenna | +——————————————————————–+ OPTIONAL: ——— Per the beginning paragraph in that section, this setup does NOT provide the associated wifi devices any Internet access. Configure your Rpi to support BOTH being an Access Point and Wifi client (managed mode) Configuring a Raspberry Pi 3/0w to act as either a standard Wifi client to connect to an existing Wifi AP or act as a full Access Point is pretty strait forward. This test # will read the output of the GPS and send it to the Bluetooth interface # # 1. Let’s confirm the hardware you have is compatible so go ahead and plug in your Wifi dongle into a powered USB hub that’s connected to your Rpi # NOTE: Do **NOT** plug the dongle directly into your Rpi or it will most likely reboot # due to the excessive power draw. Just watch for that last 5%. Now, time to get things working with out a wired connection. If you followed the email section, root should also receive an email that the Rpi was rebooted if the watchdog ever kicks in 16. NOTE: It’s importnt to connect LCD to 5. 11N Wifi and Bluetooth 4. Basic approach: sudo sh -c “iptables-save > /etc/iptables/rules. For me, this is what I setup: sudo vi /etc/aliases — root: [email protected]&ft;change this to reflect your full email address> — Once you edited that file, run the command: sudo newaliases This command will silently compile this new alias into the /etc/aliases. Zip chmod 750 pitnc_setparams pitnc_getparams #12 – Check the /dev/ttyAMA0 serial port to make sure it’s ok. Net rpi3 localhost – Now add your desired Rpi’s hostname alias for local wireless network address – Add addresses to reflect any IP addresses enabled in the /etc/ax25/ax25ipd. If you don’t use Debian Stretch (x86) or Debian Buster (x86), staying with the VE7FET repos is currently safe to use — Anyway, assuming you’ve setup some scratch compile space and /tmp overflow, let’s get started in building out the AX. To do so, run: sudo python /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown. Conf Failed to create interface mon. Txt file and Look for the string: console=serial0,115200 If you see it, you’ll need to edit the file with sudo rights, remove that portion of text, save the file and get ready to reboot the Rpi #5 – Now reboot your rpi with: sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now #6 – Make sure the /dev/ttyAMA0 serial port is recognized ls -la /dev | grep AMA — lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Nov 6 09:44 serial0 -> ttyAMA0 crw-rw—- 1 root dialout 204, 64 Nov 6 09:44 ttyAMA0 — If it’s NOT seen, you need to try using the “sudo raspi-config” step again #7 – Make sure there aren’t any console sessions configured to use /dev/ttyAMA0 ps aux | grep getty If you see something like the following, you need to fix this — root 1077 0. If you do need to offer external SSH, at least change the answering port from say TCP/22 to something like TCP/2222. | | | | D74 firmware v1. NOTE: If you get output like the following from the above test command: — /dev/sda: APM_level = not supported — This most likely means the drive you’re trying to use is very old NOTE#2: If you get output like the following from that above test command: — /dev/sda: SG_IO: bad/missing sense data, sb[]: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0a 00 00 00 00 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 APM_level = not supported — This means the USB to SATA/PATA bridge chip in your USB to HD adapter is not passing all the IDE commands codes though. A little board like an Rpi doesn’t have a lot of RAM so it makes little sense. These new CPU cores have a 30% performance improvement in the CPU instruction set performance PER CORE. Py https://gist. You can find this white antenna chip on your Rpi3 just to the right of the 40pin header when the HDMI port is facing you. Please review the next section to better understand how to test your levels With the HT turned on and the SQL/VOL knowbs set above, run the command: #We want to run this as root to set the main system levels sudo alsamixer In this Ncurses interface, use the following keys – F6 to select right sound card – in my case for the Syba sound card: C-Media USB Audio Device – F3 playback Set the “speaker” level at 19:19 and ensure is activated (that’s shown as 00 in the bottom box of the vertical slider). Identified as type SiRF Go ahead and hit control-c to stop this manual gpsd process. The Wif range is pretty decent considering that the Rpi3 only has a very small chip antenna. Also, ONLY use SSH keys (ideally with passphrases) if you can over just using SSH passwords. Performance is still limited due to this chip still being connected via USB2. To do so, we first need to shutdown any running gpsd processes: sudo systemctl stop gpsd Next, we have to work around SystemD doing the wrong thing here. This document focuses on Stretch and this newest version of the OS resolves a lot of SystemD issues that existed in Raspbian Jessie. Once the Rpi boots back up, log in as your newly created use (in this example, I created the user “dranch”). I recommend that you look them over and make them your own to fit your needs. How did that signal sound. Seems this LCDs have seemingly TWO brightness levels but this one program is mistakenly showing the text in ultra-bright mode. Try running the following command: sudo sdptool browse local — Failed to connect to SDP server on FF:FF:FF:00:00:00: No such file or directory or Failed to connect to SDP server on FF:FF:FF:00:00:00: Permission denied or Failed to connect to SDP server on FF:FF:FF:00:00:00: Connection refused — # Did the command fail. 25 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://sourceforge. 75 – Blue Serial IIC/I2C/TWI 2004 204 20X4 Character LCD Module Display For Arduino https://www. Conf — # Don’t resolved non-FQDN hostnames domain-needed # Never forward addresses in the non-routed address spaces. You can also try downloading it at the following # URL but that link doesn’t always seem have the newest available code: http://www. Ini — port = /dev/ttyUSB0 — #You have to get the GPS running in NEMA mode first sudo gpsd -N -D3 -n /dev/ttyUSB0 /etc/tracker/tracker-up To view the current system, use: http://192. Sh /usr/local/sbin | | | | # Next, you need to find the libax25 package you built and make it always available for the script to | | # find it. Gz” to # reflect your callsign, Raspbian versio, and anything else you want cd sudo time dd if=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=1M | xz -9 > ki6zhd-16gb-stretch-w-linpac-090417. D prepare-dirs defaults 01 99 # ———————————————————————— Check out http://dantracker. | +—————————————————————————————+ #NOTE #2: There might be issues with these binaries looing for axlisten instead of # listen. 5 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://github. 1 netmask 255. V4-test This “rules. I could go on and on here in the intro but I won’t. It seems to work. Enable local storage for demanding builds It’s required that you have a large enough /tmp file system mounted on either a local USB HD or a remote NFS file system. 0,W,A*00 $GPGGA,041222. Login to your new Rpi as the user “pi” and create a new user. As such, lets put it elsewhere: cd /var/tmp wget http://adafruit-download. If that upgrade does well, then kick off remote upgrades for all your other deployed units. Enable power management for attached USB HDs For some program compiling tasks, running the compiles via a remotely mounted NFS share doesn’t work as for some reason, the “autoconf” stage of configuring the Makefiles fail. The logrotate system is run by the cron system and it will rotate the logs on it’s regular schedule. Install ulogd2 sudo apt-get install ulogd2 3. Changing this value is a compromise that you must find. Basic # A nice tool to confirm if your Rpi is stable and isn’t experiencing power brownouts as either identified # on your Rpi as: # # – The RED power LED blinks # – You see a yellow lightening bolt in the upper right corner of the Rpi’s HDMI console sudo apt-get install stress #This put a CPU load of 38 on an RPi v3 for 2 minutes # stress –cpu 20 –io 20 –vm 6 –vm-bytes 25M –timeout 120s 14. While this CPU is still supported in Raspbian, many other ARM-enabled Linux distrubutions have DROPPED it. 1 u 49 64 1 49. Confirm that your HD APM level is set to 127 (not 128 or higher : default is 254) Any values of 127 or lower allow the HD to power down sudo /sbin/hdparm -B /dev/sda — /dev/sda: APM_level = 254 — That’s a good output and it means the drive is running and has all power management disabled. Accordingly, waiting for a watch request to open the device # may save battery power. F=29&t=147501 Seems this recommendation is avoiding the SystemD approach 3. Do be wary though. In researching around, it sounds like some Realtek devices can actually support AP and Client mode at the same time (STA+AP): http://randomstuffidosometimes. If you don’t get the connected message and you # try using control-c and try the command again yet now get: — Can’t connect RFCOMM socket: Device or resource busy — # You probably typed in the wrong MAC address. Not PulseAudio or PortAudio but the lower level ALSA device name and syntax. Well, a few things I’ve learned in Aug, 2016: – It seems that Realtek never bothered to offer support of hostapd after they initially contributed to the linux kernel and hostapd 0. The key here is that it DOESN’T give any errors on loading. Fortunately, you can do interactive filter testing without using Direwolf simply with thet Linux “telnet” program. 25 sources, see: # # http://www. 1: New USB device found, idVendor=0bda, idProduct=8176 [606161. If all the above test steps work, edit the /etc/default/gpsd file, find the line that says “DEVICES=”” and update it to reflect your proper device-by-id serial port. 26 (r640327) FWID 01-df77e4a7 — NOTE: If you see don’t see anything, try again just running “dmesg” and if you’re only seeing lines like the following, you’re best off just rebooting your Raspberry Pi for now and again looking at the output to confirm the Wifi chip is seen. That’s an impressive reduction. Scary stuff but if you followed the various recommendations of this doc, you’ll be pretty safe. Make a backup of your MicroSD card
60. IMPORTANT: Update the RPI’s firmware and possibly move to a better, bleeding edge kernel, etc sudo rpi-update If the above program is not installed, do the following and then try again: sudo apt-get install rpi-update 13. I then enhanced the program to include the above mentioned display items with showing: – The Month-Day datestamp Local time AM/PM – The status of the Internet connection (pinging 8. Make a copy of the preinstalled ruleset: sudo cp rules. I’m using 16MB 3. Type in “Y” and hit enter Description for the package: — Dire Wolf is an amateur radio soundcard TNC and APRS encoder/decoder to be used stand-alone to observe APRS, a digipeater, APRStt gateway, or IGate. Setup a DS3231 battery backed up real time clock (RTC) with temperature sensor Building on the above section of getting an I2C-based LCD working, this section uses the same I2C bus to communicate to a DS3231 real time clock to set the system’s date/time upon power up. X of the “bluez” Linux Bluetooth stack. Let’s install the required dependencies to build Direwolf sudo apt-get install libasound2-dev unzip If you want to include GPS support for later support of connecting an external GPS for position, date/time, etc, then add the following additional packages: sudo apt-get install gpsd libgps-dev +——————————————————————————————–+ | IMPORTANT: | | | | If you disabled IPv6 above, you might run into an error installing gpsd and this | | is a known bug per https://bugs. Com/questions/41776/failed-to-connect-to-sdp-server-on-ffffff000000-no-such-file-or-directory # # The work around is to edit the following file: vim /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org. This script will activate the firewall and then prompt you # to make sure things went ok. Me/raspberry-pi-read-only/ # Maybe install Xastir – old though – currently at 2. 2 The rest of configuring the AX. Sh # sudo mv /tmp/mount-usb-hd. #For Raspbian Stretch sudo systemctl start ntp #For Raspbian Jessie sudo systemctl start ntpd When I say sit, I mean have it running for at LEAST 10 minutes (assuming your GPS was getting a strong lock on it’s various satellites. Gpsd:INFO: NTPD ntpshm_link_activate: 1 gpsd:INFO: device /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Review the boot up logs to make sure things are working as expected
49. Rpi v2 with it’s Cortex-A7 4-core ARM7 CPUs. Once you’ve update the access database, now test the Rpi’s local email system by running: echo “test1 ” | mailx root There won’t be any output on the command line but you can see if there were any other issues by looking at the local email server log: sudo less /var/log/mail. Setup a 20×4 LCD via I2C to display various system details
60. F=32&t=133111 This script requires you to hold down the button for THREE seconds and then the Rpi will gracefully shut down. Local file and add this command before the end of the file (before the “exit 0” line): sudo vi /etc/rc. If you’re running the Pixel version of Raspbian, the changing clock speed of the emulated serial port *will* hurt the serial port from operating properly. # # 11/17/17 – Updated the USB APM section and added a script to manually spin down the drive # # 11/05/17 – New publish # # 11/01/17 – Updated the Linpac configuration section regarding SSIDs to be a bit clearer # # 10/31/17 – Clarifications on BBS hierarchical addressing in Linpac # # 10/30/17 – Align the axports file to use a speed of 19200 though it doesn’t really matter here # – Mentioned that WD Blue and WD Green series drives also do NOT support APM_level # # 10/26/17 – Added a new hostapd issue and work around where dnsmasq won’t come up # # 10/25/17 – Added a new review the bootup logs chapter to confirm that the system is booting up without # errors. Com/itm/231880855190 Assuming you enabled the I2C bus per the previous section, shutdown your Rpi with: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now Now unplug the power from your Rpi and wire up the RTC. Anyway, we need to disable the OS from starting the wlan0 device by default. D;/'”$(uname -r | sed “s/(. Read the Direwolf User Guide for other recommended devices but I recommend: Syba SD-CM-UAUD sound device which can be had for — https://www. Xyz/ — Rpi pin LCD pin ——–+——————+——– 2 : +5V display : VCC 3 : I2C DATA : SDA 5 : I2C Clock : SCL 6 : ground : GND — Now power back up the Rpi with the connected display. Packets that are # ultimately REJECTED will get a rejection notice vs. – I recommend to connect a shutdown button so it’s easy to turn off your Raspberry Pi safely. 000/050/A=000319ENROUTE vhfdrop: fm K6TJS to APU25N via WR6ABD* ctl UI pid=F0(Text) len 74 @301626z3703. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 #Run a work around trick for a checkinstall bug which incorrectly reads RPM spec files mv libax25. If your HW doesn’t’ report a “0” above, read the above URLS as well as this HW identification URL: https://help. If you need this, I would recommend additional # protections (not covered in this document at the moment) # – change the default SSH port 22 to something else # – port knocking # – use SSH keys ONLY (no passwords) # # The –dport number is the same as in /etc/ssh/sshd_config -A INPUT -p tcp -m state –state NEW –dport 22 -j ACCEPT # Now you should read up on iptables rules and consider whether ssh access # for everyone is really desired. 372686] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial_generic [262398. Reload the firewall set following the previous recommendations in the Firewall section of this doc and now things should be all logged in the /var/log/ulogd_traffic-emu1. 0 network 192. It also seems to spew out | | all kinds of RF noise on 144. B – does it have the expected IP address on it (192. If you want the HDMI port to always work even if the cable isn’t connected, edit the /boot/config. Conf file and un-# out the following lines: max-load-1 = 24 watchdog-device = /dev/watchdog 10. That in itself is substantial performance increase and remember: that’s 30% better x 4 cores or 120% faster. 0 broadcast 192. # Type in control-C in the “rfcomm connect” window to disconnect the # bluetooth system as well as in the “sudo cat /dev/rfcomm” window +——————————————————————————-+ |NOTE: I can reliably reproduce a bug in the D74 firmware v1. 1: SerialNumber: 00e04c000001 [667668. Yes, there are other alternative Linux OSes that run on the Raspberry Pi but *none* of them match the support and bug fix cadence of Raspbian. Using Linpac via screen —————————– Linpac is a powerful, Ncurses based packet program but the full use of it is beyond this document. | | | | If your external hard drive has it’s own power brick, you can connect the hard drive directly | | to the Raspberry Pi. Now configure Ulog2 by editing it’s config file Find the following lines in the configuration file and make them look like the following: sudo vi /etc/ulogd. 25 port data configured”, you have probably made a mistake in the /etc/ax25/axports file. Py & if [ $. You can learn more about BBS hierarchical addressing here: http://www. C Be sure to update the version number in the command below to match the version you’re installing: NOTE: Raspbian Stretch names it’s “libgps” version “libgps22” (the version is in the base name) but Raspbian Jessie names it “libgps21”. 25 device The final line should look like the following for me (make the required changes for your setup): vhfdrop KI6ZHD-6 19200 236 4 TNC setup on 145. 2) run the “raspi-config” program and make sure the following areas are properly set for your region (I’m in the US): Internationalization Options | +–> Change Wi-fi Country –> US 3) Update your RPi v3’s firmware using “rpi-update”. If you’ve configure any other AX. If you’re using the firewall-confirm. Sh # sudo chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. As such, I recommend you do the following: a. 25 connected session: call vhfdrop n0call You should see the following text in the terminal window: — GW4PTS AX. Using off-brand cards could prove unreliable (corruption, later full-on card death, etc) – Buy a larger card than you need : By using a larger card, the SD card can better leverage it’s built in wear level systems to make the card last longer before bad sectors begin to show up – (OPTIONAL) – If you have access to a Windows or Mac machine with an SD card reader, it’s encouraged to format the card with the Official SD Association card formatter programs available at: https://www. Also and unfortunately, the Linux support for Realtek RTL8192 within the hostapd program is NOT in the mainline release nor does it sound like it EVER will be (been this way for years now). Disable_ipv6 = 1 — Ok. To make sure the HD’s auto-spin down feature is enabled, do the following: NOTE: One challenge here is that some hard drives might be different and not work with these settings. Zip wget http://www. OPTIONAL: Connect your Ethernet cable if you have a Raspberry Pi Model B with an RJ45 jack or have a support USB to Ethernet adapter connected to any Raspberry Pi If you want to update your Raspberry Pi and install additional software, you’ll need and Internet connection. Some SBCs include a shutdown button on the device itself but the Rpi line doesn’t. Org/magpi/raspberry-pi-3-specs-benchmarks/ A complete 3B+ breakdown: http://blog. As wlan0 operation | is currently unreliable | | | * So what’s busted. Is NOT trival and really takes a lot of experimentation until you get the hang of it. If so, you probably have have version 5. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold ax25-tools | | | +—————————————————————————-+ #checkconfig will automatically install the package for you but if you manually # want to install it, use the following (configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb) # sudo dpkg –install ax25-tools_1. Wav – There should be zero whine, buzzing, or clicking. On the Rpi pins, I now see the voltage at 1. Add that rule in the /etc/iptables/rules. 4’C Rpi Serial number, model firmware and Warranty bit (MSB): Serial : 000000005851234b Revision : a22082 value of a22082 is Pi 3 Model B – 1GB – made at Embest, China Broadcom firmware version: Aug 22 2017 14:20:40 Copyright (c) 2012 Broadcom version eb51b8b84ec11d98562dfbb7be53cdd216c0ea4c (clean) (release) Confirm system will clock up to max CPU speed (turbo mode) by loading the CPUs and report new CPU frequency when at load 1200000 Done — Here are more scripts are available for doing specific tasks (some already mentioned in previous sections of this doc): – Ensure the new IPTABLES firewall takes place and doesn’t lock you out (covered in the firewall section of this document): http://www. Net/raspberry-pi/how-to-connect-bluetooth-headset-or-speaker-to-raspberry-pi-3 Older details from the same author for older versions of Raspbian that uses ALSA. /pitnc_getparams 15 2 If you want to try to use the TNC-Pi in I2C mode (frees up the onboard /dev/ttyAMA0 serial port), here are some additional things to check: #1 – You will need to change the “I2C address” using the above commands to enable I2C mode, power down the Rpi and take off the TNC-PI JP2 and JP3 jumpers (if you have an older TNC-Pi board) #2 – see if the I2C drivers are installed: lsmod | grep i2c — i2c_bcm2708 4834 0 i2c_dev 5859 0 — Both entries MUST be there #3 – make sure the i2ctools are installed sudo apt-get install i2c-tools #4 – Make sure the I2C bus can be found make sure the you see bus #1 (should show something like: i2c-1 i2c 3f804000. Select YES “Save current IPv6 rules”. – Were those images built and and secured properly. The RTL8192 code support for Linux has never been properly maintained and is most | | likely probably completely broken now Raspbian Stretch and Jessie. This Wifi hardware support is limited to the 802. If you don’t install this rotation system (usually installed by default), the RAM drive can get full and you’ll loose important diagnostic logs, etc. 1: new high-speed USB device number 6 using dwc_otg [606161. If you’re only looking to copy on SD card to another, you can skip this step. For Raspbian Stretch, temporarily follow the recommendations found in https://www. In this example, I see 192. | | | | Keeping this section around for posterity and it might help some Rasbpian Wheezy users | +——————————————————————————————+ Configure your Rpi Wifi in Adhoc mode using the RTL8192 Wifi devices ——————————————————————– – I have a Wifi device that has the 8192cu chipset but so many sites only talk to Atheros (ath9k) and Broadcom (b43) chipsets and rarely give details about Realtek chips. Log Next, go see if this new email was ultimately received on your chosen destination email address. Boot up the new image and prepare to do initial security on it. The default of 2 is fairly conservative and I generally recommend a value of 4 if your links are pretty strong. If you | | run the command “ifconfig” or “ip addr”, you will no longer see Ethernet | | interfaces with names like “eth0” but instead, you’ll see something like | | “enxb827eb5f05”. On the Raspberry Pi v0,1/2/3, install the SD card with the shiny electrical contacts pointing UP. Mentioned an inexpensive 5. This “smarthost” is almost always your ISP and most require this to control email spam. If you see garbage on the screen (something like the following): sudo cat /dev/ttyAMA0 ���������������������������������������������������������������� That’s bad. When I proved this compromise to the image owner, he was shocked and immediately took it down. 3: New USB device found, idVendor=067b, idProduct=2303 [262398. Conf # – Added Linpac # # 11/26/15 – Recommend to create a new user account and DISABLE the default “pi” # account # – Formatting improvements # # 11/24/15 – Added a critical point about microphone bias voltages from soundcards # and radios # # 11/21/15 – Added an iptables section to secure the Rpi as soon as possible # – Dump more packages upon first install # # 11/07/15 – Added index; revamping all sections sequentially # 10/21/15 – Added HD APM ; shutdown button # 10/14/15 – initial version (based on the old Wheezy doc). | | dpkg: error processing archive /var/cache/apt/archives/libc6-dev_2. Raspbian Jessie ONLY – Install the software side of things: sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install watchdog 7. Sh script # # 01/25/18 – Noted that the official SD formatter program is now available for Mac too # # 01/19/18 – Added a few URLs for an opto-isolated PTT circuits # # 01/12/18 – Updated in the index a bit # # 01/05/18 – Intentionally included the #ed out bind-interfaces line in the dnsmasq. Net/projects/linpac/files/LinPac/ ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libax25,ax25-apps,ax25-tools,libncurses5 ] 11 – Provides: [ linpac ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] — If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging and install the resulting package +—————————————————————————–+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | With a recent change to Raspbian 9 / Debian 9 Stretch, changes to | | the version of GCC has made the Debian apt version of Linpac Configuration –> Interface –> # PC Output (GPS): Bluetooth # PC OUtput (APRS): Bluetooth # KISS : Bluetooth # DV/DR : Bluetooth # # 3. Now open another window and run: sudo cat /dev/rfcomm0 # NOW you should have seen the Bluetooth message on the D74 and you’re getting NEMA GPS # sentence details in this window. Get a copy of the Direwolf sources The current release version is v1. (I’m not sure why that patch doesn’t 100% work but it doesn’t hurt to run these commands regardless): sudo mkdir /usr/share/doc/direwolf sudo ln -s /usr/share/doc/direwolf /usr/share/direwolf sudo mkdir -p /usr/share/doc/direwolf/examples sudo mkdir -p /usr/man/man1 Now try the “checkinstall” program again To work around the known checkinstall issue of not being able to run multiple make commands, do the following to install a an exmaple direwolf. This guide specifically ONLY enables basic KISS TNC functionality to the Linux AX. – NOTE #1: If you’re going to use a Rpi 3B+, your version of Rasbian has to be newer than 2018-03-13 or it won’t boot (older versions will see 8 flashes at the rainbow screen and stop there) – NOTE #2: Per the comments in https://www. The bluetoothcyl program # should prompt you with offering AUTO-ENTER in the BT passcode such as: # # Request confirmation # [agent] Confirm passkey 285481 (yes/no): yes # Accept the pairing by typing in in “yes” (without the quotes and don’t just use “y”) and hit enter yes # *CRITICAL*: On the TH-D74, quickly hit the upper right button for the Bluetooth Pair’s “OK”. 529919) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 32 az=196 el=66 (-0. Prep the sources and compile Direwolf make -f Makefile. Download the newest Raspbian OS release Raspbian Stretch image named 2017-08-16-raspbian-stretch-lite. If you know EXACTLY what all these items do, feel free to customize the settings but I’ve only tested the below changes: sudo vim /etc/hostapd/hostapd. For example, here is one packet my station heard: K6FB-1 audio level = 57(26/14) [NONE] ___|||||| 3. C – Setting up Bluetooth on the Rpi for pairing BT keyboards
32. You also might find other pre-made Rpi images from various people for say the DVMega project or other things and I say you should give them a try. Conf file. Local file: — #Bring up the Wifi workound script /usr/local/sbin/start-ap-managed-wifi. If you want better range, consider doing a hardware modification to add a u. Review the boot up logs to make sure things are working as expected Before you claim success on your new Raspberry Pi setup, I recommend you review the system bootlogs to make sure you’re not having some hidden errors. Random power bricks and cables will not work in your favor. In this example, Linpac will allow one incoming connection going to SSID KI6ZHD-6 on the F1 terminal but if a different packet radio station tries to connect to you, it will assign that connection to the F2 terminal. Py script failed to start” | /usr/bin/systemd-cat fi — Now, let’s test that the script can run. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ This package provides specific user applications for hamradio that use AX. Com –provides ax25mail-utils –requires ax25-tools,perl make install Follow the checkinstall prompts: Should I create a default set of package docs. For most ISP’s MTAs (remote email servers that accept email), this won’t be needed but if you run your own upstream “smarthost”, you might to need to update the “access” database. Put this in a directory which the daemon can write to. To do that, run: [email protected]:/etc/hostapd# ifconfig wlan0 You should see: — wlan0: flags=4163 mtu 1500 inet 192. Conf” — # Next, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file — auto lo eth0 wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 10. 377356] usbcore: registered new interface driver pl2303 [262398. Evidently this is a known issue and is mentioned here: https://bugs. This document hopes to provide some guidance here with a specific application in mind (see the intro at the beginning of this document of it’s goals). Mount the SD card with: sudo mkdir -p /media/sd-card/p1 sudo mkdir -p /media/sd-card/p2 sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /media/sd-card/p1 sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p2 /media/sd-card/p2 4. 59W power=4 height=20 gain=6 comment=”Santa Clara, CA” via=WIDE1-1 c. V4 file and follow the process to use the /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. It should look like: tmpfs 441580 6012 435568 2% /run tmpfs 5120 4 5116 1% /run/lock tmpfs 441580 0 441580 0% /sys/fs/cgroup tmpfs 20480 128 20352 1% /var/log tmpfs 1024 0 10240 0% /tmp The use of the tmpfs RAM drives is the normal setup on Jessie based Raspbian installs but NOT Raspbian Stretch. 25 # # 12/08/17 – Fixed some spelling errors # # 12/07/17 – Move thed ax25mailutils and linpac downloads steps a bit # # 11/22/17 – Added top pictures of the LCD and RTC with click-on zoom # – Added reading the temp off the DS3231 RTC # # 11/20/17 – Added a new appendix section to display date, time, Internet health check, heard AX25 # packets, and CPU load to an I2C driven 20×4 LCD display # – Added a new appendix section to have the Rpi set it’s date via an I2C driven # DS3231 RTC. Add in that there is a lot of conflicting and stale setup information out on the web of how to do it and it’s become a bit of nightmare to setup. Change the default firewall policies by running: # If your not familar with how to use the Vi editor, you can # use Nano instead # # change the INPUT and FORWARD policy lines from “ACCEPT” to “DROP” # # NOTE: Please note that if you want your Raspberry Pi not to be completely # hidden on the Internet, consider using “REJECT” instead of “DROP” # below in the actual rules. So and now add the following line ABOVE it session [success=1 default=ignore] pam_succeed_if. 000 Other Great NTP + GPS urls: http://www. I recommend you follow this URL as step one: http://www. A great write up on the background of all this can be found here: https://github. Old #work around a busted makefile sudo /bin/mkdir -p /var/ax25/ax25rtd Finally, package things up: sudo checkinstall –pkgname ax25-apps –pkgversion 1. Log file and no longer in your /var/log/syslog nor dmesg logs. This can be dangerous as the SD card can fill up and over time, it can actually wear out the SD card. Html | | | | Work around: You MUST build to a local file system to the system be it the SD card | | (NOT RECOMMENDED) or attach a USB HDD or SDD (RECOMMENDED) | | | | See the previous section for how to use the USB HDD/SSD approach | +—————————————————————————————————————–+ I’m leaving this section in place just in case some people are curious on the NFS steps #Install NFS client programs sudo apt-get install nfs-common #This is required for mounting remote legacy NFS machines – the error seen is: # # mount. Py #example. Read and edit the script to suit your needs. 1: SerialNumber: 00e04c000001 [606161. I recommend you just set this up *AS IS* since using other facility levels have other ramifications like sending messages to the console, dmesg, etc. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 — This shows that the gpsd process is running. 11n if your hardware supports it ieee80211n=1 #Select the least used Wifi channel in your area – ch 0 will auto-select on the # most available channel – alternatively, use 1,6,11 for the US channel=0 #How often to send SSID broadcasts beacon_int=100 #Station MAC address -based authentication # 0 = accept unless in deny list # 1 = deny unless in accept list macaddr_acl=0 #If you want to hide your SSID broadcasts, set this to 1 ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 #allow WPA/WPA2 only – # 1=wpa, 2=wep, 3=both auth_algs=1 #enable WPA2 only wpa=2 #enable multi-media priority wmm_enabled=1 #disassociate remote sessions that are taking on high errors # enable this for better battery life; disable this to keep the link up at all costs #disassoc_low_ack=1 #The WPA2 64 character HEX key or 8 to 63 character passphrase for your network #wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef wpa_passphrase=YOURPASSPHASE #Use PSK and not EAP wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK #Use AES encryption rsn_pairwise=CCMP #Support high performance wifi # HT40+ : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel ABOVE the primary channel # HT40- : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel BELOW the primary channel # SHORT-GI-40 : Short GI for 40 MHz # RX-STBC12 : one or two spatial streams # ht_capab=[HT40+][HT40-][SHORT-GI-40][RX-STBC12] #Don’t refuse association with remote client if they don’t support HT Phy negotiation require_ht=0 — Now update the SysV config startup script to load a custom config file: sudo vi /etc/default/hostapd — DAEMON_CONF=”/etc/hostapd/hostapd. Py /usr/local/sbin/ If you downloaded my modified file, give it a trial run with: sudo python lcdui-modified. scan –> scan-results –> add_network –> set_network 0 ssid “enter-your-previously-shown-BSSID-here” –> set_network 0 psk “enter-your-wpa2-key-here” –> enable_network 0 –> save_config Get a copy of /usr/local/sbin/start-adhoc. 000mhz and walk around your home. You can also download the CLI only image (called Lite) which is considerably smaller and light weight. D -f avahi-daemon remove # Disable the special key keyboard mapping tool sudo update-rc. This tool will verify that the card’s actual storage capacity, identify any physical card issues, and then format it (removing any potential malware on the card as well). Remove any unneeded or unwanted applications Depending on the Linux distro you installed on your Rpi (Pixel), you probably brought in a bunch of stuff you won’t need. UTF-8 – Timezone – I selected US –> Pacific-New – Keyboard layout (this option is only seen when running raspi-config via the HDMI console): IMPORTANT: If you are in the US and you’re only presented with “English (UK)”, select OTHER, then select “English (US)” – Wifi country – If you have an Rpi v3 or Zero W, I selected “US United States” – Interfacing options – Camera : If you plan on using a Raspberry PI camera, – SSH : I recommend to enable SSH – VNC : If you installed the full version of Raspian Pixel and intend to manage it via a remote GUI, enable this – SPI : If you have any SPI high speed devices and plan to use then, enable this – I2C : If you have any I2C low speed devices and plan to use them, enable this – Serial : If you plan on using the hardware serial port for say serial console, either via bluetooth or the physical GPIO pins, enable this. FL external antenna solder pads v3 : single band 2. 4 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. Remember, the adjusting these levels is a combination of the levels coming in/out of your radio as well as the soundcard levels coming out of the Raspberru Pi. To clean up all these IPTABLES lines from filling up your name /var/log/messages and dmesg logs, you can use the Ulog system to move them to a dedicated file(s). If you see a bunch of rectangle blocks, that’s OK for now. 906308) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 14 az=199 el=47 (-0. 000 refid SHM stratum 15 # Drift file. Enable/Disable IPv6 upon booting Since there isn’t any IPv6 firewall loaded upon boot, I current will explicitly recommend to DISABLE the IPv6 protocol. Notice I’m using two F-keys for the mapping of SSID to terminal “view” or F-key views. 521630 21 0 1511382629 1511382628. Now we need to get an example program going to confirm the LCD works ok. 913545) gpsd:INFO: Sats used (9): — The important lines to see ther is the “Sats used” lines. 5 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. 9 out of 10 /dev/null endscript } — Once you’ve made these changes, no other command are required. Wav You should see the following output: Playing WAVE ‘/tmp/15sec-silence. NOTE: Whenever the watchdog kicks in, you run the chance of the the SD card’s file system getting corrupt. OS support: The Rpi Zero-W, Older non-wireless Zero, v1-B, and v1-A boards use the old, obsolete ARM ARM1176JZF-S CPU with the v6L instruction set. I’m using “KI6ZHD-6” as I already have other packet stations on KI6ZHD (aka KI6ZHD-0), KI6ZHD-1, KI6ZHD-2, etc – the next field is the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) speed which is the speed between the computer and the TNC. TRS0&_nkw=easydigi&_sacat=0 – Another option to consider is to build the time-limited PTT circuit that’s found in Direwolf’s Raspberry-Pi-APRS. Com/wb2osz/direwolf ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libasound2,libgps22 ] 11 – Provides: [ tnc ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging NOTE #1: If you get a “disk full” error here, it’s important that you follow the above section on creating a temporary /tmp mount to a local USB HDD (NFS mount works fore Direwolf) too. 3v) by default: On the Raspberry Pi B+ and Rpi v2, these line initialize HIGH: — GPIO 2, GPIO 3, GPIO 4, GPIO 7, GPIO8 and possibly GPIO 14 too If you use one of these pins with the simple PTT transistor circuit mentioned above/below, you’ll find that whenever your Rpi is rebooting or is powered yet off, it will leave your radio keyed up (PTT asserted). This will let you connect to the Rpi either directly or through an AP (which usually has Internet access). The audio should be completely noise free. # 2) A unit’s purpose may be to act as a helper for some other unit which has # a requirement dependency on it. Conf and change: — #apm = 255 to apm = 127 — g. On the D74, turn on the radio and use the A/B button to select the BOTTOM VFO or VFO-B as this is the only VFO that the built-in TNC works on. 1: Manufacturer: Realtek [606161. This selection completely depends on the generation of Rpi you’re using. The important information you # get from this output is: # # The top entry is for the Audio side using Bluetooth profiles: # 0x1112 (input) and 0x1203 (output) on Bluetooth channel #1 # # The second entry is for the serial port using Bluetooth profile: # “Serial Port” (0x1101) on channel #2 # In different Unix terminal window than where you are currently running the # program “bluetoothctl”, issue the command: sdptool browse 24:71:89:96:DE:AB # Here, you’ll see all kinds of details: — Browsing 24:71:89:96:DE:AB. The first thing to do is to figure out what GPIO pin to use. 1 with BT-Low Energy (LE) support on the 2. Enable the software refresh daemon to start on boot (but it won’t start just yet) # Raspian Stretch # # TBD on it’s compatibility # Raspbian Jessie # At the moment, this watchdog package is not 100% Systemd compatible. Specifically, the error you’ll see is: | | | | dnsmasq: failed to create listening socket for 192. Btw, you can force the HD to spin down ASAP by running the command: sudo /sbin/hdparm -y /dev/sda — /dev/sda: issuing standby command — You can then use the “sudo /sbin/hdparm -C /dev/sda” command to see that the drive is spun down. Id=494042 | | http://gnu-autoconf. Ifnames=0 biosdevname=0 | | — | | | | Reboot your Raspberry Pi and things will work from there on out. B Ok, assuming you’re using *Raspbian Jessie* here, let’s install the required software: sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install firmware-realtek dnsmasq hostapd Next, confirm the Wifi device can be interrogated: sudo iwconfig — wlan0 unassociated Nickname:”” Mode:Auto Frequency=2. Html for more RPi optimizations, etc # ———————————————————————— # This note is only relevant for F6BVP’s based Rpi image (obsolete) You can update the various F6BVP code, AX25 stack, etc. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] For use with the Linpac terminal programs as well as others ] 2 – Name: [ ax25mail-utils ] 3 – Version: [ 0. Spec file: rm direwolf. IMPORTANT: ———- Please note that since your Rpi hasn’t received any security hardening yet, there is some risk here. It’s generally recommended to buy a Wifi device that uses the Realtek RTL8188CUS chipset. If your USB hard drive is like this, you MUST first connect a *powered* USB hub | | (one that has a power brick connected to the wall) to the Rpi and then connect the USB drive to | | the hub. Service #8 – Make sure there aren’t any AX25 interfaces already loaded ifconfig | grep ax If there are, use the command “sudo ifconfig ax0 down” to shut them down #9 – Make sure there aren’t any KISS applications already running: ps aux | grep kiss Use the command “sudo killall kissattach” to kill any running kissattach commands (also removes any mkiss commands too) #10 – Download the newest TNC-Pi get/set tools sudo mkdir /usr/src/pitncgetset cd /usr/src/pitncgetset # Get the newest John Wiseman G8BPQ code – current as of 08/30/18 # wget http://www. Make sure there aren’t any “inet6” addresses showing up (even link-local ones). Tuning-direwolf for more details on tuning your various RF levels and timing — Unless you plan on using the TCP KISS (not the same as “serial KISS”) feature or the AGW/PE API support (Direwolf does *not* support connected sessions for things like Outpost, etc), then plan on disabling both of these: AGWPORT 8000 KISSPORT 8001 to AGWPORT 0 KISSPORT 0 — Depending on your use of your packet station, you might want to enable the FIX_BITS section to be either APRS centric or standard packet centric error prediction: – The first parameters of 1 or 2 is the number of bits Direwolf will try to correct – the second parameter of AX25 essentially disables the APRS-centric hinting which is useful if you’re a classic packet user and not an APRS user FIX_BITS 1 AX25 — GPS locations beacon for using on APRS: It’s a good idea that your packet system beacons it’s presence on the frequency. 3 release from -F beta version # also improved the installation steps and the Makefile. Diff #Prepare the package to be compiled – takes about 31 seconds on a Rpi3. T=139013 A nice technical overview (but not 100% complete) of all the different boards with a table can be found here: http://socialcompare. 0,12h — #Make the required dnsmask dir if it was removed mkdir /var/run/dnsmasq/ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces — #if there is any other line that has “auto lo” in it, REMOVE it auto lo eth0 wlan0 iface lo inet loopback iface eth0 inet dhcp #This is intentionally set to manual to support the selection of client or server AP mode iface wlan0 inet manual allow-hotplug wlan0 — Verify / Update the system’s hostname: – Edit the /etc/hostname file and put the name of your raspberry Pi in there. Here is an example of this “log noise” that you might see: — iptables denied: IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:60:57:18:ca:a3:32:08:00:45:00:00:4e:20:63:00:00:80:11:97:71 SRC=192. A few points here: – Do not configure any SSIDs in Linpac that are also configured in the /etc/ax25/direwolf. You can learn more about it here: https://sourceforge. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ Dire Wolf is an amateur radio soundcard TNC and APRS encoder/decoder to be used stand-alone ] 2 – Name: [ direwolf ] 3 – Version: [ 1. 3v power : VCC 3 : I2C DATA : SDA 5 : I2C Clock : SCL 6 : ground : GND Now power back up the Rpi with the RTC connected. Change this to # match both your Rpi’s system’s hostname and domain name # rpi3. Ax0 no wireless extensions. 25 debs will give errors like the following when | | ANY network interface name is longer than 13 characters: | | | | SIOCGIFHWADDR: No such device | | | | ANY AX. 25 parameters configured in the ax25-up. Conf file | +———————————————————————————+ Please understand that the AX. 15 l – 16 0 0. You can choose to download and # modify this script which supports syntax differences for Raspbian Wheezy vs Jessie/Stretch # as well as both simple primary partition schemes and LVM enabled partitioning. As such, I recommend you check the presence of the tool and remove it: dpkg -l | grep unattended-upgrades If the package is installed, remove it with: sudo dpkg -r unattended-upgrades Next, there might be some left over cruft that needs cleaning: sudo systemctl disable apt-daily. ): 2036-06-03T02:35:12. To do this, edit the /etc/rc. 0 minpoll 4 maxpoll 4 fudge 127. If things work correctly, you should see the driver load up in the output of “dmesg” and when you run “date” after SSHing into your Rpi, it should have good time regardless if the Internet is up or not. How to enable the HDMI port to always work even if the cable isn’t connected If you boot a Raspberry Pi without an HDMI monitor connected, the OS turns off the HDMI port to save power. At this point, you should be able to hide the virtual keyboard on your smartphone and use the BT keyboard for all your input needs. This is due to the fact that Debian changed the name of these # ax25 programs but the AX. I personally tried using a “quality” LG power brick that stated 5. Make sure that your “vhfdrop” line is the VERY last line in the file and all preceeding lines start with a # character. T=190570 There was an example program posted at https://www. 1 netmask 255. For now, let it spin down. Log { rotate 4 weekly missingok notifempty size 10M compress compresscmd /bin/bzip2 uncompresscmd /bin/bunzip2 compressoptions -9 compressext. Sh for all details #—————————————————————- apt-get install dnsmasq dnsmasq-base dnsmasq-utils #We only want it to start manually update-rc. Be patient sudo ntpdate -b `grep -e ^server -e ^pool /etc/ntp. # – Made the recommendation to DELETE the “pi” user once the new account is working # for better security # – Updated the URL for buying a Syba USB sound device # # 12/31/17 – Added a link to the new bt-kiss-bringup. Checked 30. If you had already installed a previous version of Direwolf, check that the /etc/ax25/direwolf. Find the line: kern. V4 file e. It just has the wrong date and time but that’s ok as it’s brand new. Delete that rule in the /etc/iptables/rules. Now REMOVE the power connection from the Raspberry Pi for 30 seconds and then reconnect power. Limit=50#17de | | | | As such, it’s MANDATORY that you upgrade to Linpac 0. Unreliable power is the #1 issue with Raspberry Pis so please don’t just use any old power brick with any old USB cable (which might have under-gauged wire and/or are too long). You’re ready for the next step. Log { rotate 3 daily missingok notifempty copytruncate size 10M compress compresscmd /bin/bzip2 uncompresscmd /bin/bunzip2 compressoptions -9 compressext. Enable log rotation for packet logs
28. NOTE #3: If you get an errors like: install: cannot create directory /usr/share/direwolf: No such file or directory then this means you probably didn’t download and install the Makefile patch applied above. Txt This doc section: Based on recommendations from https://frillip. | | | | If you have a recommended, not too expensive GPS receiver unit that’s more | | RF quiet, please email me on your recommendation. With changing this, we can start this function from /etc/rc. There is no free lunch when it comes to security here but I bet 95% of the Rpi images out there are good. 3v voltage pin instead. 25 library section on how to use the update-glibc-ax25-workaround. Net” so the line would read: 127. Py #This is the running program but doesn’t aways init properly python /usr/local/sbin/lcdui-modified. Local file and just above the line reading “exit 0”, add the following lines: sudo vi /etc/rc. Com/jaymzx/RPi-WD-Packet-Interface – You could then put either these two circuits or the little PCB on a Raspberry Pi proto HAT: https://www. D/rsyslog file to have the follow items at the TOP of the file and delete any duplicate lines from any of the other stanzas in the file. Net 14580 user n0call-6 pass vers TestSoftware 1. You’ll also want to create an empty /boot/ssh file to have the Pi enable SSH access on first boot if you want to configure the Pi exclusively via a network connection (no HDMI and keyboard connected). Deb package to install Direwolf on different Raspberry Pi’s assuming it’s: – Running the same CPU instruction set (RPi v1’s CPU is different from Rpi v2/3) – Running the same version of Raspbian (Wheezy, Jessie, Stretch) – You’ve also installed all the other required packages To install that deb package once it’s copied to that other Rpi, you would use the following command: NOTE: the example configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb package so those will have to be copied over manually into /etc/ax25/ NOTE#2: I choose to put the direwolf. 529919) gpsd:WARN: SiRF: warning, write of control type 80 while awaiting ACK for a6. I recommend people to either start with the v3+ or upgrade to the v3+ due to many of it’s substantial improvements: – CPU Cores: Rpi 3B+, 3, and 2 : four ARM cores Rpi Zero W and v1 A/B : one ARM cores – CPU Core types: Rpi 3B+, 3 : Cortex-A53 ARM8 cores Rpi 2 : Cortex-A7 ARM7 cores Rpi Zero W, v1 A/B : ARM1176JZF-S ARM6L core Performance: Rpi 3 / 3B+ have four Cortex-A53 ARM8 CPU with 32kB Level 1 and 512kB Level 2 cache memory. 214723] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI disk — c. Though you’ll need a high power # Wifi amp to use it, you might as well start there # # You can also use the next sections recommendations to see what might be # a better channel to use but for now, use channel 1 channel=1 # Accept all MAC addresses macaddr_acl=0 # Use WPA authentication ONLY auth_algs=1 # Require clients to know the network name ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 # Enable Wireless MultiMedia class of service (WMM) wmm_enabled=1 # Enable 802. Direwolf’s PBEACON or Position Beacon has the following syntax: delay – delays the initial transmission of the packet 15 seconds after direwolf startup every – beacons every 60 minutes sentto – if NOT specified, beacon will go out on ALL interfaces (RF and Igate) messaging – set to 1 only if your station can receive and respond to APRS messages (default is 0) symbol – using the house symbol per http://www. Com/wb2osz/direwolf –maintainer [email protected] V4 — -A INPUT -p udp -m udp -i wlan0 –sport 68 –dport 67 -j ACCEPT — Load the new ruleset with the following commands (previously discussed in the IPTABLES section): sudo su /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm & touch /tmp/fwok exit If that worked ok, let’s make this new firewall ruleset the new default: sudo cp /etc/iptables/rules. D/ulogd2 file and append the following lines: sudo vi /etc/logrotate. Linpac will crash with: | | | | /usr/bin/linpac: line 181: 9811 Segmentation fault $PKG_BINDIR/linpac $* | | | | Fortunately, if you disable predictable network interface names, things work fine. My instructions recommend to build all those packages on an external USB HDD but you | | # probably don’t want that mounted 24/7. Next, check that on your remote Wifi device, you no longer see your Rpi’s Wifi SSID. V4 file and follow the process to use the /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. 11N wifi : new / superior antenna design : has U. Enter the compiling area and make it writable by users in the “adm” group cd /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/ mkdir direwolf cd direwolf 3. From Windows or Mac: If you are using a Windows or Mac machine for the imagine process, please read these alternative guidelines: https://www. One user also noted that the Western Digital WD Blue and WD Green series of drives do NOT support APM_level which is evidently a known issue. Unplug the power cord from the Rpi 3. 850 degrees Fahrenheit 70. 3 and the nl80211 driver so a setting of “channel=0” or “channel=acs_survey” will *not* work. E – Setting the right audio output level for non-distorted packet signals Now that you’re familiar how to change the levels on the soundcard side, I recommend to read and re-read: http://www. This will work just fine for my UL-Link device. To disable this, run: sudo raspi-config In the menu, select “Boot Options” –> “Desktop / CLI” and select “Desktop GUI, requiring user to login” 8. Your setup might have even other lines showing IPv6 site-local, privacy address, etc. New & — 2. Some of the key fields to look for: Top box: Pos (position) : position is found and not moving wildly Time : Date and time is accurate for the UTC timezone Fix : You have at least 3 more more satellites locked onto Example bottom NMEA streaming data — (40) $GPGSV,3,3,10,15,03,041,,16,00,236,*7Ax0dx0a (72) $GPRMC,224315. This reflects my Syba USB device: sudo vi /etc/ax25/direwolf. Ok, now HOLDDOWN the button for at least three seconds and the Rpi should begin to gracefully shutdown the OS. IMPORTANT ——— The official recommendation from the Raspberry Pi Foundation is to use a 5. Sh and change the line that reads: — screen -c $HOME/. Com/neo/groups/Raspberry_Pi_4-Ham_RADIO/conversations/topics/4755 100. Assuming all of the tests above PASSED above, now go back to your desired Wifi device (smartphone, etc) and try to associate to your Raspberry Pi AP using the configured RPI’s configured SSID and WPA2 passphrase: – Did the device associate on the Wifi level (connected but didn’t get an IP address just yet). Sudo dpkg –install direwolf_1. To use this approach, do the following: cd /tmp wget http://www. #1 – On the TNC-Pi board, does it have Jumpers JP2 and JP3 right next to the Rpi GPIO pin header. 1/8 scope host lo valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: enxb827eb2532fc: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link/ether b8:27:eb:25:32:fc brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192. You’ll have to wait for the command to # time out or just reboot the Rpi. It’s also worth noting that the PXE LAN booting feature is now enabled by default on this new board 3, 2, 1 – Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) using the SMSC LAN951x chipset (Rpi 3 and 2B) – Cooling: The RPi 3B+ CPU now has a heat spreader on the chip to better support cooling. Configure your Rpi to support BOTH being an Access Point and Wifi client (managed mode)
30. Checked j. Com/thread/60690 Here are some of my legacy notes for this older install: If using a Realtek 8192 device, you need an alternative hostapd daemon: sudo mv /usr/sbin/hostapd /usr/sbin/hostapd. 4 as of 04/26/17 – size is 16. A Configure your Rpi to act as a Wifi AP using the built-in Raspberry Pi 3 Wifi support With the debut of the Raspberry Pi 3 and Rpi Zero W, this new SBC hardware supports built-in 802. Depending on the quality/power of your radio, antenna, other nearby stations you wish to communicate with. Go ahead and shutdown your Rpi with: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now Let the Rpi shut off (the activity LED will blink 10 times to indicate that the OS is down). Zip cd direwolf-1. S GPS –> Basic Settings –> # Built-in GPS: On # PC Output: On # # 2. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols ] 2 – Name: [ ax25-apps ] 3 – Version: [ 1. Com/a-deep-dive-into-the-raspberry-pi-3-b-hardware/ — 1. Now type in control-c in this window and you’ll # instantly see the bluetooth icon on the D74 go out. Log) Displaying current system kissparms — AX25 protocol mode (0=Norm* 1=Extd) : 0 AX25 backoff type (0=Linear 1=Expon*) : 1 AX25 connect mode (0=none 1=network 2=all*) : 2 AX25 Extd window size (num of unacked packets 32*) : 32 AX25 idle timeout (idle session timeout in M 20*) : 0 AX25 AXIP mode (0=Datagram* 1=VirtConnection) : 0 AX25 max packet size (256*) : 256 AX25 max packet retry count (10*) : 10 AX25 protcol version (DAMA Slave) : 0 AX25 STD window size (num of unacked packets 2* ) : 2 AX25 T1 timer (unacked packet retry 10000mS*) : 10000 AX25 T2 timer (wait for 2nd RX packet 3000mS*) : 3000 AX25 T3 timer (link still up check 300000mS*) : 300000 Port vhfdrop attached to ax0 Listen started and displaying on tty8 ax25-up. Clear out all unallocated space in the file system for max compression #Fill up and clear out the “boot” partition – this will be fast (7 seconds) sudo time dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/sd-card/p1/bigfile. Sh /usr/local/sbin/ sudo chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/remove-old-kernels. Conf HINT: If you started Direwolf with it’s coloring enabled and now all your console text is blinking, you can use the command “tput reset” to clear things out. Sh script to activate those changes. Just as a heads up for the curious, I connected a volt meter to physical pins 16 and 18 upon initial power up. 0 | +—————————————————————————————+ 19. 25 and Raspbian Stretch | | | | I have confirmed that with Raspian Stretch, there is some sort of conflict with | | it’s newly enabled predictable network interface names. 11) gpsd:INFO: listening on port gpsd gpsd:INFO: stashing device /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Conf — *. 25 sources to go toxic but the Official AX. The | | recommendation from me is to overwrite the impacting file ANYWAY with | | the following command: | | | | sudo dpkg –force-overwrite –install libax25_1. Deb /home/dranch/libax25/ | | | | Finally, edit the update-glibc-ax25-workaround. Conf Now edit the file with the following settings: vim /etc/hostapd/hostapd. Com/using-your-raspberry-pi-3-as-a-wifi-access-point-with-hostapd/ but I’ve added informational and troubleshooting commands, modernized it’s commands to use native Systemd commands and added IPTABLES firewall sections to protect your system IP Addressing: This doc will use the 192. I would recommend to now reboot the Rpi and after it’s rebooted, log in and repeat step #11 to ensure the watchdog is running again 13. None; news. Testing Direwolf
24. To fix this, edit the /etc/rsyslog. This is an EXTREMELY bad idea and can physically damange your Rpi due to sinking too much current though the monitoring GPIO pin. 11AC-Wave1 wifi : new / superior on-board antenna design : no U. # To shutdown this dynamic Bluetooth association, run the command: rfcomm release hci0 NOTE: —– # It’s worth mentioning that you can also put the D74 either into the “APRS12” or “KISS12” # mode and put bottom VFO (VFO-B) on a packet frequency say like 144. The far better solution here is to use an external USB HDD or SSD. At this point, a set of configurations will go into /root/LinPac/ and Linpac will automatically start up. Btw, if Linpac | | crashed on you, your terminal might be screwed up and not working properly. – If this Rpi setup is going to be directly connected to the Internet, please keep the OS patched every week (ideally every day) and install a firewall on it. From reputable sellers. # – Added that simultaneous wifi and BT support on the Rpi v3 doesn’t work well # – Corrected sudo command for iptables-save compound command # – Added how to use alternative SSH listening ports # – Added a key note that no IPv6 firewall is created and to disable IPv6 for now # – Completed the ulogd section and using the new NFLOG approach so no more iptables # filter hits in the /var/log/syslog nor dmesg logs. | +—————————————————————————————————-+ NOTE#2: There are a LOT of configuration options in the default dnsmasq. You can run the command “dpkg -l | grep libgps” to see what version is installed on your Rpi. 0,4h #NOT sure if we need this – dnsmasq should use DNS servers it sees in the resolf. If you need help with this, feel free to | | reach out to me. After that, run the following command to install the example config files: sudo make installconf +—————————————————————————-+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | With a recent toxic release of the AX. As such, try to determine the least used channel around you # It might be worth noting that HAMs with our amateur radio license give us # special high power privileges on channel 1. The sampling rate matches the configured rate. I will probe file /dev/i2c-1. 8) and the status of the NTP session (do we have Internet time) – The current running callsign and the number of received AX25 packets – The system load with 1min / 5min / 15min details You can grab a copy of my modified script here: wget http://www. Conf — interface wlan0 static ip_address=192. For this example, I’m using “N0ARY-1″ which is my local, full service BBS. NOTE: Sometimes Direwolf make distruptive changes from one version or another. Get the script on the Rpi cd /tmp wget http://www. Py script” | /usr/bin/systemd-cat python /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown. Before you get started, a few thoughts: – Only use quality SD cards in your Pi. Net Next, you need to edit the /etc/aliases file to point all “root” user emails to go to a valid email address (off box). Bz2 — Finally, if you followed the instructions on the Ulogd section for IPTABLES logging, I recommend to rotate those logs as well. Change the following areas NOTE: The raspi-config program has changed a LOT over they years and this following prompts reflect the layout and settings for Raspbian Stretch. Bz2 — Now edit the /etc/logrotate. V4 sudo iptables-restore Bluetooth -> Bluetooth: ON Ok, the radio is now ready to go so on to the Raspberry Pi. 390 for APRS or 145. If there aren’t any speakers connected to the Rpi, you can use tools like scp to send the file to another computer that DOES have speakers connected aplay /usr/share/sounds/alsa/Front_Center. B Testing the AP Wifi system out
30. Py This program should: – light up the backlight – Show some text – Show a smiley face icon – Show a filling bar from the left to the right – Show a smiley face icon – turn the backlight off If that worked, you’re in business. That can wear out your hard drive prematurely too (that and consume excess power). Next compile job: ax25-apps (the source was already downloaded via the previous git command) First, we need to install the Ncurses libraries as the “call” program requires it sudo apt-get install libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev Next, go into the source directory and start building: cd /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/linuxax25/ax25apps #This command can seemingly look hung for 20 seconds before it starts to show output autoreconf –install. [Y/n] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 00: — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10: — — — — — 15 — — — — — — — — — — 20: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 30: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 40: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 50: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 60: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 70: — — — — — — — — — The output above shows NOTHING which means it’s not correct. /bin/bash echo -e “nListing old Raspbian based kernels that can be removed” dpkg -l ‘linux-*’ | sed ‘/^ii/. If you want to use this script, you’ll also need to do two things: a. Management section about other scripts to monitor the RPI’s # CPU and temp and other useful sysadmin scripts # # 07/05/17 – Extensively updated the Wifi AP and Linpac sections # – Updated the pyshutdown GPIO button section # – more clearly deprecated the legacy rtl8192 wifi sections # # 06/03/17 – Enhanced the manual-ampr-start. Com/phg phgd Code: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Units Power: 0 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 watts Height: 10 20 40 80 160 320 640 1280 2560 5120 feet Gain: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 dB Directivity: omni 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 n/a degrees PBEACON delay=00:15 every=60 SYMBOL=/- lat=37^20. Now that you’ve created the required radio interface cable to connect the radio to sound the soundcard CONSIDERING: – You’ve ensured that the microphone jacks on both the radio AND the soundcard don’t have a DC bias voltage (above). – If you want to shutdown Linpac instead of disconnecting from it’s screen, you’d instead issue the following Linpac command (yes, you need the double slashes): //q 29. Fl connector and an external wifi antenna (mentioned below – not possible on the Rpi 3B+): NOTE: Previous doc versions focused on working with an RTL8192CUS based Wifi device but no longer https://www. Auto start the packet system and advanced services
Configuring your Rpi as a Wifi AP for local connectivity:
30. Driftfile /var/lib/ntp/drift — 34. | | Upon boot, the ap0 interface comes up fine and I can both associate to it and | SSH into the Rpi0w. Sh approach: #It’s critical that you include the trailing “&” character for proper operation sudo /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. Gz tar xzvf linpac-0. 150 with a 4 hour lease time dhcp-range=192. 16 p – 64 0 0. X kernels sudo echo “bcm2835_wdt” >> /etc/modules 4. Py #Old script – doesn’t support debouncing # don’t use this one – wget http://www. 25 traffic montitor, you either : a. NOT) ps aux | grep gpsd sudo lsof -nPi | grep 2947 #If you see that the socket is still listneing, you can shutdown the listening socket here sudo systemctl stop gpsd. It should just work. 5A # power supply # – Added the useful tool “stress” for checking Rpi power brownouts # – Updated the different Rpi comparison section a bit # # 12/16/17 – New release # # 12/11/17 – Updated the Linpac version to 0. 16 p – 64 0 0. Log To manually shutdown your packet station, run the command: sudo /etc/ax25/ax25-down — Shutting down Linpac linpac: no process found nodesave: no NET/ROM port data configured N/R routes saved Ending beacon – 31354 Ending mheardd – 31357 Ending listen – 31343 Stopping Kissattach spattach: no process found Detach Ax/Nr/Sp Devices ls: cannot access ‘/proc/sys/net/ax25’: No such file or directory Stopping mkiss Stopping Direwolf Ax25 Stopped — 26. All the basics of your packet station should be working and ready to auto-start when you boot your RPi. 25 debs will give errors like the following when | | ANY network interface name is longer than 13 characters: | | | | SIOCGIFHWADDR: No such device | | | | Programs like beacon will fail to start. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. It ultimately turned out that my issue was that the LCD’s VCC line was conneted to the Raspberry Pi’s 3. 7,M,,0000*5Dx0dx0a (49) $GPGSA,A,3,10,32,27,21,18,,,,,,,,6. Deb sudo cp direwolf. Conf — denyinterfaces wlan0 — Non-Raspbian Stretch users: ————————— Edit the interfaces file to create a static IP for the wlan interface. To do that, issue the command: # chmod 666 /var/run/sdp # At this point, let’s try connecting to the D74 with the following MANUAL test. A – Monitoring the Raspberry Pi hardware and other scripts
32. Conf # Please note the ADDITIONAL zero here for each parameter as the two files # use different units TXDELAY=400 TXTAIL=50 +———————————————————————————+ | IMPORTANT: | | | | You’ll recognize that these are the same items as configured in Direwolf. Try running the program: gpsmon or alternatively for NEMA only mode: gpsmon -n or cgps – This program offers a slightly simplier, cleaner view to the number of satellites being used in the left-side box under the “Used” column or xgps If you’re running Raspbian Pixel with the full Xwindows GUI on the HDMI console *or* are SSHing into the Rpi from an Xwindows GUI computer with SSH X-forwarding enabled, this program will show a nice graphical representation of the received satellites with color coding based upon their signal strength. If you do have to make changes to the access database, make sure to also compile a new version of the database and restart your email server. +——————————————————————–+ | TBD: Similar to the old wireless section shown below, add a switch | | #1 on a few GPIO pins to switch the Wifi connection between | | acting as an AP vs. Now, enable (but not yet start) the service with: sudo systemctl enable watchdog 9. | | | | +————————————————–+ | | | CURRENT STATUS — Sort of works, sort of broken | | | | see the bottom of this section | | | +————————————————–+ | +———————————————————————————-+ +———-+ | OPTIONAL | +———-+ One excellent feature of the new Raspberry Pi3/ZeroW hardware is that it’s Wifi system can act as both a Wifi client and be a Wifi access point *at the same time*. If I took the setup from being inside my house to outside with a WIDE, clear view of the sky, it would fix itself and report the right things. Love it or hate it. To protect your system from having Apt overwriting your custom | | compiled version of the Linpac package, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold linpac | | | | Linpac 0. This value controlls the number of packets your station can send until it waits for an acknoledgement that your packets were received ok. Conf #—————————————————————- # Legacy Wifi Ad-Hoc approach (works with Motorola Droid2 running Android GingerBread # (does not work with LG G3 running Android Kitkat or Lolipop # # see /usr/local/sbin/start-wireless-adhoc. It’s recommend to also setup a CLIENT side # APRS filter within Direwolf. Sh sudo mv image-raspbian-zip-to-rpi-sd-card. If you want to have other CALLSIGNS+SSIDs associated to other F-keys, enter them in now. Ok, then what GPIO pins should you use. 0 l 71m 64 0 0. Not all Wifi chipsets are supported by Linux so it’s important that you buy HW that will both work under Linux but also support AP mode (not all HW does). Sh /usr/local/sbin/ Next, from the output of the “dmesg” command run above, edit the script and make sure the SD card device used in the $DESTDEV variable Run the command: #Installing Stretch Lite in this example sudo /usr/local/sbin/image-raspbian-zip-to-rpi-sd-card. Log file # # 10/21/17 – Added an attribute for the Linpac patch from Martin Cooper KD6YAM # # 10/16/17 – Added critical steps to enable HOLDS on the libax25, ax25-apps, ax25-tools, and Linpac # packages which are currently known TOCIC in the Deb repos. 25 # repo # – Enabled another F-key in the example for Linpac # – Added a final testing section # – Updated the ax25-up. Eth0 no wireless extensions. That assumes you configured the other D74 menus items as mentioned above That’s it. Once complete, reboot your Rpi v3 or Rpi Zero W and try the above steps again Assuming things worked OK in the above tests, we now need to enable this configuration file. Confirm Clean Silence from the Soundcard
20. Fl solder pads which could be used to add an external wifi antenna v3 and Zero W – 2. For this setup, I do the following: | | | | # change the username to reflect your username | | mkdir /home/dranch/libax25/ | | | | # cd to wherever you built the VE7FET AX. 4 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://github. I’ll openly mention that there are errors in there on my system that seem to be bugs in Raspbian Stretch and/or the Linux kernel today. Xz | dd of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=1M NOTE: This command will not give any output until the process is complete and it can take in upwards of 10 minutes or more depending on the size of your SD card and the speed of your card reader 60. Be silently # dropped. -d ${DIR} ]; then mkdir ${DIR} chmod 755 ${DIR} fi ;; stop) ;; restart) ;; reload|force-reload) ;; status) ;; *) echo “Usage: $SELF start” exit 1 ;; esac — chmod 755 /etc/init. Sh http://www. I know because I killed one SD card this way. This suppport is either mentioned indirectly in this document’s appendix and in the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Please note, the seeing of REJECT in these top policy # lines is NOT allowed (only ACCEPT and DROP are allowed here). Bz2 } — # add log rotation for the packet. 1 #Disable DNS and DHCP from running on the wired ethernet interface no-dhcp-interface=eth0 # Bind only to the defined interface so other interfaces don’t get unwanted traffic # # This is INTENTIONALLY commented out per the comment above # #bind-interfaces # Assign IP addresses between 192. Conf file installed, lets make a backup of it just in case. 050Mhz — 3. B Setting up the Sound Card levels for 1200BAUD AFSK Packet Radio – This example is using a Alinco DJ-580 HT with a simple PTT circuit similar to the one shown here (more about this later): http://www. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var –datadir=/usr/share –datarootdir=/usr/share make -j8 Now work around a checkinstall bug incorrectly reading RPM spec files: mv ax25tools. 1) in this example 3. This document # does not fully cover IPv6 yet though I’ve added a minimial /etc/iptables/rules. 4,M,,*6A $GPRMC,041222. Conf-`date +%m%d%y` 7. C Configure simultaneous Wifi client and AP connectivity
31. Good luck with the project and if you’re new to Linux. Create an empty (and noise free) 15 second WAV file – output file should be about 240kbytes arecord -c 2 -d 15 -f cd -t wav -D null /tmp/15sec-silence. Once that’s run, | | you can again run: | | | | sudo apt-get upgrade | | | | and your machine will now download and install all the other packages You should be good to go at that | | point. In troubleshooting this, if I tried to type in my password in the username prompt, the wrong characters were popping up (like | or +, etc). As a work around to this busted time/date, you can do the following (or just get a better GPS receiver): sudo fake-hwclock save systemctl enable fake-hwclock This should resolve this for the Rpi’s next reboot. | | | | Why. It’s very chatty and creates a security risk. Com/en/comparison/raspberrypi-models-comparison A nice set of benchmarks can be found here: https://www. I’m not going to detail this as it’s not my goal but if you want to enable it, you’ll need to – enable IP forwarding by adding the line “net. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] | +———————————————————————————+ 1. 0 | +—————————————————————————————+ – You can either install it from the Debian repositories with: +—————————————————————————————+ | Critical / Mandatory NOTE: | | | | As of Raspbian 9 / Debian 9 Stretch, this distribution has upgraded the version | | of the GCC compiler that BREAKS Linpac with versions LESS than 0. NOTE: If you’re going to use a TNC-Pi TNC, do NOT enable this option – 1-wire : If you plan on using the 1-wire slow speed devices, enable this – Remote GPIO: If you plan on enabling the remote GPIO via pigpio network functionality, enable this – Advanced options – “Expand the file system” – (OPTIONAL): If you noticed when you first booted your Raspberry Pi that it was “Expanding the Filesystem on the SD card”, you won’t need this step. Conf file to enable GPS PPS mode # The SHM keyword or “SHard Memory” keyword is an alias to the “type 28” reference clock created by gpsd # # 1. In my case, I would put in a hostname that has an MX record # configured to accept email for the “trinnet. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold libax25 | | | +—————————————————————————-+ == Ok, the base library for AX. Sh script to bring up AX. What did work for me is to move my setup from inside my home to outside with a clear view of the sky. Conf file and change or ADD the following lines to the bottom of the file: vi /etc/sysctl. See the above URL for more details and understanding of other geo-centric addresses. As such, the only other option here is to compile things on a locally mounted file system. Next, on the upstream relayhost you entered in above, make sure that this machine will actually accept email from your Raspberry Pi’s IP address. ADEVICE0: Sample rate approx. Differences in Raspberry Pi hardware versions, downloading the SD image and installing it I first want to highlight the key differences between the Rpi v1, v2, v3 and now 3B+ versions of the board. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 at slot 0 gpsd:INFO: opening GPS data source type 3 at ‘/dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. There is two ways to install Linpac today: +—————————————————————————————+ | Signifincant issue with AX. To make sure things are working by default if your Rpi is rebotted, let’s reboot. 23,141016,,,A*7Bx0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224317. D/iptables — #. 212 2 u 147 1024 373 87. 122 2 u 182 256 377 20. Now remove the SD card from this secondary Linux machine and put it back into your Raspberry Pi 8. Py #sudo mv FVMK0WJIA0WRZBF. — 1: lo: mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1 link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127. Org/documentation/installation/installing-images/ – Why Raspbian. Stateful Firewalls: It enables firewalling which is always an important security practice DHCP and DNS: For my lightweight uses, I’m going to use hostapd and dnsmasq. Ax25tools # git clone https://github. FL external solder pads Zero W : single band 2. NOTE2: A 16GB MicroSD card with 3. 25 system via a script
26. 25 port configured in /etc/ax25/axports. 34717) format using the “. /dev/mmcblk0p2 94208 31116287 15511040 83 Linux Partition 2 does not end on cylinder boundary — 4. (infrastructure mode”): Assumptions ———– Like everything Linux, there are several ways to do everything. Conf — server 127. Gz First, let’s build and install the ax25mail-utils program tar xzvf ax25mail-utils-0. 193 3 u 62 1024 377 16. To | | work arounds this, do the following (per the bug report): | | | | remove the line “ListenStream=[::1]:2947″ from the /lib/systemd/system/gpsd. 1 no-dhcp-interface=lo,eth0,wlan0 #We now need this option bind-interfaces dhcp-range=192. 25 stack, you would then run the command: i2ckiss 1 15 vhfdrop 10. Com/ax25-fpac/ – Pidora/JNOS package with an embedded JNOS configuration manager is included http://ares-mi. V4” h. It sounds like this could be limitations on the | | Raspberry Pi hardware. 0 broadcast 192. Alternative shutdown solutions if you don’t like this recommended solution: https://wiki. Net/documentation/linux/Useful_SystemD_commands/ #show running daemons systemctl | grep running #I recommend to disable Avahi (Bonjour) for it’s network spamming sudo systemctl disable avahi-daemon. 25 packet system: #If you didn’t already create this via the mount-usb-hdd. For example on my Rpi2: vi /etc/fstab # for Stretch that uses UUIDs, it looks like: — PARTUUID=92f034a6-02 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — # for Jessie, it looks like: — /dev/mmcblk0p2 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — Go ahead and reboot your Rpi right now. # In this example, the hostname I entered in is the following. B using the “usermod” Unix command. Langid=1&PNid=48&PFid=48&Level=5&Conn=4&DownTypeID=3&GetDown=false&Downloads=true#RTL8188CUS – Beyond Realtek’s initial support for some chips in the RTL 871x driver (no idea why the different chip family number), it seems that the RTL8188cus drivers supports *all* rtl81xx based support (including the rtl8188 and rtl8192cu). NOTE#2: I’ve seen many times that if I connect an HDMI monitor to an already running Rpi, the OS will crash and you have to remove and re-connect the USB power cable. Building Linpac and ax25mail-utils from sources: Assuming a USB HD is mounted per the previous section. New That command should look something like: — ax25-up. Recommended to periodically do after applying OS patches to make sure things didn’t # break # – Fixed some HTML character encoding issues like &, etc # # 10/22/17 – Removed the delaycompress option from all the logrotate configuration files # – Fixed the logrotate section to properly manage the ulogd_traffic-emu1. They are not meant to be enabled # using systemctl. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold ax25-apps | | | +—————————————————————————-+ #If you manually want to install the built package it instead, use the following command # NOTE: configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb # sudo dpkg –install ax25-apps_1. # It’s known to be broken for the sdptool but a work around is available. Wav If you select the wrong ALSA device, you might see the error: aplay: set_params:1239: Channels count non available Even better. Bluetooth reliability issues # – Added a recommended USB-based GPS receiver # – Retooled and enhanced the image backup section a bit # – Updated the intro section # # 09/02/17 – Added a CRITICAL work around for AX. 209560] sda: sda1 [ 360. If you’re now logged in as your new user, make sure you can use the “sudo” command such as: sudo ls -la /root Did that work too. I recommend you uninstall what you don’t need. This URL might be a better fit for our simple needs: http://youness. # You’ll also notice in the bluetoothctl window, it showed that it connected and disconnected: — [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:DE:AB Connected: yes [CHG] Device 24:71:89:96:DE:AB Connected: no — # Assuming that all worked, type in “exit” in the terminal window running the bluetoothctl tool # Now for the bad part for item #2. Conf — #Wireless device name interface=wlan0 #The bridge interface to connect to eth0 bridge=br0 #Wifi device driver depends on your USB device found above # I’m using the LD-Link BL-LW05-AR5 device # # EXPERIMENT – 08/13/16 – for a rtl8192cu device, do NOT specify ANY driver # and let it auto-discover #driver=rtl871xdrv #driver=rtl8192cu #Control interface for hostapd ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd #SSID announcement for this device – change this to be whatever you want ssid=ki6zhd #Specific country you are locate in – this is for the Unite States country_code=US #limit the allowed frequencies to specified country ieee80211d=1 #This allows 802. Cd /etc/ax25 2. 00W power=50 height=20 gain=4 OBJNAME=TESTBCN comment=”test beacon” via=WIDE1-1 +———————————————————+ | Optional: | | Enabling APRS IGate functionality in Direwolf | +———————————————————+ d. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 identified as type SiRF, 4. Sh script a bit # – Updated the packet to Kenwood D74 section a bit # – Fixed some jump links # # 03/08/18 – Added dual/simultaneous wifi client AP access and AP mode # # 02/03/18 – Enhanced the Bluetooth section a bit and updated the bt-kiss-bringup. Intro to setting up a Raspberry Pi Welcome to the world of the Raspberry Pi, Amateur Radio, and all the possibilities. 1/24 #static routers=192. Orig Next, you need to download the updated hostapd binary but it’s too large to fit in the /tmp RAM drive. Other HOWTOs on the internet use ISC’s DHCPd server and ISC’s Bind DNS servers but they are additional packages to install and using ISC’s industrial strength programs are major overkill for this simplier use-case To start off with, let’s make sure Linux sees the Wifi hardware. 3: Manufacturer: Prolific Technology Inc. B Setting up the Sound Card levels for 1200BAUD AFSK Packet Radio
20. It’s frustrating and I haven’t found any other ways to clear out that old # state. Eject the MicroSD card from the Rpi and install it into a different Linux machine’s card reader while that machine is fully booted 3. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. Aspx # In this example, I only want to receive APRS messages that are intended for stations # within 10km of my station’s location # IGFILTER m/10 #In addition to the APRS-IS system only sending you data you want, sometimes it will # still send too much or unexpected data. 11A or AC link support. /pitnc_getparams 0 0 – if running on a TNC-Pi v2 board:. – There aren’t any Wifi or BT network traffic LEDs to indicate that the AP is active, being used, etc Anyway, for now, let’s move forward with first enabling the Rpiv3 to act as a Wifi AP ONLY (aka. E – Run the following command to print the output of the ntp system: ntpq -p — [email protected]:/etc# ntpq -p remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== SHM(0). Warn -/var/log/mail. 25 stack is configured in the above mentioned /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Bz2 } — NOTE: It’s important to use the “copytruncate” command for some logs as these files are getting appended from various Unix redirects and NOT syslog. Temporarily start up hostapd and dnsmasq #Running these commnands won’t give any specific output #Do the individual commands to avoid some strange behavior on Stretch sudo systemctl stop hostapd sudo systemctl start hostapd sudo systemctl restart dnsmasq 2. 0 internally (roughly 300Mbps) – The new 3B+ also supports Power over Ethernet (PoE) with the addition of a PoE HAT board. It’s important to note that some GPIO pins are pulled HIGH (+3. /ttyUSB0 So, the serial/by-id name is “usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Install and configure a simple IPTABLES firewall Assuming your Raspbery Pi has Internet access (hopefully it’s behind an existing firewall to keep it safe until it’s running it’s own firewall), run: sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install iptables-persistent # # Accept any needed dependencies like iptables-persistent and netfilter-persistent Depending on your version of Raspbian, you might be prompted if you want to: “Save current IPv4 rules”. If you do try, your remote Wifi device should associate but hang on waiting to get an IP address. 25 services, you can remove the #s in those lines to have them auto start too. As such, you can skip ahead to Chapter 25 to take it from there. Once a system has gone bad, remote system can become unreachable and repairing it can be very difficult if not impossible until fixed packages are released. /bin/bash echo “running start-ap-managed-wifi. I do NOT recommend to go over 50% of that space. Com/questions/5367/how-do-i-change-the-editor-used-by-visudo sudo update-alternatives –set editor /usr/bin/vim. Do as much research on Google before becoming too frustrated. Setting the right audio output level for non-distorted packet signals
21. I haven’t # looked at this progrm yet but this might be a good (or better) way to # go too #Load and merge the new settings sudo iptables-restore < rules. Patch patch -p0 rtc0 crw——- 1 root root 253, 0 Nov 20 17:05 /dev/rtc — At this point, if you check the I2C bus, you’ll now see the device as bring IN-USE: sudo i2cdetect -y 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 00: — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 20: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 30: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3f 40: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 50: — — — — — — — 57 — — — — — — — — 60: — — — — — — — — UU — — — — — — — 70: — — — — — — — — Good. 0 #allow-hotplug wlan0 — POTENTIALLY OBSOLETE section – WHEEZY – Skip this section for now ————————————————————————————— — Next, it’s very important to disable Network-Manager from trying to manage this device From the output of the “ifconfig” command above, note the MAC address of your Wifi device and change the MAC address in this file # vim /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager. Hopefully you didn’t just loose your network connection to your Rpi (you wouldn’t if you use my recommended firewall-confirm. Check and disabled unneeded services (the SystemD way) SystemD cheatsheet: http://www. – CPU Clocking: The four cores on the RPi 3B+ are much faster than the previous generations: 3B+ : 1. Btw, this IPTABLES “log noise” can be fixed by enabling ulogd logging by following that previous section in this doc). New wget http://www. Testing APRS-IS filters with TELNET Interactive APRS-IS filter testing over the Internet: OPTIONAL: Configuring and tuning appropreate APRS-IS filters to ensure you’re not gating too much data, not congesting the local APRS RF frequency, etc. Zip sudo mv hostapd /usr/sbin sudo chmod 755 /usr/sbin/hostapd rm adafruit_hostapd_14128. Once you’ve checked the soundcard side, check the radio side as well and if it also provides an bias voltage, it too will need a capacitor. Stuff that still needs to be updated from Wheezy to Jessie
N7NIX DanTracker – APRS tracking / messaging client with SmartBeacon support dnsmasq FBB BBS Xastir 80. Py script” echo “Starting pishutdown. Again try the above command and make sure NO garbage or any out text output is coming #13 – Try running the pitnc_getparams program: – If running on a TNC-Pi v1 board:. Well, the Rpi1 and Rpi2 can have it’s various GPIO pins connected to several other “alternative” functions available in the Broadcom SOC ASIC depending on it’s pin “mode”. To do this, run the following command: #Some additional required packages will be installed as well # sudo apt-get install postfix logwatch bsd-mailx dnsutils openssl-blacklist # As the Postfix package installs, it will prompt you for specific settings for your # environment. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 Now let’s package and install it: sudo checkinstall –pkgname ax25mail-utils –pkgversion 0. New script # – Added a ax25 testing subsection # – Added a silent audio quality check section # # 10/14/16 – Updated the GPS section to support Jessie # – Updated the SD card backup section to make duplicate cards # # 10/13/16 – Updated intro to talk about the Rpi v3 hardware # 10/12/16 – More clarity on Direwolf sound device naming # – Added “audio” unix group to the new user creation # – More thoughts on recommended security hardening (TBD) # # 10/11/16 – Fixed the incorrect command usermode (should be usermod) # 10/03/16 – Updated section 4’s name a bit # – Added routing to clean up old rpi-update kernel modules # # 09/29/16 – Swapped some of the sections around for the PTT circuit # 09/15/16 – Updated to direwolf 1. | | Please read the Direwolf tuning section above and make sure THESE settings here | | align with the settings you put in the direwolf. D -f rpcbind enable service rpcbind start #Update the remote NFS server’s /etc/exports file and run “exportfs -avr” on it #On the local machine, edit the /etc/default/nfs-common file and change the line to: # Create the mounting script – change it to suit your environment # # NOTE: This script is specific to my environment -Please edit to suit your # environment # # /usr/local/sbin/mount-hampacket2-nfs. Please see http://www. 25 should be installed. Connect your monitor via the HDMI port. | +——————————————————————————————-+ A few things you need to know first in configuring Linpac: 1. Zip and http://www. New2 done — You can also see more details by looking in the /var/log/packet. Conf section on how to enable APRS-IS RX-only Igate # and MSG only TX-Igate functionality # – Added a section on how to interactively test APRS-IS filters with TELNET # – Updated the Direwolf compiling section to reflect improvements and a repaired Direwolf-1. Conf file to connect your local Wifi AP (when it’s in range): — #Change this if you arent in the US country=US ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev update_config=1 #Your first AP you might want to connect to if it’s in range #Change the SSID and PSK lines to match that AP’s credentials network={ ssid=”YourSSID1″ psk=”YourPassphrase1″ id_str=”AP1″ } #Your second AP you might want to connect to if it’s in range #Change the SSID and PSK lines to match that AP’s credentials network={ ssid=”YourSSID2″ psk=”YourPassphrase2″ id_str=”AP2″ } — Now connecting all this together, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file — auto lo auto ap0 auto wlan0 iface lo inet loopback #If you plan on having an Ethernet USB-dongle attached auto eth0 allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp allow-hotplug ap0 iface ap0 inet static address 192. Change this to be what you want # but it MUST be a MINIMUM of 8 characters and a MAXIMUM of 63 characters. Bz2 sharedscripts create 640 ulog adm postrotate invoke-rc. A temporary solution is to # out the line “bind-interfaces” line in the | | dnsmasq. Sh Put the D74 into KISS12 mode by toggling the Function-APRS button (that’s the 5 key) twice and you’ll see the “KISS 12” icon in the upper middle right of the D74’s display. Here is a partial list of images I’ve tried in the past: – Bernard F6BVP’s new Jessie based image for TNC-Pi http://f6bvp. B – does it show “Mode:Master” meaning it’s in Access point mode. Py sudo chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown2. Service #See what else might be running ls /etc/rc3. NOTE: When the Raspberry Pi boots up, it communicates with the HDMI monitor to understand the best settings for the video output. For example: The Pixel version of Raspbian includes: – OpenOffice suite of document, spreadsheet, and presentation creation tools – Wolfram GUI scientific package is included on the Pixel version of Raspbian – The triggerhappy hotkey tool used for IR remote controls, etc # To remove these programs sudo apt-get remove –purge wolfram-engine libreoffice* nuscratch You can get a complete list of what’s installed in your Raspbian OS by running: sudo dpkg -l | less +—————————————————————————+ | IMPORTANT: | | Unless you know what each package does and understand it’s dependencies, | | do NOT remove it | +—————————————————————————+ 9. You can read more about # this here: # # https://raspberrypi. If you use the 3. 25 kernel | | maintainers, in the sa_data kernel data structure, both the stock Raspbian AX. Conf file and now make the lines read: — domain-needed bogus-priv #If you plan on allowing Rpi-connected Wifi devices to get # internet access from the Rpi tself, comment out the next line no-resolv interface=lo,ap0 listen-address=192. D/rsyslog — rotate 3 daily missingok notifempty compress compresscmd /bin/bzip2 uncompresscmd /bin/bunzip2 compressoptions -9 compressext. Let’s get down to it. It’s also mentioned that the 3B+ can be more successfully DECLOCKed to 600Mhz possibly lower the power consumption but this thread generally recommends to buy OLDER Rpi versions if power consumption matters to you: https://www. C – Start up ntpd and let things sit. 4 (final release version) # 04/24/17 – Added a test OBEACON object # 04/20/17 – Updated the Direwolf build a bit # 04/07/17 – Corrected required Direwolf checkinstall packages as we don’t need the -dev versions # 03/16/17 – updated checkconfig package description to be all on one line # 03/09/17 – Updated the SD card imaging section to recommend using larger card sides, pre-format it, # – Updates on the RPiv3 vs RPiv2 boards # – Updated GPS setup section # # 02/28/17 – Added a URL for Bluetooth audio support # 02/26/17 – Added a note to remove the unattended-upgrades package # 02/21/17 – Updated setting the proper hostname and FQDN for the Rpi # 02/20/17 – Added systemd logging to the pyshutdown section to better monitor when it’s # being activated # # 01/13/17 – Added sending an email to root when the pi is rebooted # – Updated the watchdog section a bit # # 12/12/16 – Added HW watchdog support # – Added the beginnings of ulogd2 support to send iptables log lines to # a different file # # 12/10/16 – Added specific links for the firewall-confirm. Service 11. You’ll find that Raspbian begins log too much stuff to too many places. Wav If this works ok, you should see the output: Recording WAVE ‘/tmp/test. Software TNC This document focuses on installing and using the Direwolf software TNC as this solution offers a cheaper yet superior solution for AX. A Create remote NFS mounts for compile scratch space (save the SD card)
Building up the AX. | | Everything will be fine if you don’t create the Bluetooth connection. In this example, I’m using: unsrc “KI6ZHD-6” undest “David KLPRC3 KBERR KRDG KBERR KVOLC KBETH TAH0E” 12. Take a hand help radio, QSY it’s VFO to 144. 255 # wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant. D -f triggerhappy remove #Disable the Rsync daemon – usually doesn’t autostart without editing the /etc/default/rsync file sudo update-rc. Local — #Send a message to root when the Rpi reboots date | mailx -s “host: `uname -n` was rebooted” — root — 13. For those who are curious, you can learn a little more about # these Bluetooth UUIDs with: # info 24:71:89:96:de:AB — Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB Name: TH-D74 Alias: TH-D74 Class: 0x620204 Icon: phone Paired: yes Trusted: yes Blocked: no Connected: no LegacyPairing: no UUID: Serial Port (00001101-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb) UUID: Headset AG (00001112-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb) RSSI: -71 TxPower: 4 — # Notice a few things the above bluetooth output: # # 1. Skipping TNC Type: direwolf Restoring audio levels on soundcard Starting direwolf Installing one KISS connection on PTY port /tmp/kisstnc PTS0 device: /dev/pts/3 Setting kissparms (changes only shown in /var/log/packet. New — #Change these two key parameters to match that of your direwolf. Sh # sudo chown root mount-usb-hd. 500 — Ok, let’s update the DS3231 clock. # – Improved the TNC-Pi section formatting a little # 08/28/18 – Remove avahi-daemon and expanded on the SSH section to include updating the # firewall to handle the change in port numbers # 08/04/18 – Minor changes to the Rpi hardware section # 07/20/18 – Added a comment in the TNC-Pi section to reboot the TNC after making any # register changes # 07/19/18 – Added a note that a. NOAM” for my geo-centric location. Confirm Clean Silence from the Soundcard This check is needed as a *lot* of USB sound devices will pass on noise from dirty power sources in the form of dirty audio. 69-8) over NFS | | Centos5 or Centos6: – https://bugzilla. | | To stop this, I have to either reboot (to disable the wlan0 interface from coming up) | oredit the /etc/network/interfaces file and disable the | two AP lines like: | | #iface AP1 inet dhcp | #iface AP2 inet dhcp | | sudo ifconfig wlan0 down +——————————————————————————————- +——————————————————————————————+ | IMPORTANT: 09/04/17 (was 08/14/16) | | | | This entire section and all of it’s sub-sections are DEPRECATED. — Now try running this ncurses-based GPS display program (works well over an SSH terminal): gpsmon -n /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Sh chmod 700 mount-hampacket2-nfs. 25 system:
18. This is NOT not the purpose of this document. If the test was successful, Type in the following to forground the hostapd program and then exit it: — fg %1 control-c — If the above tests DIDN’T WORK, you can try a few things: 1) You might have an incompatible Wifi channel configured. Temporarily disconnect the packet radio from the USB soundcard’s playback jack, connect in a pair of headphones to the soundcard, and listen to the playback the silence sound file: aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 /tmp/15sec-silence. Make sure your kernel has the netlink kernel modules which is required #One kernel file find /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/net/netfilter/ | grep -e ip_conntrack_netlink. # # 08/27/17 – Added a top note that I will be updating this document to support Raspian Stretch # as time permits # # 08/21/17 – Various fixes as reported from KI6NJF : appending new unix groups to existing groups; # disable auto-login added some clarification on hard drive spindown issues; missing # ‘” root’ on the mailx command on reboots; mentioned notes of not needing to unmount # /tmp; moved the packet monitor to TTY8 # # 08/20/17 – Added an option section in the Direwolf. APRS Igate: If you intend on setting up an APRS Igate, below are the settings to create a receive-only APRS Igate for general packets but APRS-IS to RF enabled transmit Igate for APRS messages. For example, let’s see if the HD is spinning now: sudo /sbin/hdparm -C /dev/sda — /dev/sda: drive state is: active/idle — e. The two UUIDs shown above # # 2. The more packets sent in a window, the faster the throughput BUT there is a risk. This documentation has been tested with v1. Socket file and change the line: sudo vim /lib/systemd/system/gpsd. When you’re done and unmount the USB HD, the previous mount will be still there # In this example, I’m mounting things via a script. 1 netmask 255. If you you’re starting out with a pre-imaged microSD/SD card and /etc/os-release doesn’t show Debian 9. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 — You should see a TUI (textual user interface) screen printing both top level details from your GPS on the top with the incoming streaming NMEA data on the bottom. If you run the command again, # it will instantly re-associate to the D74. That’s the MAC we’ll need. Dl=0 which runs a basic clock. Fortunately, it’s not too hard to add a shutdown button. Confirm the SDP device # was created with running: ls -la /var/run/sdp — srw-rw—- 1 root root 0 Dec 24 10:53 /var/run/sdp — # Again, try the sdptool command and hopefully it now works: sudo sdptool browse local — Browsing FF:FF:FF:00:00:00. Appendix
90. A OPTIONAL: Create remote NFS mounts for compile scratch space (save the SD card) +—————————————————————————————————————–+ | IMPORTANT | | ——— | | It seems that you CANNOT use autoconf (at least v2. Ok, let’s give it a temporary test by running the following commands to get the kernel module to load and connect to the device on I2C bus 1 (Rpi v1 users will need to use bus 0): #You CANNOT use sudo to run the entire command as it’s passing multiple parameters sudo su echo ds3231 0x68 > /sys/class/i2c-adapter/i2c-1/new_device exit After that, Linux should have already loaded the DS1307 kernel module which also supports the DS3231 chip. If everything worked up to this point and you want this Wifi Ap system to work at every boot up, let’s enable it permanently: #Enable the Systemd services to start on boot sudo systemctl enable hostapd sudo systemctl enable dnsmasq Ok. If it runs ok, it won’t return any details but if there are errors, it will say so. Edit the /etc/ax25/axports file by running the following commands and change it to reflect your own settings: sudo cp axports axports. Ip_forward=1″ to the /etc/sysctl. Add an email notification when your Rpi is rebooted If the test email notification was received, I would recommend to now recommend to have the system send you an email when the Rpi is rebooted. Type in the following command (assuming your /etc/ax25/axports device name is “vhfdrop”) while holding down the “monitor” button (disables squelch on your monitoring HT: beacon -s vhfdrop “this is a test-this is a test-this is a test-this is a test-” You’ll hear static all the time which is normal but this also temporarily disables any RX power saving settings on your HT. Any packets that will be # dropped due to the rate limit is logged. Finally, I recommend to start Linpac via the included shell script found in /usr/share/linpac/contrib/start-linpac. If you want to auto-start some of the additional packet services including Linpac, first edit the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. I personally feel this is an infrastructure level configuration (just like configuring Ethernet or Wifi interfaces) so this belongs in /etc somewhere. Orig sudo vi axports — Comment out or delete all the port definitions except “vhfdrop” at the bottom of the file – On the “vhfdrop” line, the next field is the callsign and SSID. If you want to know why these # sources vs the official AX. Other information lines will display and continue to come but but gpsd is successfully running. | | | | It’s unclear if enabling things via the watchdog package will conflict with | | the Systemd method. You can either download this script with: cd /tmp wget http://www. Let’s create the “ap0” device name by editing the right Udev file: sudo vim /etc/udev/rules. Screenrc-svxlink -S linpac sudo linpac — to — screen -d -m -S linpac sudo linpac #screen -d -r linpac — It’s important to have that last line commented out or screen will try to reconnect to the current TTY but no one is logged in. Checkconfig will automatically install the package for you but if you manually want to install it, use the following (configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb) sudo dpkg –install ax25mail-utils_0. Setup a 20×4 LCD via I2C to display various system details The goal of this project was to add and LCD display to my Raspberry Pi to know what’s going on in it at a glance. Rpi pin 18 (Broadcom GPIO 24) connected to on 10K Ohm resistor (resistor color code: brown, black, orange, gold) 2. 2 and other cleanups # 04/27/17 – Updated Direwolf to 1. There is a 3rd party tool out there named “hd-idle” that might help you work around this d. Raspbian also now uses the dhcpcd (read that as DHCP *client*) process for all network interfaces (strangely enough. Remove the power, wait 5 seconds, and re-connect it. For example, to create the user “dranch” (please replace “dranch” with your desired username): sudo adduser dranch b. – they moved the classic TTY-level RS232 serial port usually on GPIO pins 14/15 from /dev/ttyAMA0 to /dev/ttyS0 – It seems that simultaneous usage of the Rpi’s Wifi and BT support is not very reliable. Conf file, find and delete the following stanza: — daemon. This means that if you later connect an HDMI port while it’s already booted, it won’t display anything. Shutdown the Rpi with: /sbin/shutdown -h now 2. There are lots of helpful and patient Linux HAMs there that are ready to help. B Since you’re compiling for Debian, don’t let the older RPM spec file fake out the checkinstall program (this is a work around for a known bug in the checkinstall program). If you ran that above patch file or you did and it didn’t work for whatever reason, you can alternatively run the following commands and then try the checkconfig command again. 25 stack with the following command: sudo /etc/ax25/ax25-up. Com/community/WifiDocs/MasterMode AP or client mode —————– There are a few ways to do this but I chose to use a GPIO switch to select if the Wifi should be an AP or a client. Consider buying a compact bluetooth keyboard and pairing it with your smartphone. Linpacconfig Anyway, to get you started, once you SSH into your Raspberry Pi and configure your packet system to auto-start upon boot (starts Linpac too), you’ll be able to connect to the “screened” Linpac session at any time by running the command: sudo screen -dr linpac At this point, you should see the Linpac main interface where: – At the top are the commands to send to either Linpac or to the remote station you’ve connected to – In the middle is the text your station receives from the remote station – At the bottom is all the packets your system is hearing A few quick commands to get you around: – To connect to a remote station, say the remote “lprc3” node that in my area, I would issue the following command INCLUDING the first “:” character too: :c lprc3 The system should then connect and you’ll see the text coming in from the remote system. 25 | | stack testing” testing section to confirm your AX. TBD | | | | see: | | https://unix. How to disable Bluetooth on the Rpi v3 and Rpi Zero W +—————————————————————-+ | Optional: | | | | Disabling BT minimizes any issues with Wifi and opens back | | up using the on-board serial console via the GPIO pins. Conf file and now make the lines read: — interface=ap0 driver=nl80211 ssid=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-ME #Change this if you arent in the US country_code=US hw_mode=g channel=1 macaddr_acl=0 auth_algs=1 wmm_enabled=0 ieee80211n=1 ht_capab=[HT40][SHORT-GI-20][DSSS_CCK-40] wpa=2 wpa_passphrase=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-THIS wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK wpa_pairwise=CCMP — Next, we need to change the the /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant. It’s worth noting that Debian includes an auto-updating package. Conf & — Configuration file: /etc/hostapd/hostapd. If I issue: | | sudo ifconfig wlan0 up | | everything then seems to work. You may see lots of disconnections and reassociation on both the Wifi and BT sides. D/iptables k. Debs and the 3rd party VE7FET ax. New starting up Wed Aug 30 21:27:27 PDT 2017 axudp port not enabled in /etc/ax25/axports. If it’s not set (and accurate), things either won’t work at all or you’ll get data from APRS-IS that isn’t appropreate for your area — # Enable Igate connectivity – connects go on TCP port 14580 # If you are in other locations in the world, choose a closer APRS-IS pool listed at http://aprsisce. Conf file contains all your expected changes and wasn’t reset to defaults. # Recommended: hostapd and dnsmasq HostAP and a LB-Link BL-LW05-AR5 802. If you bought the same DS3231 RTC as I did, the LEd on the unit should light up. Make a backup of your MicroSD card This section will let you make complete image backups of you Raspberry Pi SD card to a heavily compressed file on another computer. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols — Hit ENTER again to accept the description Next, confirm the checkinstall fields all look ok and similar to the following: — 0 – Maintainer: [ [email protected] To change this, edit the SSH daemon config file: sudo vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config – find the line that reads #Port 22 and change it to say Port 2222 b. Go ahead and type in control-C to exit the Python program. I also noticed that you CANNOT have two “managed” devices aliased to the same physical device. Beyond the automatic reboot, | | The only other way to regain control of the HT is to pull the battery. 11n WLAN Adapter [606161. Com/debian-pi/raspbian-ua-netinst/pull/390 | +———————————————————————————————–+ To get this useful feature working, you need to follow a few key steps: 1. After 10-20 seconds, the D74’s BT mac address should show up on the # commandline tool looking like: # # [NEW] Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB TH-D74 # # This output MUST showup before you move on and actually do a pairing or # the program # will give the error: # # Device 24:71:89:96:de:AB not available # Now initiate the pairing mode on the D74 with going into: # # Menu –> Configuration -> Bluetooth -> Pairing Mode # # Now issue the command to start the pairing: pair 24:71:89:96:DE:AB # You should now see on the D74’s display, the BT pairing code. 25 programs like beacon or Linpac will fail. When some of these compiling systems run out of RAM, they automatically overflow the build objects to the /tmp file system. If you ever accidently delete a file, a directory, or have your SD card get corrupted, you can restore from this image. One method to get a reliable date/time is via NTP (network time protoco) be it from the Internet or more interestingly from a GPS data feed. Until configured later. Deb (–unpack): | | trying to overwrite ‘/usr/include/netax25/ax25. Maybe this can be fixed through newer firmware for | | the Raspberry Pi but I haven’t seen much movement here. 25 stack is properly working. Sh if [ $. Without this, Direwolf | | will simply just not key up your radio and you’ll never know why. 250 degrees Celcius or 73. | | To fix that, run the commands: | | | | stty sane | | rm -f rm /var/lock/LinPac. Connect your USB keyboard and mouse to the USB hub d. This step might not be required if Direwolf doesn’t include a. – To force a disconnection of the current session, use: :d – If you configured Linpac to use to different SSIDs, you can use the respective F1, F2, F3, etc keys to use which can either initiate or receive multiple, simultaneous connections. I would also recommend to delete the following stanza as it’s redundant, and only consumes additional log space: sudo vi /etc/rsyslog. Log and right after it, add: kern. – RAM Size The RPi 3B+, 3 and v2 have 1GB of LPDDR2 RAM (faster), the Zero W and v1 model B has 512MB of RAM 3B+ / v3 / v2 : 1GB of RAM W and v1 : 512MB of RAM – RAM Clocking: The 1GB of RAM on thew 3B+ / 3 / Zero-W is clocked 50Mhz faster than the Rpi v2 and v1 3B+ / v3 / Zero W : 450Mhz v2 and v1 : 400Mhz – GPU Clocking: The GPU video chip used on all Raspberry Pi models is the VideoCore IV but the RPi 3B+, 3 and Zero W run 50Mhz faster: 3B+ / 3 / Zero-W : 300Mhz v2, v1 : 250Mhz – Wifi Networking: 3B+ : dual band 2. The display’s backlight should light up but nothing be on the display. Cd /tmp wget http://www. This CPU is substantially slower and is less efficent than even a Raspberry Pi v2. Service Search failed: Invalid argument Service Name: Generic Access Profile Service Provider: BlueZ Service RecHandle: 0x10001 Service Class ID List: “Generic Access” (0x1800) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) PSM: 31 “ATT” (0x0007) uint16: 0x0001 uint16: 0x0005 Service Name: Generic Attribute Profile Service Provider: BlueZ Service RecHandle: 0x10002 Service Class ID List: “Generic Attribute” (0x1801) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) PSM: 31 “ATT” (0x0007) uint16: 0x0006 uint16: 0x0009 Service Name: AVRCP CT Service RecHandle: 0x10003 Service Class ID List: “AV Remote” (0x110e) “AV Remote Controller” (0x110f) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) PSM: 23 “AVCTP” (0x0017) uint16: 0x0103 Profile Descriptor List: “AV Remote” (0x110e) Version: 0x0106 Service Name: AVRCP TG Service RecHandle: 0x10004 Service Class ID List: “AV Remote Target” (0x110c) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) PSM: 23 “AVCTP” (0x0017) uint16: 0x0103 Profile Descriptor List: “AV Remote” (0x110e) Version: 0x0105 — # TO BE CONFIRMED if this is NEEDED (I don’t think it is) # It’s mentioned that the permissions of this /var/run/sdp need to be “other” read and # writable. # No symbolic links allowed, either, since the daemon updates the file # by creating a temporary in the same directory and then rename()’ing # it to the file. 187426] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off [ 360. You can put anything in here that helps identify this AX. I then did some security investigation and it turns out his Rpi been compromised before he imaged it and published it on the Internet. Statd is not running but is required for remote locking. NOTE: —– I’ve seen that many programs just barely show any text on the LCD display If you look very closely, at an angle, you’ll be able to tell the text is but it’s way too faint. On my computer, it shows up as /dev/mmcblk0 3. Field-keywords=SD-CM-UAUD It’s is proven reliable and also doesn’t spew RF noise on 144. 4Ghz band and there isn’t any 5. New script DOES have support for the TNC-Pi. D -f rsync disable 11. This is fully documented here: http://www. Org/RPi_USB_Wi-Fi_Adapters for a comprehensive list of devices that are known to work. Conf iface AP1 inet dhcp iface AP2 inet dhcp — Now, per the details at https://albeec13. Ddd 48850 GPU temp temp=49. 0: pl2303 converter detected [262398. It seems that the Raspbian community follows the NON-LTS version of Debian schedule shown here: https://wiki. Com/system/rsyslog-config/ It’s a little terse on what really needs to be done. Py” and change I2C address to match your display’s I2C address (mine is 0x3f) and LCD dimentions to 20,4: 54c54

ADDRESS = 0x3f 57c57 DIMENSIONS = (20, 4) Ok, give the program a try: sudo python examples. Log { rotate 3 daily missingok notifempty copytruncate size 10M compress compresscmd /bin/bzip2 uncompresscmd /bin/bunzip2 compressoptions -9 compressext. /bin/sh /sbin/iptables-restore COUNTRY_UPDATE wlan0: Could not connect to kernel driver Using interface wlan0 with hwaddr b8:27:eb:0a:50:6e and ssid “ki6zhd-ap” wlan0: interface state COUNTRY_UPDATE->ENABLED wlan0: AP-ENABLED — If you see something like the above where it ends in “wlan0: AP-ENABLED”, things are looking GOOD. Com –provides linpac –requires libax25,ax25-apps,ax25-tools,libncurses5 make install Follow the checkinstall prompts: Should I create a default set of package docs. Now re-connect the USB power to the Raspberry Pi: – Do you see the Rpi Wifi SSID. Connect your USB sound card directly to the RPI’s USB ports (more on this in a later section) e. Thought completely optional, I would recommend to install some of these useful programs: vim – better version of Vi tcpdump – network monitor lsof – tool to see what ports / files are open on the machine gpm – mouse program for cutting/pasting when in CLI mode telnet – make simple outgoing TCP connections for various network tests #Install them and their required dependencies # sudo apt-get install vim tcpdump lsof gpm telnet #I would also recommend to ONLY run GPM it when you’re on the actual console (HDMI) and it’s needed. If you find a reliable way, please let me know. Please note that this option is NOT possible on the 3B+ as they removed the solder pads. It doesn’t understand the prompts of other alternative BBSes like JNOS, KPC3 PBBS, etc. FL external antenna solder pads v2 and v1 : No wireless More details on the Wifi: 3B+ – 2. Adding NTP support via GPS and/or Internet access Stock Raspberry Pi SBCs don’t include a real time clock as it would add too much to the cost. Fl solder pads which could be used to add an external wifi antenna – Bluetooth Connectivity: 3B+ – BT v4. Sh script # – Changed the method to lock the pi account, groupadds, etc # # 05/06/16 – Added a point to install rpi-update if it’s not installed already # 04/30/16 – Added to the HDD powerdown section # 04/15/16 – Added an alternative way to find sound card input sampling rates # – Added rough notes to set NTP time ASAP # # 03/16/16 – Added recommend to create a new sudo-enabled account and DISABLE # the pi account # # 03/06/16 – Added an additional todo item # 03/05/16 – Added a gotcha section on how to fix an Rpi not being able to reboot # 03/04/16 – Added references to alternative / pre-build Rpi images # 02/27/16 – Added a new interactive GPIO pinout website URL # 12/12/15 – Added DHCP client support to the firewall # 12/11/15 – Updated iptables example to drop but not log chatty network traffic # – Added changes to the /etc/rsyslog. Com –provides ax25 –requires libax25,zlib1g make install When prompted for “Should I create a default set of package docs”, Select Y Next, when prompted for the description, enter in the following: — This package provides specific user applications for hamradio that use AX. The Raspberry Pi v2, Zero W, and v1 are only 32bit cores. Php/2012/04/hdparm-power-down-drives-when-not-in-use/ f. 25 and Persistent Internface naming issues # – Added alternative media idea to send logs to instead of the temporary RAM drive # – added a GPSD fix if IPv6 is disabled # – Added steps to install linpac and ax25mail-utils from apt-get # – mentioned there might be issues with using the Linpac binaries and the VE7FET ax. 61 3 u 48 64 1 77. 158 iz3lsv-0 1. Now run the following command (you can use control-C to stop it) and you should see NOTHING. ” character (and negative values) as well as the degrees. Zip # If the above links don’t work, try looking for a different version of # the “PITNCParams” filename. | +———————————————————————————+

Posted by Surendra Anne | May 28. Over 16,000 readers, Get fresh content from “The Linux juggernaut. Find USB device details in Linux/Unix using lsusb command.

0/8 -j REJECT # Accepts all established inbound connections -A INPUT -m state –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT # Allows all outbound traffic # You could modify this to only allow certain traffic -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT # Allows SSH connections # # Placing your Rpi on the raw Internet (no firewall in front of it) and having # SSH enabled is NOT recommended. Conf | head –lines=1 | awk ‘{print }’` From the above command, after say 20 seconds, you should see a response like: — 17 Oct 12:36:04 ntpdate[19961]: step time server 71. Specifically, you might need to alter the lines to reflect what you want to use: Raspbian Stretch ONLY: Do NOT edit the /etc/network/interfaces file at all. Then, carefully the bottom of the next section area at the bottom of this section on how to complete the setup Anyway, let’s make the minimim changes to allow DHCP on wlan0 by do the following: #First, make a backup of the running rules now sudo cp /etc/iptables/rules. A – does the wlan0 interface exist. 898794) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 18 az= 61 el=43 (0. 1 IP address on the interface. At first, I saw 0 volts but as the Rpi finished it’s booting, I saw the voltage jump to +3. To test it, try running the hostapd service manually by running the following: sudo /usr/sbin/hostapd /etc/hostapd/hostapd. From the man page: # # -n : Don’t wait for a client to connect before polling whatever GPS is associated # with it. 9 KiB) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0 — See that “b8:27:eb:79:82:2c” string. Conf and enable ntp to support it # sudo mkdir /etc/Old sudo cp /etc/ntp. | +——————————————————————————————–+ I still recommend to use the ramdrive approach so lets get started with that. 15-2 which is supposedly fixed | | but the documentation hasn’t caught up. | +—————————————————————————–+ 28. 5A of power for a Raspberry Pi3 though a thick, short, and quality made USB cable. D – Setting up Bluetooth on the Rpi for pairing to a Kenwood D74 KISS TNC All of the steps in this section are required to be followed before pairing and operation of the D74’s KISS TNC is possible —————————————————————————- To get started, you need to get the D74 setup: 1. Temporarily disconnect the packet radio from the USB soundcard’s playback jack, connect in a pair of headphones to the soundcard, and listen to the playback the silence sound file: aplay -Dplughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 /tmp/15sec-silence. To confirm IPv6 is currently running, run the following command: ip address From there, under the second interface, you’ll see a line prefixed with “inet6”. Deb Ok, now let’s now move on and compile / install Linpac Get the newest Linpac sources – 0. Gpsd:INFO: Sats used (4): gpsd:INFO: PRN= 10 az= 18 el=64 (0. Service file and in the [Install] section, add the line: WantedBy=multi-user. Err /var/log/mail. Broadcom HW Watchdog: Automatic reboots if the system becomes unresponsive If your Raspberry Pi unit happens to lock up, crashes, or otherwise becomes non-responsive, a hardware watchdog has the ability to automatically “reset” the hardware. One method to get a reliable date/time is via NTP (network time protoco) be it from the Internet or more interestingly from a GPS data feed. Service #See what else might be running ls /etc/rc3. D -f rpcbind enable service rpcbind start #Update the remote NFS server’s /etc/exports file and run “exportfs -avr” on it #On the local machine, edit the /etc/default/nfs-common file and change the line to: # Create the mounting script – change it to suit your environment # # NOTE: This script is specific to my environment -Please edit to suit your # environment # # /usr/local/sbin/mount-hampacket2-nfs. This means booting via a micro-SD is technically no longer required (I beleive PXE is only available on the 3B+ but MSD support is available on the 3) – NOTE #2: The new 3B+ version also supports PXE booting off Ethernet – Use a quality brand name SD card like Sandisk, Samsung, etc. The audio should be completely noise free. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] NOTE: The Raspberry Pi 3B+ has the same limitations as the 3 in this respect https://www. NOTE #3: If you get an errors like: install: cannot create directory /usr/share/direwolf: No such file or directory then this means you probably didn’t download and install the Makefile patch applied above. You can find more tips at http://www. 1: New USB device found, idVendor=7392, idProduct=7811 [667667. New file to suit your needs but the key parameters to change are: cd /etc/ax25 sudo vim ax25-up. TBD sudo apt-get update #Make sure you get the Linpac 0. If you do have to make changes to the access database, make sure to also compile a new version of the database and restart your email server. Update the version in the below command to match Run the following command: sudo checkinstall –pkgname direwolf –pkgversion 1. Not cool but it’s happening regardless and this is the only | | real way to make sure that things are remaining OK. NOTE: Raspbian Stretch doesn’t copy over the default configuration file by default but if you want to start with that you can issue the command: sudo zcat /usr/share/doc/hostapd/examples/hostapd. D/nfs-common file and change their start up/down priorities from: # Default-Start: S # Default-Stop: 0 1 6 to: # Default-Start: 1 2 3 4 5 # Default-Stop: 0 6 Once that’s in place, you need to reboot but maybe you can’t. As such, lets put it elsewhere: cd /var/tmp wget http://adafruit-download. If you do see it, that’s good but don’t bother trying to connect to it just yet as DHCP isn’t configured on your Raspberry Pi just yet. 001824 sec — 34. Take up your complaint with with the SystemD guys and not me. You’ll probably find many strong signals (birdies) as many devices and sound cards have a poorly shielded 12Mhz crystal oscillators. Later, we will disable the “pi” account but we won’t do it just yet 2. If things look good, let’s save the new firewall ruleset to become your default ruleset: h. S /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward” – uncomment out the masquerade NAT rule in the iptables ruleset. An ideal solution is to use an opto-isolated circuit such as: https://www. UTF-8 UTF-8″ (Great Brittan) – When prompted, I then selected default locale: en_US. Once the OS is shutdown, only the RED power button will stay on. # – Updated the details on the different hardware versions of the Rpi # # 12/28/17 – IMPORTANT: # ———- # Added note that changes in some Linux distributions (Debian Stretch on x86 CPUs) # are making making the VE7FET AX. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 #Run a work around trick for a checkinstall bug which incorrectly reads RPM spec files mv libax25. Bz2 } — # add log rotation for the packet. Old #work around a busted makefile sudo /bin/mkdir -p /var/ax25/ax25rtd Finally, package things up: sudo checkinstall –pkgname ax25-apps –pkgversion 1. I’ve personally tested and have things working with the +3. 746 +cpe-70-114-179- 45. If they show up, you should be good. Log, # and ulogd_traffic-emu1. Load the kernel module and make sure it loaded # This only for Jessie / 4. That’s an impressive reduction. Py Now edit the “RPi_I2C_driver. Fortunately, you can do interactive filter testing without using Direwolf simply with thet Linux “telnet” program. The important information you # get from this output is: # # The top entry is for the Audio side using Bluetooth profiles: # 0x1112 (input) and 0x1203 (output) on Bluetooth channel #1 # # The second entry is for the serial port using Bluetooth profile: # “Serial Port” (0x1101) on channel #2 # In different Unix terminal window than where you are currently running the # program “bluetoothctl”, issue the command: sdptool browse 24:71:89:96:DE:AB # Here, you’ll see all kinds of details: — Browsing 24:71:89:96:DE:AB. That can wear out your hard drive prematurely too (that and consume excess power). Now REMOVE the power connection from the Raspberry Pi for 30 seconds and then reconnect power. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0″ — Now try to start the service with: sudo systemctl start gpsd If all goes well, you’ll just be dropped back to the command prompt without any specific output. Let’s install the required dependencies to build Direwolf sudo apt-get install libasound2-dev unzip If you want to include GPS support for later support of connecting an external GPS for position, date/time, etc, then add the following additional packages: sudo apt-get install gpsd libgps-dev +——————————————————————————————–+ | IMPORTANT: | | | | If you disabled IPv6 above, you might run into an error installing gpsd and this | | is a known bug per https://bugs. Conf file and un-# out the following lines: max-load-1 = 24 watchdog-device = /dev/watchdog 10. Conf file in the SD card’s /boot directory. D ulogd2 reload > /dev/null endscript } — Once you’ve made these changes, no other command are required. 16 p – 64 0 0. Now open another window and run: sudo cat /dev/rfcomm0 # NOW you should have seen the Bluetooth message on the D74 and you’re getting NEMA GPS # sentence details in this window. X kernels sudo echo “bcm2835_wdt” >> /etc/modules 4. Io/2017/09/26/raspberry-pi-zero-w-simultaneous-ap-and-managed-mode-wifi/ there is a race condition of the wlan0 interface coming up first and blocking the ap0 interface from loading. After using this tool, you can install it in your Linux computer to image the card with the Raspbian OS 1. Since this document focuses on being a minimalist GUI-less environment, this isn’t the direction I recommend for packet uses: http://youness. 0 network 192. Avahi-daemon : This service is Linux’s equivelent to Apple’s Bonjour services advertisment protocol. B – does it show “Mode:Master” meaning it’s in Access point mode. Append the “prefer” keyword to the pre-populated Debian NTP servers sudo vim /etc/ntp. The RTL8192 code support for Linux has never been properly maintained and is most | | likely probably completely broken now Raspbian Stretch and Jessie. Enable/Disable IPv6 upon booting Since there isn’t any IPv6 firewall loaded upon boot, I current will explicitly recommend to DISABLE the IPv6 protocol. When prompted for your callsign, enter in your callsign without any trailing SSID. For me, this is what I setup: sudo vi /etc/aliases — root: [email protected]&ft;change this to reflect your full email address> — Once you edited that file, run the command: sudo newaliases This command will silently compile this new alias into the /etc/aliases. #As such, disable gpm from starting at boot time sudo update-rc. You’ll have to wait for the command to # time out or just reboot the Rpi. Consider buying | | a Rpi v3 with built-in Wifi instead and | | read the above section | +——————————————-+ 31. Shutdown the Rpi with the shutdown button (if you followed that section) or run the command: sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now Wait for the Rpi to shutdown and watch the RPi’s green LED blink 10 times and then go completely off to mean it’s safe to remove the power. Reload the firewall set following the previous recommendations in the Firewall section of this doc and now things should be all logged in the /var/log/ulogd_traffic-emu1. As a work around to this busted time/date, you can do the following (or just get a better GPS receiver): sudo fake-hwclock save systemctl enable fake-hwclock This should resolve this for the Rpi’s next reboot. 16 p – 64 0 0. A setting of 40 means 400ms which is pretty conservative (most radios are like 100-150ms). Ok, let’s give it a temporary test by running the following commands to get the kernel module to load and connect to the device on I2C bus 1 (Rpi v1 users will need to use bus 0): #You CANNOT use sudo to run the entire command as it’s passing multiple parameters sudo su echo ds3231 0x68 > /sys/class/i2c-adapter/i2c-1/new_device exit After that, Linux should have already loaded the DS1307 kernel module which also supports the DS3231 chip. Worst case, the /tmp will fill up. | +———————————————————————————+ Assuming you have a USB-based GPS receiver (or a serial-port based GPS receiver with a serial to USB adapter), follow these steps: To get started, plug in your the USB based GPS device to determine what device name it gets by running either: dmesg or sudo journalctl I see: — [262398. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 –maintainer [email protected] 11A or AC link support. #1 – On the TNC-Pi board, does it have Jumpers JP2 and JP3 right next to the Rpi GPIO pin header. Package and install Direwolf 7. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25 ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ zlib1g ] 11 – Provides: [ ax25 ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] — Hit ENTER to start the packaging and attempt to install the package +—————————————————————————-+ | NOTE: | | The above command will FAIL at the “Installing Debian package” stage | | due to install due to a known conflict in the AX. If it was, restore the previous backup that was put in /etc/ax25/Old. 11n USB wifi device https://bogeskov. If you already had a /etc/ax25/direwolf. 197127] usbcore: registered new interface driver rtl8192cu — This is what one of these larger LB-Link BL-LW05-AR5 802. A great write up on the background of all this can be found here: https://github. At this stage, you have a few choices to get the Raspian image installed on the SD card: 4. If you instead see “call: no AX. I agree with you that it’s totally backwards but it’s TRUE. Sh script to make that active. I bought an inexpensive USB GPS unit but | | it would never lock on more than one or two satellites when inside and | | that could take like ten minutes. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ This package provides specific user applications for hamradio that use AX. It’s very chatty and creates a security risk. Raspbian Jessie ONLY (NOT Stretch): sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces — allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 192. I recommend to shut down your TNC-Pi with “sudo /sbin/shutdown -h now”, wait to see the green power LED blink 7 times. Unreliable power is the #1 issue with Raspberry Pis so please don’t just use any old power brick with any old USB cable (which might have under-gauged wire and/or are too long). Com/pritambaral/hostapd-rtl871xdrv and https://github. To do this, issue the following command # in one window: sudo rfcomm bind hci0 24:71:89:96:DE:AB 2 # Notice the command ran and it instantly put you back that the Unix prompt. A such, select “Console” – International options – Locale – I selected “en_US. New — #remove the # in front of this line /etc/ax25/ax25-up. T=190570 There was an example program posted at https://www. For now, put the radio into high power mode by pressing F + Menu until the display shows “H” for HIGH power 4. Fortunately, the Official AX. I’d recommend to only beacon once an hour if your station is always up and available. F=29&t=147501 Seems this recommendation is avoiding the SystemD approach 3. Zip and http://www. — Type in control-c to exit. To support larger /tmp and general build area storage, I recommend doing something like the following temporary setting. Png +—————————————————————————————+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | ————– | | Every radio is different and the above connections will need to be changed to | | conform to your specific radio. Deb package for you but also save a copy of the built deb package as well in the /usr/src/archive/Rpi2-scratch/direwolf/direwolf-1. Most drives are standardized these days but if you’re unlucky, you’ll need to try out these various commands and see if they need to be modified for your specific device a. 1 netmask 255. To protect your system from having Apt overwriting your custom | | compiled version of the Linpac package, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold linpac | | | | Linpac 0. Setup a DS3231 battery backed up real time clock (RTC) with temperature sensor Building on the above section of getting an I2C-based LCD working, this section uses the same I2C bus to communicate to a DS3231 real time clock to set the system’s date/time upon power up. Wav If you select the wrong ALSA device, you might see the error: aplay: set_params:1239: Channels count non available Even better. 9 KiB) RX errors 0 dropped 1 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 266 bytes 33726 (32. Debs and the 3rd party VE7FET ax. Old #Temporarily work around a known GLIBC conflict # # Do NOT do this on Debian Buster or the configure stage will FAIL # sudo mv /usr/include/netax25/ax25. Orig sudo vi axports — Comment out or delete all the port definitions except “vhfdrop” at the bottom of the file – On the “vhfdrop” line, the next field is the callsign and SSID. 0:2947 — Ok, let’s do a manual test of your GPS. That’s the MAC we’ll need. Conf file # so that Dnsmasq can start and run to give IP addresses to Wifi users # – Added additional thoughts on installing Rasbian Pixel vs Rasbian Lite # – Added some specific recommendations to NOT connect your Rpi directly to the Internet # or have a port SSH port forward going to it until you harden it’s configuration with # say exclusively using SSH keys and disabling SSH passwords, installing Fail2ban, etc. Txt This doc section: Based on recommendations from https://frillip. Txt – For classic packet use, the SSIDs can differ from region to region. Hopefully those will be addressed over time but none of them seem to be fatal. Sh approach: #It’s critical that you include the trailing “&” character for proper operation sudo /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. 25 services, you can remove the #s in those lines to have them auto start too. BEWARE of the soundcard and radio microphone bias DC voltage IMPORTANT: Microphone Bias Voltage: ———————————– Before you connect your radio to your soundcard, it’s CRITICAL that you check to see if: 1) Your soundcard’s microphone jack does or doesn’t provides a “bias” voltage for condenser-type microphones. Bring up the AX. Assuming all of the tests above PASSED above, now go back to your desired Wifi device (smartphone, etc) and try to associate to your Raspberry Pi AP using the configured RPI’s configured SSID and WPA2 passphrase: – Did the device associate on the Wifi level (connected but didn’t get an IP address just yet). If you already created this username before hand and are now adding some of these Unix groups after the fact, you must log out and log back in to use these new permissions. Consider buying a compact bluetooth keyboard and pairing it with your smartphone. See the following URL for more details: http://gis. For most ISP’s MTAs (remote email servers that accept email), this won’t be needed but if you run your own upstream “smarthost”, you might to need to update the “access” database. 1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3 [667667. | | | | If you’re not sure if you have an IPv6 address already running, | | try the command: | | | | netstat -6 -rn | grep UG | | | | If you see something come back, you INDEED have IPv6 connectivity. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 identified as type SiRF, 4. Add the following lines to the interfaces file and you can change the management IP address of this bridge group to whatever subnet you like: vim /etc/network/interfaces — auto br0 iface br0 inet static address 192. Sh and change the line that reads: — screen -c $HOME/. Dd bs=1M sudo rm -f /media/sd-card/p1/bigfile. Conf file to enable GPS PPS mode # The SHM keyword or “SHard Memory” keyword is an alias to the “type 28” reference clock created by gpsd # # 1. (This capability is rare in consumer-grade devices). Local file as root: sudo vi /etc/rc. #Update the config – Dantracker currently ONLY supports devices like ttyUSB0 # (not /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Back to it, you first need to install some key software: #Update your software list sudo apt-get update #Accept all additional package dependencies sudo apt-get install dnsmasq hostapd rfkill Next, you need to enable the dhcpcd service and configure a static IP of 192. Other information lines will display and continue to come but but gpsd is successfully running. That can REALLY slow things down if you have many retries. In this example, I’m using: unsrc “KI6ZHD-6” undest “David KLPRC3 KBERR KRDG KBERR KVOLC KBETH TAH0E” 12. Net # Smarthost / SMTP relayhost – here, it’s not that you put in the # actual IP of the remote host but the domain name that will accept # this email. It’s HIGHLY recommended that you put your Rpi behind a home “router” or NAT device which doesn’t have any SSH or other port forwards pointing to the Raspberry Pi. Good to know things work but it’s the wrong function. This suppport is either mentioned indirectly in this document’s appendix and in the /etc/ax25/ax25-up. For test #2 – put the GPS into NEMA mode and display the raw output heard: gpsctl -f -n /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. Cd /etc/iptables This directory should already exist, but if not, create it with: sudo mkdir /etc/iptables b. New script but, for now, I’ve created a basic script called bt-kiss-bringup. It should look like: tmpfs 441580 6012 435568 2% /run tmpfs 5120 4 5116 1% /run/lock tmpfs 441580 0 441580 0% /sys/fs/cgroup tmpfs 20480 128 20352 1% /var/log tmpfs 1024 0 10240 0% /tmp The use of the tmpfs RAM drives is the normal setup on Jessie based Raspbian installs but NOT Raspbian Stretch. Deb force install is now needed for the ax25-tools # package due to three conflicting MAN page files # – Added a reminder in the picking a GPIO pin section about making sure the # user has set the required GPIO Unix permissions # 07/10/18 – Updated a URL for Raspbian and Bluetooth support # 06/26/18 – Typo for section 70 # 05/24/18 – Some ax25 compile section cleanups # # 05/17/18 – Added a note about this doc is tested with Direwolf 1. On the monitoring HT, key up the radio and call out your callsign to make things legal b. Increasing this value allows more data will flow per packet (with risk). Stuff that still needs to be updated from Wheezy to Stretch/Jessie TBD N7NIX Dan tracker —————– Need to integrate hampacket2:/usr/src/archive/RPi/n7nix-udrtracker-install. Download and apply KI6ZHD’s Makefile. 48W_329/008g017t067r000P000p000h74b10093/ {UIV32N} — 27. Com/questions/22711 -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp –icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT #Allow DHCP incoming addresses -A INPUT -p udp –sport 67 –dport 68 -j ACCEPT # Block but don’t log local samba traffic – expand to whatever you need -A INPUT -p udp –sport 138 –dport 138 -j DROP # log iptables denied calls (access via ‘dmesg’ command) -A INPUT -m limit –limit 5/min -j LOG –log-prefix “iptables denied: ” –log-level 7 # Reject all other inbound – default deny unless explicitly allowed policy: -A INPUT -j REJECT -A FORWARD -j REJECT COMMIT — f. 25 packages from git Why use the VE7FET AX. Net/projects/ax25mail ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ ax25-tools,perl ] 11 – Provides: [ ax25mail-utils ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] — If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging. 0 broadcast 192. Without these “holds” in place, # your locally built packages will get overwriten with the known toxic versions # – Updated the Linpac section to apply a new patch to avoid some issues when built with newer # versions of GCC. 25 stack with the following command: sudo /etc/ax25/ax25-up. 000 +104. I recommend you connect an LED and a 500ohm resistor to a GPIO pin to use it. 861557] IPv6: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_UP): wlan0: link is not ready — Next, see if the OS has automatically created the “wlan0” interface: /sbin/ifconfig — wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 44:33:4c:58:dd:fa UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:0 (0. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 You should see something like the following: — gpsd:INFO: launching (Version 3. Set a channel of say 1 through 11. Sh – Blank empty space for smaller system backups and take an image copy of your removed Rpi micro-SD card for backup reasons http://www. As the root used, edit the script /usr/share/linpac/contrib/start-linpac. To support this this setup, edit these lines to read: [email protected] KI6ZHD-6 [email protected] KI6ZHD-6 I then insert “;;” in front of the other “mycall” lines to comment them out (disabling them). Deb | | | | You can read more but this bug at: | | https://github. Make sure this new SD card is the same size OR bigger (use the fdisk command shown above to see it’s size in blocks) 9. To disable this, run: sudo raspi-config In the menu, select “Boot Options” –> “Desktop / CLI” and select “Desktop GUI, requiring user to login” 8. Soundcard Mixer settings The following levels are an example of properly tuned levels for my specific setup (Syba and Alinco HT). Let’s create the “ap0” device name by editing the right Udev file: sudo vim /etc/udev/rules. Then other side of the momentary switch to Rpi pin 18 – GND Once the button is wired up and connected to the correct GPIO pins on the Raspberry Pi, go ahead and power up your Rpi. 1/24 #static routers=192. 25 parameters configured in the ax25-up. None -/var/log/syslog b. Good, now try out a gpsd client to talk to the gpsd server. 255 bridge_ports none bridge_fd 1 bridge_hello 1 bridge_stp on — Go ahead and manually start it with: ifup br0 #If things don’t work right, try debugging with: service hostapd stop hostapd -dd /etc/hostapd/hostapd. 150,4h — Now, edit the /etc/hostapd/hostapd. When the Rpi comes back up, log back into the Rpi a look for: – If you’re using a Syba USB soundcard, check that it’s green LED is slowly blinking – Running “ifconfig” will show the “ax0″ interface – Run the following commands to make sure they are running: ps aux | grep pishutdown ps aux | grep direwolf ps ax | grep listen #There will be three of these ps ax | grep linpac ps ax | grep beacon ps ax | grep mheardd If all of these process are listed. 500 — Ok, let’s update the DS3231 clock. There are just too many reports of either cheap cards and/or counterfit cards not giving the advertised capacity or failing very quickly. Html to learn how to tune your packet signal. Sh available below that does the basic bring up steps: http://www. Socket | | file with: | | | | sudo vi /lib/systemd/system/gpsd. 4,M,,*6A $GPRMC,041222. Timer sudo systemctl disable apt-daily. 4 (final release version) # 04/24/17 – Added a test OBEACON object # 04/20/17 – Updated the Direwolf build a bit # 04/07/17 – Corrected required Direwolf checkinstall packages as we don’t need the -dev versions # 03/16/17 – updated checkconfig package description to be all on one line # 03/09/17 – Updated the SD card imaging section to recommend using larger card sides, pre-format it, # – Updates on the RPiv3 vs RPiv2 boards # – Updated GPS setup section # # 02/28/17 – Added a URL for Bluetooth audio support # 02/26/17 – Added a note to remove the unattended-upgrades package # 02/21/17 – Updated setting the proper hostname and FQDN for the Rpi # 02/20/17 – Added systemd logging to the pyshutdown section to better monitor when it’s # being activated # # 01/13/17 – Added sending an email to root when the pi is rebooted # – Updated the watchdog section a bit # # 12/12/16 – Added HW watchdog support # – Added the beginnings of ulogd2 support to send iptables log lines to # a different file # # 12/10/16 – Added specific links for the firewall-confirm. TBD | | | | see: | | https://unix. That assumes you configured the other D74 menus items as mentioned above That’s it. In the future, I might reverse everything around in the above section but for now, I’m not going to do that. Some RS232 GPSes wait in a standby mode (drawing less power) when the # host machine is not asserting DTR, and some cellphone and handheld embedded GPSes # have similar behaviors. 59W power=4 height=20 gain=6 comment=”Santa Clara, CA” via=WIDE1-1 c. Download my two example AX. Once a system has gone bad, remote system can become unreachable and repairing it can be very difficult if not impossible until fixed packages are released. To fix this, edit the /etc/rsyslog. V4-test” file will be used to TEST all firewall changes before they are made the default firewall upon every boot). Install and configure a simple IPTABLES firewall Assuming your Raspbery Pi has Internet access (hopefully it’s behind an existing firewall to keep it safe until it’s running it’s own firewall), run: sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install iptables-persistent # # Accept any needed dependencies like iptables-persistent and netfilter-persistent Depending on your version of Raspbian, you might be prompted if you want to: “Save current IPv4 rules”. If you find a reliable way, please let me know. Now run the following command (you can use control-C to stop it) and you should see NOTHING. Now if you’re curious how accurate the RTC is compared to NTP over time, you can try running commands like this one at any time where “hw-time” is the RTC and the “system-time” is the NTP set Raspberry Pi time. If you disagree and prefer putting it in say /home/pi, that’s fine but make sure you update all the various configuration and execution scripts to match. 3*30x0dx0a (72) $GPRMC,224317. Run “ifconfig” and confirm you see: 2. 25 # # 12/08/17 – Fixed some spelling errors # # 12/07/17 – Move thed ax25mailutils and linpac downloads steps a bit # # 11/22/17 – Added top pictures of the LCD and RTC with click-on zoom # – Added reading the temp off the DS3231 RTC # # 11/20/17 – Added a new appendix section to display date, time, Internet health check, heard AX25 # packets, and CPU load to an I2C driven 20×4 LCD display # – Added a new appendix section to have the Rpi set it’s date via an I2C driven # DS3231 RTC. Net/projects/linpac/files/LinPac/ –maintainer ki6zhdattrinityos. I’ve kept this older detail in a later section in this doc farther down in a “deprecated” section but with the new Rpi v3 / Rpi Zero W and their built-in wifi hardware, I wouldn’t recommend to go the RTL8192CUS route anymore. I personally feel this is an infrastructure level configuration (just like configuring Ethernet or Wifi interfaces) so this belongs in /etc somewhere. 11n WLAN Adapter [606161. Linpac will crash with: | | | | /usr/bin/linpac: line 181: 9811 Segmentation fault $PKG_BINDIR/linpac $* | | | | Fortunately, if you disable predictable network interface names, things work fine. Type in “Y” and hit enter Description for the package: — A set of utilities for packet radio mail exchange with the BBS. Png The official documentation as well: https://www. Wav You should see the following output: Recording WAVE ‘/tmp/15sec-silence. Langid=1&PNid=48&PFid=48&Level=5&Conn=4&DownTypeID=3&GetDown=false&Downloads=true#RTL8188CUS – Beyond Realtek’s initial support for some chips in the RTL 871x driver (no idea why the different chip family number), it seems that the RTL8188cus drivers supports *all* rtl81xx based support (including the rtl8188 and rtl8192cu). Io/2017/09/26/raspberry-pi-zero-w-simultaneous-ap-and-managed-mode-wifi/ +——————————————————————————————- | CURRENT STATUS — Sort of broken | | I currently use a USB to Ethernet adapter to run updates, etc. Conf — # ADEVICE plughw:1,0 to ADEVICE plughw:1,0 — change the line: MYCALL N0CALL to MYCALL Advanced Options –> Serial –> YES –> Ok –> Finish Select YES to reboot your Raspberry pi #4 – Make sure the serial console is not enabled Look at the /boot/cmdline. Com/GlobalSat-BU-353-S4-USB-Receiver-Black/dp/B008200LHW | | | | This SiRF-IV based receiver unit gets a good lock within my home, seems | | to be reliable and offers quick Sat lock BUT. V6 # ruleset in the RPi direcory snapshot # 08/30/18 – Updated the TNC-Pi section to being up i2ckiss, etc. Ok, next, let’s wire up the button. It’s frustrating and I haven’t found any other ways to clear out that old # state. This is NOT required if you only want to do APRS within Direwolf but it does allow you to perform advanced packet functions as well as play with classic AX. 906308) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 18 az= 60 el=44 (0. Go ahead and type in control-C to exit the Python program. Noisy audio will severely harm the software TNC’s digital signal processing. Avoid GPS noise which might shift your location around from position to position. New2 scripts to add more testing, Linpac start, # etc # # 08/29/17 – Added openssl-blacklist to the Email/Postfix section # – Made logrotate it’s own section and renumbered all other sections to fit # – Added the Ulogd logs into the logrotate system # – Added key missing “–” in the mailx test # – Noted that Watchdog support in Stretch is questionable; will revisit # # 08/28/17 – Signification improvements in documentation, clearer steps throughout, etc. Sh script and you’ve now confirmed the new firewall ruleset seems to work, save that new ruleset as your NEW fallback firewall ruleset: sudo cp /etc/iptables/rules. This Wifi hardware support is limited to the 802. One final note: – Make sure you built this reset button properly. Conf file — 1. 188544] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled, doesn’t support DPO or FUA [ 360. Its a very helpful indicator. Put a recommended quality blank MicroSD card to existing working Linux computer’s SD card reader. If you know what all these items do, feel free to customize the settings but I’ve only tested the below changes NOTE#3: Be sure to change the IP address here to match the static IP address you set above sudo vim /etc/dnsmasq. 4 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. In my case: # NOTE: you might need to specify “-n” as an optional parameter for your specific GPS but it has # power draw implications (if you run your Rpi from battery). 75 – Blue Serial IIC/I2C/TWI 2004 204 20X4 Character LCD Module Display For Arduino https://www. Run the “dmesg” command on that Linux computer to confirm SD card device as being seen and to also identify what SD card reader’s device name is. This is is generally going to be FASTER than your Data Communications Equipment (DCE) speed like 1200bps packet. Management section about other scripts to monitor the RPI’s # CPU and temp and other useful sysadmin scripts # # 07/05/17 – Extensively updated the Wifi AP and Linpac sections # – Updated the pyshutdown GPIO button section # – more clearly deprecated the legacy rtl8192 wifi sections # # 06/03/17 – Enhanced the manual-ampr-start. 0 B) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0 — There isn’t an IP address on it right now which is perfectly fine. Com/post/38010690418/raspberry-pi-access-point-using-rtl8192cu This URL also gives more details and a possibly more supportable approach: https://communities. Change this to # match both your Rpi’s system’s hostname and domain name # rpi3. You can also download the CLI only image (called Lite) which is considerably smaller and light weight. Cd /etc/ax25 2. 11n Wifi dongles with an attached 5dbi large Wifi antenna looks like: — [606160. I then enhanced the program to include the above mentioned display items with showing: – The Month-Day datestamp Local time AM/PM – The status of the Internet connection (pinging 8. Once things are working, edit your direwolf. Please note that this is an ALSA device. Local file and just above the line reading “exit 0”, add the following lines: sudo vi /etc/rc. Some of the key fields to look for: Top box: Pos (position) : position is found and not moving wildly Time : Date and time is accurate for the UTC timezone Fix : You have at least 3 more more satellites locked onto Example bottom NMEA streaming data — (40) $GPGSV,3,3,10,15,03,041,,16,00,236,*7Ax0dx0a (72) $GPRMC,224315. 522096 31 0 1511382640 1511382639. As such, I recommend you do the following: a. Not PulseAudio or PortAudio but the lower level ALSA device name and syntax. C Be sure to update the version number in the command below to match the version you’re installing: NOTE: Raspbian Stretch names it’s “libgps” version “libgps22” (the version is in the base name) but Raspbian Jessie names it “libgps21”. NOTE: These are temporary settings and are required to be re-applied every reboot when you need to recompile a larger project NOTE #2: There is no need to unmount /tmp as you can just mount the USB HD on top of the existing /tmp mount. Next, try making a fictious AX. You can read more about # this here: # # https://raspberrypi. # Type in control-C in the “rfcomm connect” window to disconnect the # bluetooth system as well as in the “sudo cat /dev/rfcomm” window +——————————————————————————-+ |NOTE: I can reliably reproduce a bug in the D74 firmware v1. Check and disabled unneeded services (the SystemD way) SystemD cheatsheet: http://www. Zip Or and alternative download site: wget http://www. New updAX25 updfbb updfpac # ————————————————————— # The Rpi’s HW watchdog is disabled by default though the init script runs (stupid) If you want to use the watchdog to keep your system up though it might be constantly rebooting (and/or corrupting the SD card), edit the /etc/init. Now delete the “pi” account sudo userdel -r pi 7. 13 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://sourceforge. Pdf – A slick solution is to get a nice PCB version of WB2OSZ’s circuit which is available for order here as designed by James N7SET: https://github. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25/issues/1 | +—————————————————————————-+ +—————————————————————————————————————–+ | NOTE #2: | | As Raspbian gets updates, you will eventually see a glibc/libc updates break similar to the NOTE | | above. 0,12h — #Make the required dnsmask dir if it was removed mkdir /var/run/dnsmasq/ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces — #if there is any other line that has “auto lo” in it, REMOVE it auto lo eth0 wlan0 iface lo inet loopback iface eth0 inet dhcp #This is intentionally set to manual to support the selection of client or server AP mode iface wlan0 inet manual allow-hotplug wlan0 — Verify / Update the system’s hostname: – Edit the /etc/hostname file and put the name of your raspberry Pi in there. You will need to do minor edits the ax25-up. /bin/bash echo “running start-ap-managed-wifi. =debug; auth,authpriv. 309017) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 21 az=126 el=32 (0. # Allow ping # note that blocking other types of ICMP packets is considered a bad idea by # some remove -m ICMP –icmp-type 8 from this line to allow all kinds of icmp: # https://security. If you want the built-in AX. Now use the following command where “mmcblk0” is the name of your SD card device shown above from the bottom output of the “dmesg” command: dd if= of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=2M 4. Sh chmod 700 mount-hampacket2-nfs. 681998) gpsd:INFO: PRN= 21 az=127 el=32 (0. Using the username and password you created in an earlier section of this doc, can you log in. For my example, I’m using “#NCA. Conf file and disable the test OBEACON object line 24. If your HW doesn’t’ report a “0” above, read the above URLS as well as this HW identification URL: https://help. 25 kernel | | maintainers, in the sa_data kernel data structure, both the stock Raspbian AX. It went from ServicesResolved: Yes” to “ServicesResolved: no” # # For Item #1 above, that’s showing the found bluetooth “services” from the remote # BT device. Gz tar xzvf linpac-0. Sh Or you can enter in as followins: vi /tmp/remove-old-kernels. Why waste all that RAM and CPU cycles running the Xwindows system if you’re never going to use it. Create a copy of the ruleset and create the new ruleset: sudo cp rules. Mac ]; then /usr/share/linpac/contrib/start-linpac. The key here is that it DOESN’T give any errors on loading. Fortunately, it’s not too hard to add a shutdown button. It seems to work. This is now so lets fix it. /pitnc_getparams 15 2 If you want to try to use the TNC-Pi in I2C mode (frees up the onboard /dev/ttyAMA0 serial port), here are some additional things to check: #1 – You will need to change the “I2C address” using the above commands to enable I2C mode, power down the Rpi and take off the TNC-PI JP2 and JP3 jumpers (if you have an older TNC-Pi board) #2 – see if the I2C drivers are installed: lsmod | grep i2c — i2c_bcm2708 4834 0 i2c_dev 5859 0 — Both entries MUST be there #3 – make sure the i2ctools are installed sudo apt-get install i2c-tools #4 – Make sure the I2C bus can be found make sure the you see bus #1 (should show something like: i2c-1 i2c 3f804000. Make sure the Broadcom watchdog kernel module is present: NOTE: The path and the name of the kernel module for watchdog has changed over time with the various Rpi kernel versions #Correct name in Raspbian Stretch – kernel version: 4. NOTE2: A 16GB MicroSD card with 3. To do so, run the I2C command:. Remove your newly imaged MicroSD card and install it into your Raspberry Pi. 25 sources, see: # # http://www. Git cd linuxax25/libax25/ Next, we need to install the Zlib and zlib-dev libraries as programs in this package requires it sudo apt-get install zlib1g zlib1g-dev #This command can seemingly look hung for 20 seconds before it starts to show output autoreconf –install. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols — Hit ENTER again to accept the description Next, confirm the checkinstall fields all look ok and similar to the following: — 0 – Maintainer: [ [email protected] 207824] sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 0 [ 360. Possible reasons for having this kind of units are: # # 1) A unit may be statically enabled by being symlinked from another unit’s #. V4-test file and remove the # in front of the relevant three lines and then enable the temporary ruleset with: sudo iptables-restore 000/050/A=000319ENROUTE vhfdrop: fm K6TJS to APU25N via WR6ABD* ctl UI pid=F0(Text) len 74 @301626z3703. For use with the Linpac terminal programs as well as others ] 2 – Name: [ ax25mail-utils ] 3 – Version: [ 0. 25 debs will give errors like the following when | | ANY network interface name is longer than 13 characters: | | | | SIOCGIFHWADDR: No such device | | | | Programs like beacon will fail to start. B Ok, assuming you’re using *Raspbian Jessie* here, let’s install the required software: sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install firmware-realtek dnsmasq hostapd Next, confirm the Wifi device can be interrogated: sudo iwconfig — wlan0 unassociated Nickname:”” Mode:Auto Frequency=2. For example, let’s see if the HD is spinning now: sudo /sbin/hdparm -C /dev/sda — /dev/sda: drive state is: active/idle — e. 1″ to reflect your desired raspberry pi fully qualified hostname (FQDN). Conf file contains all your expected changes and wasn’t reset to defaults. Py https://gist. Spec file: rm direwolf. Com/raspberry-pi-stratum-1-ntp-server/ 48. It’s important to note that some GPIO pins are pulled HIGH (+3. Until then | | recommendation from me is to force overwrite the impacting files with | | the following command: | | | | sudo dpkg –force-overwrite –install ax25-tools_1. It can also be used as a virtual KISS TNC for applications such as Xastir, Linux AX25, and many others — Validate the output: 0 – Maintainer: [ [email protected] Sh script to make that active. Txt lat / long – position power – 5watts height (HAAT) – 20ft off the ground gain – 7dbi gain on 20m into a co-linear vertical antenna power / height / gain of transmitter in increments of the following (you can’t put in any other values) http://aprsisce. Not all Wifi chipsets are supported by Linux so it’s important that you buy HW that will both work under Linux but also support AP mode (not all HW does). Sh | | sudo mv update-glibc-ax25-workaround. 25 stack is configured in the above mentioned /etc/ax25/ax25-up. This is NOT not the purpose of this document. In my case, I would put in a hostname that has an MX record # configured to accept email for the “trinnet. If it runs ok, it won’t return any details but if there are errors, it will say so. REMEMBER: Longer the USB cable, the high chance of power issues which show up as Raspbery Pi crashes, corrupt file systems and even permanently physically damaged SD cards. Below is one of the better GPIO pin diagrams out on the web showing the different pins and their various modes. 187426] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off [ 360. Btw, one more point: +———–+ | IMPORTANT | +———–+ DISABLE the GPS sentence output we enabled before as you probably won’t need it and it will either run down your battery or crash older D74 firmwares: D74 Menu –> GPS –> Basic Settings –> PC Output: OFF Other Linux Bluetooth notes: —————————- Tips on supporting bluetooth audio devices (output only speakers, input/output headsets, et) on your RPI v3: NOTE: This URL recommends to install PulseAudio for full featured Bluetooth support. Sh for all details #—————————————————————- apt-get install dnsmasq dnsmasq-base dnsmasq-utils #We only want it to start manually update-rc. New starting up Wed Aug 30 21:27:27 PDT 2017 axudp port not enabled in /etc/ax25/axports. The bluetoothcyl program # should prompt you with offering AUTO-ENTER in the BT passcode such as: # # Request confirmation # [agent] Confirm passkey 285481 (yes/no): yes # Accept the pairing by typing in in “yes” (without the quotes and don’t just use “y”) and hit enter yes # *CRITICAL*: On the TH-D74, quickly hit the upper right button for the Bluetooth Pair’s “OK”. For Raspbian Jessie: Load the Broadcom watchdog kernel module at boot time: NOTE: Systemd will also automatically load the kernel module when it sees a change to the /etc/modules file #Stretch does not need this setting due to the tighter integration with Systemd #only for Jessie / 4. 231855] usbcore: registered new interface driver rtl8192cu [606161. Don’t worry about these settings as they won’t start polling for packet messages, etc. In this example, we will transmit only APRS “messages” # Direwolf on channel 0 # FILTER IG 0 t/m # To avoid sending out too much data which might overheat your radio, discharge your battery # too quickly, etc, I recommend to enable the packet rate limiter. Txt | | — | | #append the following to the end of the one line in this file | | net. Specifically, the error you’ll see is: | | | | dnsmasq: failed to create listening socket for 192. Give the momentary switch a push (the voltmeter shows the voltage going in 0. Save yourself time and money and just buy a new Raspberry Pi. It’s unfortunately NOT possible to make it to use any of the Syslog LOCAL[0-7] facilities. 1 (0x7) Subversion: 0x2209 Manufacturer: Broadcom Corporation (15) — #You can also display the local MAC address with this interactive program # sudo bluetoothctl list exit #See any pairable bluetooth devices around you (try setting one of your nearby # bluetooth devices into discovery mode and give this command a try: # hcitool scan — Scanning. 23,141016,,,A*7Bx0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224317. 3v device, the Rpi offers +5v pins as well so it can drive it just fine. This is *very* bad as Linux can and will corrupt the OS on the SD card if it cannot be gracefully shutdown. Log # # Jan 30 18:49:01 ota3 CRON[14054]: pam_unix(cron:session): session opened for user zzz by (uid=0) # Jan 30 18:49:03 ota3 CRON[13055]: pam_unix(cron:session): session closed for user root edit /etc/pam. Now it’s time to configure hostapd which makes the wireless device enter “Access Point” mode. 4 only wget https://github. 050Mhz — 3. Now you need to make sure the Raspberry 0w, 3, or 3B+ has it’s bluetooth setup right (and bluetooth is enabled if you previously disabled it): sudo /usr/bin/bluetoothctl #Issue the following commands #Show available BT controllers list #Give more details on the local controller (change this example MAC address to match yours) show B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 #Show what might already be paired devices #Enable Bluetooth pairing agent on default-agent #Scan for available BT devices scan on # At this point, you’re going to want to WAIT until you see the D74’s BT MAC show up in # the scan output. – There aren’t any Wifi or BT network traffic LEDs to indicate that the AP is active, being used, etc Anyway, for now, let’s move forward with first enabling the Rpiv3 to act as a Wifi AP ONLY (aka. 23,141016,,,A*78x0dx0a (77) $GPGGA,224316. 25 traffic montitor, you either : a. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols ] 2 – Name: [ ax25-tools ] 3 – Version: [ 1. 1/8 scope host lo valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever inet6 ::1/128 scope host valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever 2: enxb827eb2532fc: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link/ether b8:27:eb:25:32:fc brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192. I beleive the proper solution now is to | | exclusively use the Systemd approach and NOT use the watchdog package. Service RecHandle: 0x10000 Service Class ID List: “Headset Audio Gateway” (0x1112) “Generic Audio” (0x1203) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) “RFCOMM” (0x0003) Channel: 1 Language Base Attr List: code_ISO639: 0x656e encoding: 0x6a base_offset: 0x100 Profile Descriptor List: “Headset” (0x1108) Version: 0x0102 Service Name: Serial Port Service RecHandle: 0x10001 Service Class ID List: “Serial Port” (0x1101) Protocol Descriptor List: “L2CAP” (0x0100) “RFCOMM” (0x0003) Channel: 2 Language Base Attr List: code_ISO639: 0x656e encoding: 0x6a base_offset: 0x100 Profile Descriptor List: “Serial Port” (0x1101) Version: 0x0100 — # As you can see above, the D74 is offering both audio in/out, and a serial port. TXDELAY 40 TXTAIL 5 NOTE: If the TXTAIL setting is too short, I’ve seen where an AX. Once your GPS has lock with at lease THREE satellites, you can move to the next step: 34. 2) Your radio’s microphone jack does or doesn’t provide a “bias” voltage for condenser-type microphones On my chosen Syba USB soundcard, it puts out +5. #Confirm that gpsd isn’t running but the GPS socket is still listening (thanks SystemD. For example, I’ve since moved to using a Alinco | | DJ-580 and it’s PTT connections are RADICALLY different than the Kenwood. Io/project/10091-raspberry-pi-3-external-antenna | +——————————————————————–+ OPTIONAL: ——— Per the beginning paragraph in that section, this setup does NOT provide the associated wifi devices any Internet access. Things should come automatically. 25 packet decodes compared to almost any hardware TNC on the market (past and present) including: Kantronics KPC (version 2, 3, 3+, KAM, etc) MFJ 1270 / 1272 TNC2 TNCs PacComm TNCs Timewave / AEA PK96 TNCs) TNC-X (a PIC microcontroller based TNC) TNC-PI (the same PIC microcontroller based TNC on a Raspberry Pi HAT board) etc With that said, this documentation and some scripts DOES support elements of both the Coastal Chipworks TNC-Pi board and the Kenwood D74 Bluetooth-enabled handheld. Sh /usr/local/sbin/ Next, from the output of the “dmesg” command run above, edit the script and make sure the SD card device used in the $DESTDEV variable Run the command: #Installing Stretch Lite in this example sudo /usr/local/sbin/image-raspbian-zip-to-rpi-sd-card. # 3) A unit may be started when needed via activation (socket, path, timer, # D-Bus, udev, scripted systemctl call. Sh /usr/local/sbin # Attach the USB HD # sudo /usr/local/sbin/mount-usb-hd. When you’re done and unmount the USB HD, the previous mount will be still there # In this example, I’m mounting things via a script. This development library package includes some man pages and include files for compiling applications which use libax25 — Hit ENTER again to accept the description Next, confirm the checkinstall fields all look ok and similar to the following: — 0 – Maintainer: [ [email protected] Inspecting the file in Audacity shows the ticks so I think there is a bug in arecord here. Pdf Anyway, for now, let’s move forward with the Hostap + dnsmasq approach +——————————————-+ | 08/14/16 | | This section is DEPRECATED as the RTL8192 | | is not well maintained. 521373 1511382618 1511382617. Todo 03/06/15 – Add NTP via GPS support – http://www. 127 which is in the expected range. 7 KiB) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0 — Go ahead and try enabling Wifi on your desired Wifi client device (like a smartphone) where it should see your new Rpi based Access point as named above. The second command will aga read from the chip and confirm the correct date/time: sudo hwclock -w -f /dev/rtc0 sudo hwclock -r -f /dev/rtc0 — 2017-11-20 17:18:52. 5A supply and it’s working well. | | In about 60 seconds, the D74 will reboot. Wlan0: -95 (Operation not supported) wlan0: interface state UNINITIALIZED->COUNTRY_UPDATE wlan0: Could not connect to kernel driver Using interface wlan0 with hwaddr b8:27:eb:0a:50:6e and ssid “ki6zhd-ap” wlan0: interface state COUNTRY_UPDATE->ENABLED wlan0: AP-ENABLED — If you see something like the above where it ends in “wlan0: AP-ENABLED”, things are looking GOOD. 050 # for keyboard-2-keyboard chat here in Northern California, the Bluetooth interface will send # this traffic too. New & — 2. V4-test sudo vi rules. I would start with this project that worked for me. Local — find the line that says “exit 0” exit 0 — just above it, add the lines: — echo “Starting pishutdown. Sudo vim /etc/default/gpsd — DEVICES=”/dev/serial/by-id/usb-Prolific_Technology_Inc. # # cd /tmp # wget http://www. Conf /etc/ax25/ 24. If you don’t get the connected message and you # try using control-c and try the command again yet now get: — Can’t connect RFCOMM socket: Device or resource busy — # You probably typed in the wrong MAC address. Xyz/ — Rpi pin LCD pin ——–+——————+——– 2 : +5V display : VCC 3 : I2C DATA : SDA 5 : I2C Clock : SCL 6 : ground : GND — Now power back up the Rpi with the connected display. 16 p – 64 0 0. # – Added that simultaneous wifi and BT support on the Rpi v3 doesn’t work well # – Corrected sudo command for iptables-save compound command # – Added how to use alternative SSH listening ports # – Added a key note that no IPv6 firewall is created and to disable IPv6 for now # – Completed the ulogd section and using the new NFLOG approach so no more iptables # filter hits in the /var/log/syslog nor dmesg logs. Now type in control-c in this window and you’ll # instantly see the bluetooth icon on the D74 go out. Old sudo checkinstall –pkgname libax25 –pkgversion 1. It’s also important that if you create new log entries for say the IPTABLES Ulog system, these new files get managed. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 You should see the following output and the command should complete and go back to the Unix prompt — gpsctl:SHOUT: switching to mode NMEA. The following steps will make a backup image and make as small as possible. A Picking what Wifi hardware to use: ———————————-. Conf NOTE2: There are a LOT of configuration options in the default /etc/hostapd/hostapd. Let’s confirm the hardware you have is compatible so go ahead and plug in your Wifi dongle into a powered USB hub that’s connected to your Rpi # NOTE: Do **NOT** plug the dongle directly into your Rpi or it will most likely reboot # due to the excessive power draw. Info -/var/log/mail. Com/nf8m/rig-control-and-keying/ This would be easily connected to a Raspberry Pi’s GPIO pins. 8A and while it worked for a while, I started seeing the red LED and yellow lightening bolt light up as I added more stuff to it (I2C LCD, USB soundcard, external USB HD, etc). /bin/bash # ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provides: prepare-dirs # Default-Start: 2 3 4 5 # Default-Stop: 0 1 6 # Required-Start: # Required-Stop: # Short-Description: Create /var/log/nginx directory on tmpfs at startup # Description: Create /var/log/nginx directory on tmpfs at startup ### END INIT INFO DIR=/var/log/lighttp # # main() # case “${1:-”}” in start) # create the /var/log/nginx needed by webserver if [. All you need to do is edit the script to use the TNC-Pi routines vs. It will prompt you to reboot. Now install the required GPS software: sudo apt-get update #Unfortunately, you must install all the additional package dependencies here # (something like +30 packages are require) # sudo apt-get install gpsd gpsd-clients libgps-dev We now need to configure gpsd to use the new device. Py & — 60. | +———————————————————————————-+ To do this, simply do: sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now Let the Raspberry Pi reboot and once it’s back up, log into it and then run: sudo journalctl Spend some time and review at LEAST the items that are bolded or color coded. 9 out of 10 Pacific-New – Keyboard layout (this option is only seen when running raspi-config via the HDMI console): IMPORTANT: If you are in the US and you’re only presented with “English (UK)”, select OTHER, then select “English (US)” – Wifi country – If you have an Rpi v3 or Zero W, I selected “US United States” – Interfacing options – Camera : If you plan on using a Raspberry PI camera, – SSH : I recommend to enable SSH – VNC : If you installed the full version of Raspian Pixel and intend to manage it via a remote GUI, enable this – SPI : If you have any SPI high speed devices and plan to use then, enable this – I2C : If you have any I2C low speed devices and plan to use them, enable this – Serial : If you plan on using the hardware serial port for say serial console, either via bluetooth or the physical GPIO pins, enable this. This is fully documented here: http://www. Add packages that are dependent for these scripts #Need killall apt-get install psmisc #Need ifconfig apt-get install net-tools 5. 11 Trying. This will let you connect to the Rpi either directly or through an AP (which usually has Internet access). Now edit the /etc/watchdog. You can learn more about Ulogd2 here: http://sparlampe. If you want the HDMI port to always work even if the cable isn’t connected, edit the /boot/config. 255 LEN=78 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=128 ID=8291 PROTO=UDP SPT=137 DPT=137 LEN=58 — If the wifi hardware was seen, it’s most likely the OS has automatically created the “wlan0” interface. Building Linpac and ax25mail-utils from sources: Assuming a USB HD is mounted per the previous section. As I was troubleshooting this, I randomly stumbled into another program that would show all the text in a clear, bright fashion. Checked 30. For this example, I’m using “N0ARY-1” which is my local, full service BBS. The default of 2 is fairly conservative and I generally recommend a value of 4 if your links are pretty strong. Conf — denyinterfaces wlan0 — Non-Raspbian Stretch users: ————————— Edit the interfaces file to create a static IP for the wlan interface. | | To do this, do the following steps: | | | | sudo vi /boot/cmdline. Html That’s overkill for my needs but I thought I’d mention it. 3v) by default: On the Raspberry Pi B+ and Rpi v2, these line initialize HIGH: — GPIO 2, GPIO 3, GPIO 4, GPIO 7, GPIO8 and possibly GPIO 14 too If you use one of these pins with the simple PTT transistor circuit mentioned above/below, you’ll find that whenever your Rpi is rebooting or is powered yet off, it will leave your radio keyed up (PTT asserted). You can also consider using audomation systems like Salt, Ansible, Puppet, etc. 08GB worth of files on it dd’s to a raw file size of 15560867840 bytes (15. Html 11/21/15 – ULOG w/ firewall log rotate 90. Next, on the upstream relayhost you entered in above, make sure that this machine will actually accept email from your Raspberry Pi’s IP address. Let’s now see if you can read time from it: #Simply READ from the chip sudo hwclock -r -f /dev/rtc0 — 1999-12-31 23:44:08. Here is what I see for my system. In that file, find the line “#dtoverlay=lirc-rpi”, remove the # character and make it read: — dtoverlay=i2c-rtc,ds3231 — Next, you need to remove the stock Raspberry Pi “fake” hardware clock system with: sudo apt-get remove fake-hwclock That should be it. If you want better range, consider doing a hardware modification to add a u. Txt file and Look for the string: console=serial0,115200 If you see it, you’ll need to edit the file with sudo rights, remove that portion of text, save the file and get ready to reboot the Rpi #5 – Now reboot your rpi with: sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now #6 – Make sure the /dev/ttyAMA0 serial port is recognized ls -la /dev | grep AMA — lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Nov 6 09:44 serial0 -> ttyAMA0 crw-rw—- 1 root dialout 204, 64 Nov 6 09:44 ttyAMA0 — If it’s NOT seen, you need to try using the “sudo raspi-config” step again #7 – Make sure there aren’t any console sessions configured to use /dev/ttyAMA0 ps aux | grep getty If you see something like the following, you need to fix this — root 1077 0. The first thing to do is to figure out what GPIO pin to use. Maybe you’re seeing “”ACS: Unable to collect survey data” where you’ve configured Automatic Channel Selection (ACS). Checkconfig will automatically install the package for you but if you manually want to install it, use the following (configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb) sudo dpkg –install ax25mail-utils_0. New wget http://www. Checked #enable the following line in the rules. 25 resolves this issue and I’ve requested the debian-hams | | packaging team to release Linpac 0. First make sure there isn’t anything important in the /home/pi directory that you might want to keep: sudo ls -la /home/pi If there is anything you want to keep, copy out to somewhere else first b. Take a hand help radio, QSY it’s VFO to 144. Xz NOTE: This command will not give any output until the process is complete and it can take quite a while to do depending on the size of your SD card and the speed of your system. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ This package provides specific user applications for hamradio that use AX. There are many options here be it 16 character by 2 line (16×2) LCDs, 20×4 LCDs, little LCD or OLED displays, etc. With changing this, we can start this function from /etc/rc. Powering your external hard drive +————————————————————————————————-+ | IMPORTANT: | | ———- | | Some USB hard drives are purely powered via the USB bus but the Raspberry Pi CANNOT supply very | | much power. Service #Reset the wireless interface sudo systemctl restart systemd-networkd. 25 packet system: #If you didn’t already create this via the mount-usb-hdd. 25 packet: 1. Using Linux’s native AX. Install the Postfix email server To get daily reports of how your Raspberry Pi SBC is running, let’s install a local-only email server and some log notification tools. My Syba USB sound device shows up as the following: — plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 C-Media USB Audio Device, USB Audio Hardware device with all software conversions — Next, if you’re curious on getting more details, you can display the soundcard’s native sampling rates with this command: sudo lsusb -vv | grep -e Audio -e tSamFreq | grep -v -e Descriptor -e bInterfaceClass On my USB based Syba sound device, I see the following sampling rates — iProduct 1 C-Media USB Audio Device tSamFreq[ 0] 48000 tSamFreq[ 1] 44100 tSamFreq[ 0] 48000 tSamFreq[ 1] 44100 — Alternatively if you have a PCI-based card (or you’re doing all this in a virtual machine), use: sudo alsa-info –stdout | grep -A 12 -e “Codec:” -e “Audio Input” Next test, let’s record from the sound card for 10 seconds and puts a 960Kbyte file into the /tmp area: arecord -D plughw:CARD=Device,DEV=0 -t wav -f S16_LE -r 48000 -d 10 /tmp/test. Stateful Firewalls: It enables firewalling which is always an important security practice DHCP and DNS: For my lightweight uses, I’m going to use hostapd and dnsmasq. Log file and no longer in your /var/log/syslog nor dmesg logs. The following commands will help work around the issue before you start the next packaging step: sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/share/linpac/contrib” sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/share/doc/linpac/czech” sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/share/linpac/macro/cz” sudo /bin/mkdir -p “/usr/libexec/linpac” Now let’s package and install Linpac: sudo checkinstall –pkgname linpac –pkgversion 0. There are lots of them out ther ethough. Direwolf can do a lot more for APRS uses internally but that’s beyond the scope of this document. Wav You should see the following output: Playing WAVE ‘/tmp/15sec-silence. To do this, edit the /etc/rc. At this point, you should be able to hide the virtual keyboard on your smartphone and use the BT keyboard for all your input needs. For Rpi installations that will never have a monitor attached to it and you’ll most likely always SSH into it, I recommend to install the *Lite* version. System running through SSH If you want gpsd to automatically start upon boot, use the command: sudo systemctl enable gpsd NOTES: – If you want to disable gpsd from auto-starting when the GPS is connected to the USB bus, see: http://astrobeano. Once I made that switch, I could read all the original text. Sh sudo chown root mount-hampacket2-nfs. Step one is to to NOT try to get a DHCP client IP address on the wlan0 interface. # # Btw, sometimes I’ve never been able to get the command to work again without rebooting # the Pi. 25 debs will give errors like the following when | | ANY network interface name is longer than 13 characters: | | | | SIOCGIFHWADDR: No such device | | | | ANY AX. After xz compression, it was only 395MB. Then edit this bt-kiss-bringup. | | dpkg: error processing archive /var/cache/apt/archives/libc6-dev_2. But that’s beyong the scope of this document 10. Linux tocalls-symbols #Pre-compile the sources using all the cores on your RPi make -f Makefile. Service to avoid automatic updates # in addition to removing the unattended-upgrades package # # 10/12/17 – Added package requirements to run ax25-up. Py — #Find the line and change the GPIO pin to use what you chose from the above details # INT = 24 — and replace it with say (I’m using broadcom pin 24): — gpio_pin_number=24 — Next, edit the /etc/rc. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 — You should see a TUI (textual user interface) screen printing both top level details from your GPS on the top with the incoming streaming NMEA data on the bottom. E – Setting the right audio output level for non-distorted packet signals Now that you’re familiar how to change the levels on the soundcard side, I recommend to read and re-read: http://www. 0 l 71m 64 0 0. Sh script to use non LVM-partitioned USB HDs # – Mentioned an alternative tool “iptables-apply” to safely enable to firewall rulesets # – fixed some index numbering in the IPTABLES section and corrected some HTML formatting # issues for APDW14,WIDE1-1:;TESTBCN *111111z4237. 521630 21 0 1511382629 1511382628. Org/RPi_USB_Wi-Fi_Adapters for a comprehensive list of devices that are known to work. If you implimented the above IPTABLES firewall, you’ll need to update it to first port TCP port 2222. Txt file, see the following URL. There I select “Advanced Wifi”, and scroll down to the very bottom until I see the Wifi Ethernet MAC address and it’s IP address. Html for more RPi optimizations, etc # ———————————————————————— # This note is only relevant for F6BVP’s based Rpi image (obsolete) You can update the various F6BVP code, AX25 stack, etc. | +————————————————————————————————-+ b. Btw, “ppm” is essentially errors in “Parts Per Million”: sudo hwclock -c -f /dev/rtc0 — hw-time system-time freq-offset-ppm tick 1511382606 1511382605. Pdf – APRS specific setup: Raspberry-Pi-APRS. Add that rule in the /etc/iptables/rules. Bluetooth reliability issues # – Added a recommended USB-based GPS receiver # – Retooled and enhanced the image backup section a bit # – Updated the intro section # # 09/02/17 – Added a CRITICAL work around for AX. I use the Android ConnectBot which works pretty well except it’s use of the F-keys is broken. It will look something like: | | | | Preparing to unpack. 3: Manufacturer: Prolific Technology Inc. V4 file and find the line: — -A INPUT -m limit –limit 5/min -j LOG –log-prefix “iptables denied: ” –log-level 7 — Replace it with: — -A INPUT -m limit –limit 5/min -j NFLOG –nflog-group 0 –nflog-prefix “iptables denied: ” — 7. Sh & — Assuming you setup the Iptables firewall per this documeent, you’ll need to allow: – allow DHCP client traffic on the new ap0 interface – allow DHCP server traffic on the wlan0 interface – allow DNS client traffic on the new ap0 interface – SSH traffic was already allowed on all interfaces before Edit the /etc/iptables/rules. 1: SerialNumber: 00e04c000001 [667668. We’ll come back to this in a bit. Specifically, as of 06/07/15, hostapd 1. This wiring is very similar to the the LCD setup above but it uses the +3. The F10 key is dedicated to sending and monitoring unproto or UI packets for unconnected chats, etc. _USB-Serial_Controller_D-if00-port0 — This shows that the gpsd process is running. Tap the function + 5 key until the D74’s display says “KISS 12” 3. Com/id/Simple-Raspberry-Pi-Shutdown-Button/ as an outline for this section and code BUT: – This person’s design does not use a resistor to protect the GPIO line. If you followed the email section, root should also receive an email that the Rpi was rebooted if the watchdog ever kicks in 16. You’ll also want to create an empty /boot/ssh file to have the Pi enable SSH access on first boot if you want to configure the Pi exclusively via a network connection (no HDMI and keyboard connected). D’ # | xargs sudo apt-get -y purge echo -e “n”You can edit this script to add the following line to the above line to auto-purge these packages” echo -e “nRemoving left over rpi-update kernel modules that are not used for the current `uname -r` kernel” cd /lib/modules ls -1 | grep -v `uname -r` | xargs rm -Rf — Now go ahead and put it in the right place, give it execution permissins and run it: sudo mv /tmp/remove-old-kernels. This means, when they boot, their date and time will always be WRONG. On the Raspberry Pi v0,1/2/3, install the SD card with the shiny electrical contacts pointing UP. Com/ve7fet/linuxax25/issues/1 | +—————————————————————————-+ +—————————————————————————————+ | Signifincant issue with AX. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols ] 2 – Name: [ ax25-apps ] 3 – Version: [ 1. 25 programs and installing # Raspbian stock ax. There is a 3rd party tool out there named “hd-idle” that might help you work around this d. – they moved the classic TTY-level RS232 serial port usually on GPIO pins 14/15 from /dev/ttyAMA0 to /dev/ttyS0 – It seems that simultaneous usage of the Rpi’s Wifi and BT support is not very reliable. Sh chmod 755 review-rpi-cpu. A – Bringing up a Coastal Chipworks TNC-Pi on Raspbian Jessie The above mentioned /etc/ax25/ax25-up. If there is any issues with your transmitted signal, you need to mitigate that with better cabling, cable routing, RFI toroids, etc. | | | | +————————————————–+ | | | CURRENT STATUS — Sort of works, sort of broken | | | | see the bottom of this section | | | +————————————————–+ | +———————————————————————————-+ +———-+ | OPTIONAL | +———-+ One excellent feature of the new Raspberry Pi3/ZeroW hardware is that it’s Wifi system can act as both a Wifi client and be a Wifi access point *at the same time*. New2 — #Make sure the Linpac section is present. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var make -j8 Now work around a checkinstall bug incorrectly reading RPM spec files: mv ax25apps. 25 if possible), you MUST download and apply a patch from Martin Cooper KD6YAM for recently exposed POSIX issues: wget https://sourceforge. # I’ve seen this play both ways $ ntpq -p remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== +carbon. Eth0 no wireless extensions. To work around this, one has to make a bunch of minor changes. Com/questions/45570/how-do-i-make-serial-work-on-the-raspberry-pi3 #3 – You need to enable the serial port on the Rpi with the following steps but unfortunately, this approach both enables the serial port AND the serial console support at the same time. Sh # script when new glibc/libc updates come which cause upgrade failures # # 03/17/18 – Updated the Wifi AP+Client section a bit to include firewall updates, still kinda # broken but AP mode is working ok # – Updated the Differences in Raspberry Pi models to add the 3B+ and made the section # a little clearer # – noted that the 3B+ doesn’t support connecting a wifi u. 3: new full-speed USB device number 8 using dwc_otg [262398. 3 and the nl80211 driver so a setting of “channel=0” or “channel=acs_survey” will *not* work. V4″ h. State when run with “sudo”. NOT) ps aux | grep gpsd sudo lsof -nPi | grep 2947 #If you see that the socket is still listneing, you can shutdown the listening socket here sudo systemctl stop gpsd. I’ve read conflicting information where some sites say you can power it with +5. D dnsmasq remove vim /etc/dnsmasq. Configure Linpac ———————– +——————————————————————————————-+ | IMPORTANT: | | | | Before you get started, it’s very important that you completed the above “Linux AX. Prepare a new script to occasionally purge old kernels Raspbian (aka Debian for Raspberry Pis) has a nasty habit of keeping around old kernels, especially the “rpi-update” kernels. Conf to spindown the drive in say 10 minutes — spindown_time = 120 — Ok, we’ll use this hard drive later for compiling stuff. You can read the temperture off the DS3231 unit at any time by using this command: cat /sys/devices/platform/soc/3f804000. D/ulogd2 file and append the following lines: sudo vi /etc/logrotate. You ideally want these values to be as fast as possible. In this specific case, you can use the green LED to show Wifi activity: #show the possible options with the current firmware (changes over time) cat /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger * Anything wrapped with [ ] means it’s active none – does nothing kbd-scrollock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-numlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-capslock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-kanalock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-altgrlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-altlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-shiftrlock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrlllock – status from the controlling keyboard kbd-ctrlrlock – status from the controlling keyboard [mmc0] – activity on the microSD card slot mmc1 – activity on the Wifi interface timer – monitor the timer oneshot – not sure on this one heartbeat – monitor the broadcom watchdog timer backlight – status of the DSI backlight gpio – monitor a specific GPIO pin cpu0 – status of cpu0 cpu1 – status of cpu1 cpu2 – status of cpu2 cpu3 – status of cpu3 default-on – on 100% input – not sure what this is rfkill0 – show if the BT signal is admin disabled via rfkill rfkill1 – show if the wifi signal is admin disabled via rfkill To change the green LED to show Wifi activity instead of microSD activity, issue the command: echo mmc1 > /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger This will be a temporary setting and the Rpi will revert to it’s stock behavior after a reboot. If any new updates or new kernels were installed, reboot to make all updates active sudo /sbin/shutdown -r now 14. A few points here: – Do not configure any SSIDs in Linpac that are also configured in the /etc/ax25/direwolf. Evidently this is a known issue and is mentioned here: https://bugs. Bug=763315 To work around this, edit the /etc/init. 1: Manufacturer: Realtek [606161. 9 GB, 15931539456 bytes 4 heads, 16 sectors/track, 486192 cylinders, total 31116288 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x92f034a6 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/mmcblk0p1 8192 93813 42811 c W95 FAT32 (LBA) Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary. Conf-bak #Next, make a drift directory which helps the system more quickly remember the behavior #of your specific GPS sudo mkdir -p /var/lib/ntp #Now edit the ntp. Need to run Linpac as root (what we are doing in this doc for now) b. D -f bluetooth remove # Disable the Avahi mDNS system on the Rpi sudo update-rc. There are commands to try to improve the display such as: tvservice –explicit=”DMT 35 HDMI” See the output of the command “tvservice –help” for more possibilities. 4 as of 04/26/17 – size is 16. NOTE: if you really want to do that, review the previous iptables section which actually has the require lines commented out. If using a micro-SD card, you might need a micro to full SD card adapter. The Wif range is pretty decent considering that the Rpi3 only has a very small chip antenna. Sh & #Once you start this command, you’ll start seeing a timer run, showing # text like: [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] # Since you can see the timer, that means the network is still working. If that upgrade does well, then kick off remote upgrades for all your other deployed units. As such, I recommend you check the presence of the tool and remove it: dpkg -l | grep unattended-upgrades If the package is installed, remove it with: sudo dpkg -r unattended-upgrades Next, there might be some left over cruft that needs cleaning: sudo systemctl disable apt-daily. Remember, the adjusting these levels is a combination of the levels coming in/out of your radio as well as the soundcard levels coming out of the Raspberru Pi. | | Unpacking libc6-dev:armhf (2. | +—————————————————————————–+ #Status of the BT interface # sudo hciconfig -a — hci0: Type: BR/EDR Bus: UART BD Address: B8:27:EB:AA:AA:91 ACL MTU: 1021:8 SCO MTU: 64:1 UP RUNNING RX bytes:717 acl:0 sco:0 events:42 errors:0 TX bytes:1532 acl:0 sco:0 commands:42 errors:0 Features: 0xbf 0xfe 0xcf 0xfe 0xdb 0xff 0x7b 0x87 Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3 Link policy: RSWITCH SNIFF Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT Name: ‘rpi3’ Class: 0x000000 Service Classes: Unspecified Device Class: Miscellaneous, HCI Version: 4. If there are newer versions of Direwolf at https://github. 25 (RECOMMENDED) or apply the | | patch in the URL above. 440 +christensenplac 200. Net” so the line would read: 127. Org/DebianReleases#Production_Releases This means that all users should upgrade to Stretch ASAP to get updates, fixes, security patches, etc – NOTE #3: There are two versions of Raspbian you can run: You can either choose to download the Raspbian version that includes a GUI interface (called Pixel named after it’s included web browser) which also comes with a lot of other packages. After exiting, we need to continue to configure Linpac 10. Tangent: What am I talking about “noise on 144. H GLIBC file if using Debian Buster # # 12/27/17 – Updated the Bluetooth section to support connecting to a Kenwood D74 # as well as added some more advanced bluetooth commands # – Updated the first time power up section to monitor power browouts via # seeing a yellow lightening bolt in the the upper right corner of the HDMI # display or the red power LED blinking. F=29;amp;t=147501 | | it seems that there is confusion / issues with enabling the watchdog system via | | systemd vs. Use a good momentary switch, use good slim connectors to make contact to the GPIO pins. Net/projects/linpac/ Ok, interested. If you need all this detail right now, there are other guides on the Internet on getting this initially working. Com/HAM/CentosDigitalModes/RPi/etc/ax25/ax25-down chmod 744 ax25-* sudo mv ax25-* /etc/ax25 4. I know what you’re thinking. Py file and find the lines: sudo vi /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown2. | | | | Why. Testing Direwolf Test out Direwolf in it’s stand alone more and enable all it’s settings to better tune it’s levels #Other options you might be interested in #-q d : suppress APRS decodes #-q h : suppress heard levels #-t 0 : disable colors #-d o : show output for asserting DCD and PTT lines #-a n : print out number of samples for N sections # sudo direwolf -t 0 -d o -a 100 -c /etc/ax25/direwolf. 25 packages from Debian, it | | became obvious that Debian’s APT system makes no distinction between | | this home-built VE7FET package and the old Debian built (and toxic) | | packages. Assuming say the local APRS frequency is busy in your area (144. This will be the desired valid email address where you’ll # receive daily email reports from your Raspberry Pi. After some random period of time | any association in the ap0 interface seems to stop responding (say from a smartphone | to the Rpi0w). This works well for 1200bps AFSK packet but it will NOT work for say 9600bps FSK packet (and faster) as those transformers limit the audio passband bandwidth too much: https://www. A Configure your Rpi to act as a Wifi AP using the built-in Raspberry Pi 3 Wifi support With the debut of the Raspberry Pi 3 and Rpi Zero W, this new SBC hardware supports built-in 802. 25 stack testing: Grab another radio and put it on the same frequency as your Direwolf packet radio frequency and do the following: a. 1 netmask 255. It also seems to spew out | | all kinds of RF noise on 144. See the above URL for more details and understanding of other geo-centric addresses. Namely Debian Stretch x86 and Debian Buster x86 that have been breaking parts of the VE7FET AX. Change the line mail. Com/neo/groups/Raspberry_Pi_4-Ham_RADIO/conversations/topics/4755 100. I also noticed that you CANNOT have two “managed” devices aliased to the same physical device. Mount the SD card with: sudo mkdir -p /media/sd-card/p1 sudo mkdir -p /media/sd-card/p2 sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /media/sd-card/p1 sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p2 /media/sd-card/p2 4. Final things to review: Check your bootlogs:
48. Review the boot up logs to make sure things are working as expected
49. There is two ways to install Linpac today: +—————————————————————————————+ | Signifincant issue with AX. /configure –prefix=/usr –sysconfdir=/etc –localstatedir=/var –datadir=/usr/share –datarootdir=/usr/share make -j8 Now work around a checkinstall bug incorrectly reading RPM spec files: mv ax25tools. If it deviates beyond the expected rate too much, things won’t work at all. NOTE: If you get output like the following from the above test command: — /dev/sda: APM_level = not supported — This most likely means the drive you’re trying to use is very old NOTE#2: If you get output like the following from that above test command: — /dev/sda: SG_IO: bad/missing sense data, sb[]: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0a 00 00 00 00 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 APM_level = not supported — This means the USB to SATA/PATA bridge chip in your USB to HD adapter is not passing all the IDE commands codes though. Sh sudo mv image-raspbian-zip-to-rpi-sd-card. *)-([^0-9]+)//”)”‘/d;s/^[^ ]* [^ ]* ([^ ]*). 45 find /lib/modules/`uname -r` | grep bcm2835 #Correct name in Raspbian Jessie find /lib/modules/`uname -r` | grep bcm2835_wdt #Correct name in Raspbian Wheezy find /lib/modules/`uname -r` | grep bcm2708_wdog 2. Sh # Essentially, these scripts mount a partition onto /tmp and creates some symlinks to # /usr/src/archive for a build area # # Attach the USB HD # mount /dev/mapper/vg_dranchlt3-lv_home /mnt/lvm/root/home/ # mount /dev/mapper/vg_dranchlt3-lv_root /mnt/lvm/root # mkdir -p /mnt/lvm/root/home/ # ln -s /mnt/lvm/root/usr/src/archive/ /usr/src/archive # mount /dev/mapper/vg_dranchlt3-lv_root /tmp # rm /usr/src/archive # ln -s /tmp/usr/src/archive/ /usr/src/archive 17. 11G but this will impact the performance of 802. Conf iface AP1 inet dhcp iface AP2 inet dhcp — Now, per the details at https://albeec13. To confirm things started ok, run the command: ps aux | grep gps Which you should see something like: — gpsd 11074 0. Gpsd:WARN: SiRF: warning, write of control type a6 while awaiting ACK for 80. This will work just fine for my UL-Link device. To use this approach, do the following: cd /tmp wget http://www. I’m using the following pins: Direwolf PTT on Rpi2: Rpi pin 37 (Broadcom GPIO 26) :: connect this to RS232 DB9 pin7 (this is the RS232 RTS signal) Rpi pin 39 (Broadcom for GND) :: connect this to RS232 DB9 pin5 (this is the RS232 GND signal) Direwolf DCD on Rpi2: Rpi pin 33 (Broadcom GPIO 13) :: connect to cathode of LED (short lead / smaller metal inside LED) Rpi pin 34 – GND :: connect to anode of LED (long lead / larger metal inside LED) PiShutdown Rpi pin 18 (Broadcom GPIO 24) :: connect to 10k resistor, then one side of a momentary switch Rpi pin 20 – GND :: Connect to other side of momentary switch I used to use http://www. Bz2 — Finally, if you followed the instructions on the Ulogd section for IPTABLES logging, I recommend to rotate those logs as well. If you want to have other CALLSIGNS+SSIDs associated to other F-keys, enter them in now. # In this example, the hostname I entered in is the following. 5A # power supply # – Added the useful tool “stress” for checking Rpi power brownouts # – Updated the different Rpi comparison section a bit # # 12/16/17 – New release # # 12/11/17 – Updated the Linpac version to 0. Add an email notification when your Rpi is rebooted If the test email notification was received, I would recommend to now recommend to have the system send you an email when the Rpi is rebooted. Py If things work properly, the script will just sit there, seemingly doing nothing. Direwolf’s PBEACON or Position Beacon has the following syntax: delay – delays the initial transmission of the packet 15 seconds after direwolf startup every – beacons every 60 minutes sentto – if NOT specified, beacon will go out on ALL interfaces (RF and Igate) messaging – set to 1 only if your station can receive and respond to APRS messages (default is 0) symbol – using the house symbol per http://www. If you do try, your remote Wifi device should associate but hang on waiting to get an IP address. V4 file and add the following lines: -A INPUT -p udp -m udp -i ap0 –sport 68 –dport 67 -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp -i ap0 –dport 53 -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -p udp -m udp -i ap0 –dport 53 -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -p udp -m udp -i wlan0 –sport 67 –dport 68 -j ACCEPT Now go re-run the firewall-confirm. Statd is not running but is required for remote locking. 11n if your hardware supports it ieee80211n=1 #Select the least used Wifi channel in your area – ch 0 will auto-select on the # most available channel – alternatively, use 1,6,11 for the US channel=0 #How often to send SSID broadcasts beacon_int=100 #Station MAC address -based authentication # 0 = accept unless in deny list # 1 = deny unless in accept list macaddr_acl=0 #If you want to hide your SSID broadcasts, set this to 1 ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 #allow WPA/WPA2 only – # 1=wpa, 2=wep, 3=both auth_algs=1 #enable WPA2 only wpa=2 #enable multi-media priority wmm_enabled=1 #disassociate remote sessions that are taking on high errors # enable this for better battery life; disable this to keep the link up at all costs #disassoc_low_ack=1 #The WPA2 64 character HEX key or 8 to 63 character passphrase for your network #wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef wpa_passphrase=YOURPASSPHASE #Use PSK and not EAP wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK #Use AES encryption rsn_pairwise=CCMP #Support high performance wifi # HT40+ : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel ABOVE the primary channel # HT40- : support both 20 MHz and 40 MHz BW with secondary channel BELOW the primary channel # SHORT-GI-40 : Short GI for 40 MHz # RX-STBC12 : one or two spatial streams # ht_capab=[HT40+][HT40-][SHORT-GI-40][RX-STBC12] #Don’t refuse association with remote client if they don’t support HT Phy negotiation require_ht=0 — Now update the SysV config startup script to load a custom config file: sudo vi /etc/default/hostapd — DAEMON_CONF=”/etc/hostapd/hostapd. If not, you can just skip this section sudo mkdir /etc/ax25/Old sudo cp /etc/ax25/direwolf. Py script” echo “Starting pishutdown. This document # does not fully cover IPv6 yet though I’ve added a minimial /etc/iptables/rules. 197 2 u 46 256 377 48. Com/wb2osz/direwolf/releases , I would encourage you to subsitute in for the newer version. 209560] sda: sda1 [ 360. 0 #allow-hotplug wlan0 — POTENTIALLY OBSOLETE section – WHEEZY – Skip this section for now ————————————————————————————— — Next, it’s very important to disable Network-Manager from trying to manage this device From the output of the “ifconfig” command above, note the MAC address of your Wifi device and change the MAC address in this file # vim /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager. | +———————————————————————————+ 1. For now, the VE7FET repo is fine for Raspbian # Stretch but time might prove a switch might be required. To fix this critical issue, see below to set the right keyboard via “raspi-config” a. On my Android device, go into the Android sytem settings, go to the Wifi setup area and in there, I click on the three vertical “. Service #8 – Make sure there aren’t any AX25 interfaces already loaded ifconfig | grep ax If there are, use the command “sudo ifconfig ax0 down” to shut them down #9 – Make sure there aren’t any KISS applications already running: ps aux | grep kiss Use the command “sudo killall kissattach” to kill any running kissattach commands (also removes any mkiss commands too) #10 – Download the newest TNC-Pi get/set tools sudo mkdir /usr/src/pitncgetset cd /usr/src/pitncgetset # Get the newest John Wiseman G8BPQ code – current as of 08/30/18 # wget http://www. By default, SystemD creates a network socket on port 2947 but ironically, when gpsd wants to start, it sees the port as busy and refuses to start. Disable_ipv6 = 1 net. | | To fix that, run the commands: | | | | stty sane | | rm -f rm /var/lock/LinPac. Pyshutdown: Building a shutdown button for an Rpi much like a PC’s ATX power button One of the critical issues with the entire Raspberry Pi SBC line (and many other Linux SBCs btw) is there is no way to safely shutdown the OS w/o logging into the device via the console, SSH, etc. X of the “bluez” Linux Bluetooth stack. Confirm that the /dev/watchdog device NOW is present ls -la /dev/watchdog — crw——- 1 root root 10, 130 Dec 12 16:01 /dev/watchdog — 6. To fix this in Raspbian Jessie, edit the /lib/systemd/system/watchdog. 5 KiB) RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 14 bytes 1787 (1. Looking at the 22. When prompted for your home BBS callsign, you need to enter in a valid or valid-looking BBS address. Eject the MicroSD card from the Rpi and install it into a different Linux machine’s card reader while that machine is fully booted 3. That’s a pretty long string but it makes things easy. Run this little script as root (sudo su) while [ true ]; do sync; sleep 1 done b. Configure a USB-based GPS receiver with GPSD for position, date and time By adding a GPS to your Raspberry Pi, not only can you use the location for say being an APRS client but also get ultra-reliable date and time. I recommend you just set this up *AS IS* since using other facility levels have other ramifications like sending messages to the console, dmesg, etc. New2 wget http://www. Test and make sure you can both login using this new username and also run sudo commands c. I2c/i2c-1/1-0068/hwmon/hwmon0/temp1_input — 23250 — That’s showing it’s 23. Please read all of the documents available on your Raspberry Pi in the /usr/share/doc/linpac/ directory or at https://sourceforge. Pdf Anyway, let’s configure Direwolf: Change the following line to reflect the correct ALSA sound device for your computer. Com ] 1 – Summary: [ Linpac is a modular console-oriented packet radio terminal for Linux with a built-in messaging client. Org/RPi_SD_cards for a lot more details but I would highly recommend the following: – NOTE: Newer Raspberry Pi units support booting from USB (Mass Storage Device – called MSD) which means you can boot from USB(hard drives and SSDs, USB flash pen drives, etc,). Btw, if Linpac | | crashed on you, your terminal might be screwed up and not working properly. 11 ESSID:off/any Mode:Managed Access Point: Not-Associated Tx-Power=31 dBm Retry short limit:7 RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off Encryption key:off Power Management:on — or the command “iw dev” In the next steps, you need to understand that the Stretch and Jessie versions of Raspbian uses the SystemD style of Linux system management. Once the Rpi is back up and you SSHed back into it, install some key I2C packages: sudo apt-get install i2c-tools python-smbus Once those tools are installed, try running the following command to see if the I2C display is detected: # detect all I2C IDs on the second I2C bus: sudo i2cdetect -y 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f 00: — — — — — — — — — — — — — 10: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 20: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 30: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3f 40: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 50: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 60: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — As you can see here, my LCD display has an I2C address of 0x3f. Log { rotate 3 daily missingok notifempty copytruncate size 10M compress compresscmd /bin/bzip2 uncompresscmd /bin/bunzip2 compressoptions -9 compressext. Info mail. V4 — -A INPUT -p udp -m udp -i wlan0 –sport 68 –dport 67 -j ACCEPT — Load the new ruleset with the following commands (previously discussed in the IPTABLES section): sudo su /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm & touch /tmp/fwok exit If that worked ok, let’s make this new firewall ruleset the new default: sudo cp /etc/iptables/rules. Setup a 20×4 LCD via I2C to display various system details The goal of this project was to add and LCD display to my Raspberry Pi to know what’s going on in it at a glance. 372686] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial_generic [262398. The remote host with a “*” is the system I’m currently using for time: ntpq -c peers — remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter ============================================================================== SHM(0). Read about filters here: http://www. Gz First, let’s build and install the ax25mail-utils program tar xzvf ax25mail-utils-0. Deb package to install Direwolf on different Raspberry Pi’s assuming it’s: – Running the same CPU instruction set (RPi v1’s CPU is different from Rpi v2/3) – Running the same version of Raspbian (Wheezy, Jessie, Stretch) – You’ve also installed all the other required packages To install that deb package once it’s copied to that other Rpi, you would use the following command: NOTE: the example configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb package so those will have to be copied over manually into /etc/ax25/ NOTE#2: I choose to put the direwolf. Create an empty (and noise free) 15 second WAV file – output file should be about 240kbytes arecord -c 2 -d 15 -f cd -t wav -D null /tmp/15sec-silence. ] 2 – Name: [ linpac ] 3 – Version: [ 0. 5 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://github. 83W) format using the “^” character (and the E/W indicator) b. If it’s not installed, this section of Linpac won’t function but it won’t error out either. Seems this LCDs have seemingly TWO brightness levels but this one program is mistakenly showing the text in ultra-bright mode. 255 ether b8:27:eb:79:82:2c txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet) RX packets 344 bytes 24486 (23. Conf-`date +%m%d%y` 7. 25 on a D74 HT # – Enhanced section 19 to say that if you aren’t going to use Direwolf and, instead # are going to use a TNC-Pi or D74, skip to section 25 to get that going # # 12/30/17 – Updated the OS installation chapter to recommend installing Raspbian Stretch at all # costs. Conf file off any other Rpi and use this build. NOTE: If you want a BT keyboard to be used with your smartphone to control SSH sessions to your Raspberry Pi, you need to pair the keyboard to your *smartphone* instead (not the Rpi itself). Compare that to my smartphone which | | could get full lock within 60 seconds. D/iptables k. Run the command “dmesg” on you Linux computer to confirm SD card showed up. See the above referenced rules. Net/projects/ax25mail –maintainer ki6zhdattrinityos. — # If you see that, awesome, you’ve confirmed Bluetooth to the D74 is working. Conf — server 127. Zip # If the above links don’t work, try looking for a different version of # the “PITNCParams” filename. From Linux: You can install the image via a two step process: 1. 1) in this example 3. To be written: Add configuring a Raspbery Pi Zero W or Rasperry Pi 3 with Wifi-only connectivity For the Rpi ZeroW, you can either connect a supported USB to Ethernet adapter to add Wired Ethernet or you can place a configured wpa_supplicant. DELETE the “pi” user Now that you created a new login and tested this new username, let’s now delete the “pi” account as the existance of the account, even being locked out as this document previously recommended still remains a security risk: a. Install important sysadmin and monitoring packages. Service sudo systemctl disable [email protected] 1: new high-speed USB device number 6 using dwc_otg [606161. If you don’t remember how to use that script, re-read the end of that section now so you don’t lock yourself out of your own Pi. D -f avahi-daemon remove # Disable the special key keyboard mapping tool sudo update-rc. Try reducing some of the line sizes here for say “chnlin” to a smaller number You can find more advanced Linpac configuration tips at: http://www. Look at the output of the command to confirm things look like you expect them to: sudo iptables -L h. Recommended to periodically do after applying OS patches to make sure things didn’t # break # – Fixed some HTML character encoding issues like &, etc # # 10/22/17 – Removed the delaycompress option from all the logrotate configuration files # – Fixed the logrotate section to properly manage the ulogd_traffic-emu1. 1 #static domain_name_servers=8. While that script is running, pull the USB power cord on the Rpi, wait 5 seconds and replace the power 2. Gz cd linpac-0. Alter your firewall to use the new Ulogd system Edit the /etc/iptables/rules. Net Next, you need to edit the /etc/aliases file to point all “root” user emails to go to a valid email address (off box). Type in “Y” and hit enter Description for the package: — Linpac is a modular console-oriented packet radio terminal for Linux with a built-in messaging client. Com/wb2osz/direwolf ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libasound2,libgps22 ] 11 – Provides: [ tnc ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging NOTE #1: If you get a “disk full” error here, it’s important that you follow the above section on creating a temporary /tmp mount to a local USB HDD (NFS mount works fore Direwolf) too. Setting up the Sound device Ok, assuming you’re going with the Direwolf software-TNC approach, you first need to get your soundcard setup tuned up. Your setup might have even other lines showing IPv6 site-local, privacy address, etc. To do so, we first need to shutdown any running gpsd processes: sudo systemctl stop gpsd Next, we have to work around SystemD doing the wrong thing here. Warn /var/log/mail. If you ran that above patch file or you did and it didn’t work for whatever reason, you can alternatively run the following commands and then try the checkconfig command again. NOTE: Sometimes Direwolf make distruptive changes from one version or another. V4 file and ADD the following # line BELOW the line: # # -A INPUT -p udp -m udp –sport 67 –dport 68 -j ACCEPT sudo vim /etc/iptables/rules. V4 file and follow the process to use the /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. Py #This is the running program but doesn’t aways init properly python /usr/local/sbin/lcdui-modified. To protect your system from overwriting your built | | packages, run the following command: | | | | sudo apt-mark hold ax25-apps | | | +—————————————————————————-+ #If you manually want to install the built package it instead, use the following command # NOTE: configuration files aren’t included in the checkinstall based deb # sudo dpkg –install ax25-apps_1. A Configure simultaneous Wifi client and Wifi AP connectivity +———————————————————————————-+ | IMPORTANT: | | This section is a work in progress and it currently does NOT work and | | actually breaks all Wifi access. Py #Old script – doesn’t support debouncing # don’t use this one – wget http://www. Conf allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet manual wpa-roam /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant. Any packets that will be # dropped due to the rate limit is logged. Service RecHandle: 0x10000 Service Class ID List: “PnP Information” (0x1200) Profile Descriptor List: “PnP Information” (0x1200) Version: 0x0103 Browsing FF:FF:FF:00:00:00. This can be on your computer itself or via say a USB card reader. -ne 0 ]; then echo “pishutdown. 25 sources to go toxic but the Official AX. | +—————————————————————————————+ Other options: – Use the Easy-Digi isolation kit which includes an opto-isolator for PTT but also includes audio isolation transformers as well. You *can* optionally enable IP forwarding on your RPIv3 which will share it’s Internet access to all associated Wifi devices. I’ve asked | | the repo owner to revert the change or fix the conflicts. # – Added that users now need to disable apt-daily. Auto start the packet system and advanced services Ok. # It’s known to be broken for the sdptool but a work around is available. You may see lots of disconnections and reassociation on both the Wifi and BT sides. I wanted to display more information at one time so I opted for one of these . Uncompress it and go into the directory unzip 1. New script will OVERRIDE the parameters originally configured in /etc/ax25/direwolf. I recommend you uninstall what you don’t need. D/watchdog script Add watchdog https://hallard. A OPTIONAL: Create remote NFS mounts for compile scratch space (save the SD card) +—————————————————————————————————————–+ | IMPORTANT | | ——— | | It seems that you CANNOT use autoconf (at least v2. If you typed in that command in time before the 30 second #timer expired, you should see: # # /tmp/fwok found. Unmount the card partitions sudo umount /media/sd-card/p1/ sudo umount /media/sd-card/p2/ 5. Also notice # the D74 didn’t lightup the LCD and state “Connected Bluetooth Device”. Sh script) due to any typos. The display’s backlight should light up but nothing be on the display. 0 | +—————————————————————————————+ – You can either install it from the Debian repositories with: +—————————————————————————————+ | Critical / Mandatory NOTE: | | | | As of Raspbian 9 / Debian 9 Stretch, this distribution has upgraded the version | | of the GCC compiler that BREAKS Linpac with versions LESS than 0. =info; *. To | | work arounds this, do the following (per the bug report): | | | | remove the line “ListenStream=[::1]:2947” from the /lib/systemd/system/gpsd. Configure your Rpi to support BOTH being an Access Point and Wifi client (managed mode) Configuring a Raspberry Pi 3/0w to act as either a standard Wifi client to connect to an existing Wifi AP or act as a full Access Point is pretty strait forward. Here are the design choices this document is making: Use an existing If you’re using Wifi on your Rpi today being it’s primary Internet connection, or *be* an AP: these steps will BREAK that network connection. Com/questions/44851/setting-up-ad-hoc-in-debian-with-dhcp The general recommendation for a Rpi based AP is to use hostapd and dnsmasq. So #If some of the above packages are missing, you can explicitly install them with: sudo apt-get install libnetfilter-log1 libnfnetlink0 libnetfilter-conntrack3 2. 25 repo this document builds from does NOT change # their name. Py & if [ $. 1: Manufacturer: Realtek [667667. V4 sudo iptables-restore < /etc/iptables/rules. Larger PACLEN settings will provide higher performance assuming you don't have many retries. Pay specific attention to the different *colors*: Recommended Rpi pinout graphic —————————— http://pinout. Doing this on a Raspberry Pi's SD card is dangerous as you can easily wear out the flash cells on the card. Sh # sudo chown root mount-usb-hd. 0 hostapd /etc/hostapd/hostapd. Org/iptables # # Please note that the above URL file points to the WRONG files installed by # iptables-persistent # # (modified to allow SSH, not allow HTTP and HTTPS) # # You can also find a copy of this file at: # http://www. Com/products/2310 and you'll then have a very slick setup that you can easily move from Raspberry Pi to Raspberry Pi. Depending on the quality/power of your radio, antenna, other nearby stations you wish to communicate with. You can find this white antenna chip on your Rpi3 just to the right of the 40pin header when the HDMI port is facing you. 3 ] 4 – Release: [ 1 ] 5 – License: [ GPL ] 6 – Group: [ hamradio ] 7 – Architecture: [ armhf ] 8 – Source location: [ https://github. Download the newest Raspbian OS release Raspbian Stretch image named 2017-08-16-raspbian-stretch-lite. New2 script and at least enable beacons and to have Linpac to auto-start. Run gpsd from the command line with the device-by-id string found from above. Py This program should: – light up the backlight – Show some text – Show a smiley face icon – Show a filling bar from the left to the right – Show a smiley face icon – turn the backlight off If that worked, you're in business. If not add it # Start LinPac if [ -f /root/LinPac/macro/init. You can choose to download and # modify this script which supports syntax differences for Raspbian Wheezy vs Jessie/Stretch # as well as both simple primary partition schemes and LVM enabled partitioning. Sh script to activate those changes. Skipping TNC Type: direwolf Restoring audio levels on soundcard Starting direwolf Installing one KISS connection on PTY port /tmp/kisstnc PTS0 device: /dev/pts/3 Setting kissparms (changes only shown in /var/log/packet. Sh # chmod 700 mount-usb-hd. 11b which slows the network down hw_mode=g # ACS support not enabled in the nl80211 driver for hostapd 2. 0,W,A*0A $GPGGA,041221. The goal here is to have the computer (the Raspberry Pi) brought back online instead of you having to manually cycle the power. Com/system/rsyslog-config/ It's a little terse on what really needs to be done. 15 l – 16 0 0. 25 and Raspbian Stretch | | | | I have confirmed that with Raspian Stretch, there is some sort of conflict with | | it's newly enabled predictable network interface names. Clear out all unallocated space in the file system for max compression #Fill up and clear out the "boot" partition – this will be fast (7 seconds) sudo time dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/sd-card/p1/bigfile. Put the new, empty SD card into this other Linux computer and use the command: # Use the file name from what you entered above unxz -9c ki6zhd-jessie-w-linpac. —– The DS3221 includes a highly accurate temperature sensor as it's ability to understand the environment is how it keeps far better track of time than NON-temperature compensated RTCs. Conf is in /etc/ax25 # – added missing zlib dependencies for ax25-tools # # 09/05/17 – Increase the RAM drives for /tmp to 10MB and /var/log/ to 50MB # – Added a log rotation max size limit of 10M to the /var/log/packet, ax25-listen. Go ahead and reboot your Raspberry Pi. Conf file are reachable # # This command can take up to 20 seconds to print anything. 1, if one of those packets is corrupted, the entire window of packets will be resent. For me, I used: http://pinout. If you plan on using NFS on your Raspberry Pi, it seems my Rpi v2 running Jessie as of 3/5/16 won't reboot if you use the /sbin/shutdown or reboot or even "systemctl reboot" command. When prompted for "the digipeaters used to connect", I just hit enter to mean NO digipeaters as I can hear my local BBS directly 7. 1 netmask 255. If you only have a VGA computer monitor, there are some HDMI to VGA converter devices that cost about . It just has the wrong date and time but that's ok as it's brand new. Net rpi3 localhost – Now add your desired Rpi's hostname alias for local wireless network address – Add addresses to reflect any IP addresses enabled in the /etc/ax25/ax25ipd. Com/e/2007 This is evidently due to the xconsole not running (when you Rpi isn't running Xwindows because you're using Raspbian Lite). Change the default firewall policies by running: # If your not familar with how to use the Vi editor, you can # use Nano instead # # change the INPUT and FORWARD policy lines from "ACCEPT" to "DROP" # # NOTE: Please note that if you want your Raspberry Pi not to be completely # hidden on the Internet, consider using "REJECT" instead of "DROP" # below in the actual rules. Can create very large amount of log entries – enable port knocking (potentially removes the need to change port numbers or mandate SSH-keys – Enable tools like fail2ban to block remote IPs after X number of failed login attempts, portscans, etc. 25 Net/ROM or ROSE network protocols — Hit ENTER again to accept the description Next, confirm the checkinstall fields all look ok and similar to the following: — 0 – Maintainer: [ [email protected] 25 –pkgrelease 1 –pkggroup hamradio –pkgsource https://sourceforge. For example on my Rpi2: vi /etc/fstab # for Stretch that uses UUIDs, it looks like: — PARTUUID=92f034a6-02 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — # for Jessie, it looks like: — /dev/mmcblk0p2 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 — Go ahead and reboot your Rpi right now. Install ulogd2 sudo apt-get install ulogd2 3. If you're not # sure, contact your ISP for the proper MX relay or "smarthost" hostname and # domain name or full qualified domain name (FQDN). NOTE: If you plan on running Netrom, the max PACLEN you can use is 236 – the next field is the WINDOW field which is related to the PACLEN field. | | | | Keeping this section around for posterity and it might help some Rasbpian Wheezy users | +——————————————————————————————+ Configure your Rpi Wifi in Adhoc mode using the RTL8192 Wifi devices ——————————————————————– – I have a Wifi device that has the 8192cu chipset but so many sites only talk to Atheros (ath9k) and Broadcom (b43) chipsets and rarely give details about Realtek chips. We'll need to use in later so let's move it to somewhere permanent: sudo mv RPi_I2C_driver. 4Ghz band and there isn't any 5. Run the command: dmesg | grep brcmfmac and you should see something similar to these Wifi details: — brcmfmac: brcmf_c_preinit_dcmds: Firmware version = wl0: May 27 2016 00:13:38 version 7. Service 11. If you see garbage on the screen (something like the following): sudo cat /dev/ttyAMA0 ���������������������������������������������������������������� That's bad. From reputable sellers. 119 2 u 707 1024 377 52. Now we need to configure DNSMasq: +—————————————————————————————————-+ | NOTE: New recent issue – 10/26/17 | | | | There has been a recent issue seemingly introduced with a recent Raspbian patch where | | dnsmasq won't start. Conf # – Added Linpac # # 11/26/15 – Recommend to create a new user account and DISABLE the default "pi" # account # – Formatting improvements # # 11/24/15 – Added a critical point about microphone bias voltages from soundcards # and radios # # 11/21/15 – Added an iptables section to secure the Rpi as soon as possible # – Dump more packages upon first install # # 11/07/15 – Added index; revamping all sections sequentially # 10/21/15 – Added HD APM ; shutdown button # 10/14/15 – initial version (based on the old Wheezy doc). Now we need to get an example program going to confirm the LCD works ok. Add in that there is a lot of conflicting and stale setup information out on the web of how to do it and it's become a bit of nightmare to setup. I would recommend to leave this at "19200" which means 19200bps – the next field is the PACLEN or packet length or maximum transmission unit (MTU). Conf file and now make the lines read: — interface=ap0 driver=nl80211 ssid=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-ME #Change this if you arent in the US country_code=US hw_mode=g channel=1 macaddr_acl=0 auth_algs=1 wmm_enabled=0 ieee80211n=1 ht_capab=[HT40][SHORT-GI-20][DSSS_CCK-40] wpa=2 wpa_passphrase=YOU-NEED-TO-CHANGE-THIS wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK wpa_pairwise=CCMP — Next, we need to change the the /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant. Did it work and you were able to login. I will probe address range 0x03-0x77. Conf file, find the following commented lines, uncomment them and change them to reflect your callsign, etc NOTE: All of this setting assumes your Raspberry Pi has Internet access. NOTE#2: I've seen many times that if I connect an HDMI monitor to an already running Rpi, the OS will crash and you have to remove and re-connect the USB power cable. Thought completely optional, I would recommend to install some of these useful programs: vim – better version of Vi tcpdump – network monitor lsof – tool to see what ports / files are open on the machine gpm – mouse program for cutting/pasting when in CLI mode telnet – make simple outgoing TCP connections for various network tests #Install them and their required dependencies # sudo apt-get install vim tcpdump lsof gpm telnet #I would also recommend to ONLY run GPM it when you're on the actual console (HDMI) and it's needed. Edit the following file, and remove the # in front of the following line: sudo vim /etc/default/hostapd — DAEMON_CONF="/etc/hostapd/hostapd. Sh /usr/local/sbin/ sudo chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/remove-old-kernels. Com –provides "tnc" –requires libasound2,libgps22 make install Follow the checkinstall prompts: Should I create a default set of package docs. Txt | | — | | #append the following to the end of the one line in this file | | net. 1 u 825 1024 177 82. It seems that the Raspbian community follows the NON-LTS version of Debian schedule shown here: https://wiki. Diff patch -p1 scan –> scan-results –> add_network –> set_network 0 ssid “enter-your-previously-shown-BSSID-here” –> set_network 0 psk “enter-your-wpa2-key-here” –> enable_network 0 –> save_config Get a copy of /usr/local/sbin/start-adhoc. Even for static IP addresses. Aspx # In this example, I only want to receive APRS messages that are intended for stations # within 10km of my station’s location # IGFILTER m/10 #In addition to the APRS-IS system only sending you data you want, sometimes it will # still send too much or unexpected data. Org/documentation/usage/gpio/ Per the Direwolf documentation, it has the following recommendations: Raspberry Pi physical pin 11 – Broadcom GPIO 17 Raspberry Pi physical pin 15 – Broadcom GPIO 22 Raspberry Pi physical pin 16 – Broadcom GPIO 23 Raspberry Pi physical pin 18 – Broadcom GPIO 24 Raspberry Pi physical pin 22 – Broadcom GPIO 25 The Raspberry Pi A+, B+, 2, and 4 have the larger 40pin connector with additional GPIO pins: Raspberry Pi physical pin 29 – Broadcom GPIO 5 Raspberry Pi physical pin 31 – Broadcom GPIO 6 Raspberry Pi physical pin 32 – Broadcom GPIO 12 Raspberry Pi physical pin 33 – Broadcom GPIO 13 Raspberry Pi physical pin 35 – Broadcom GPIO 19 Raspberry Pi physical pin 36 – Broadcom GPIO 16 Raspberry Pi physical pin 37 – Broadcom GPIO 26 GPS –> Basic Settings –> # Built-in GPS: On # PC Output: On # # 2. When prompted for “Enter the full hierarchical address”, put in the correct address. Removing or disabling unwanted services a. Using off-brand cards could prove unreliable (corruption, later full-on card death, etc) – Buy a larger card than you need : By using a larger card, the SD card can better leverage it’s built in wear level systems to make the card last longer before bad sectors begin to show up – (OPTIONAL) – If you have access to a Windows or Mac machine with an SD card reader, it’s encouraged to format the card with the Official SD Association card formatter programs available at: https://www. If I then cycle the Wifi on my phone, I can re-establish a connection | to the Rpi0w but now, the association from the rpi0w to remote AP via the wlan0 interface | keeps flapping over and over. To make sure the HD’s auto-spin down feature is enabled, do the following: NOTE: One challenge here is that some hard drives might be different and not work with these settings. Run the following commands when you have an Internet connection and a LOT of time (maybe late at night before you go to bed): sudo apt-get clean sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get autoremove sudo apt-get upgrade sudo apt-get dist-upgrade 11. Conf file if you intend to use the built-in APRS functionality in Direwolf itself. Add this new user into the following UNIX groups: – “audio” (allow users to access the soundcard) – “dialout” (allow serial port access – if needed) – “gpio” (allow access to the GPIO pins) – “sudo” (allow root access) – “video” group (allow diagnostic permissions to the GPU) sudo usermod -a -G audio,dialout,gpio,sudo,video dranch b. Once the Rpi has rebooted, log back in, and ensure that the output of the command: sudo iptables -L Make sure it the two key lines as well as any other specific rules you expect to be there (be it DROP or REJECT depending on what you setup): Chain INPUT (policy DROP) and Chain FORWARD (policy DROP) +——————————————————————————+ | IMPORTANT: | | It’s very important to understand that the above firewall ONLY | | secures the IPv4 protocol. Included are routines to do ax25 address parsing, common ax25 application config file parsing, etc. Once you have the soundcard side tuned up, save the new soundcard levels: sudo alsactl store It’s worth noting that if you aren’t going to be using this document’s startup scripts, be sure to use: sudo alsactl restore in your scripts to reliably restore the soundcard levels. For Raspbian Stretch, temporarily follow the recommendations found in https://www. If it doesn’t have Internet access, Direwolf should work just fine for local uses NOTE2: The APRS-IS system MUST have your station’s location as set above in the “PBEACON” (Position Beacon) entry above. Change the default SSH port 22 to some other port number – Doing this offers some reduction in drive by attacks but not for full attacks as port scanning will find your new port. Try running the following command: sudo sdptool browse local — Failed to connect to SDP server on FF:FF:FF:00:00:00: No such file or directory or Failed to connect to SDP server on FF:FF:FF:00:00:00: Permission denied or Failed to connect to SDP server on FF:FF:FF:00:00:00: Connection refused — # Did the command fail. The challenge with using hard drives is that the Raspberry Pi defaults to leaving the hard drive spinning all the time and it will never spin down if it’s not in use. This patch will soon be integrated into Linpac 0. Be silently # dropped. 4,M,,*6F $GPRMC,041221. Sh script a bit # – Updated the packet to Kenwood D74 section a bit # – Fixed some jump links # # 03/08/18 – Added dual/simultaneous wifi client AP access and AP mode # # 02/03/18 – Enhanced the Bluetooth section a bit and updated the bt-kiss-bringup. Conf file in /etc/ax25 directory to make it a system-wide configuration file. Install Linpac for Connected and UnConnected packet QSOs and PBBS ———————— OPTIONAL for APRS users: ———————— Linpac is a classic packet program for Linux that runs in a terminal window which is similar to the Pakkratt or PKGold programs for DOS. Using Linpac via screen —————————– Linpac is a powerful, Ncurses based packet program but the full use of it is beyond this document. Sh — Current CPU speed governor: (valid is ‘powersave’, ‘ondemand’): ondemand Current CPU frequency: 600000 Max allowed frequency 1200000 SOC Temp (in Celius) – DD. Conf — IGNORE ME- I’m leaving this legacy entry in this document for now to ensure I don’t see any strange behavior and might need to re-add it: disable SystemD from trying to associate to any local APs: — #Find the line that looks like the following and it DOESN”T have a # in front of it allow-hotplug wlan0 — Ok, now let’s activate this base wlan0 configuration. Though you’ll need a high power # Wifi amp to use it, you might as well start there # # You can also use the next sections recommendations to see what might be # a better channel to use but for now, use channel 1 channel=1 # Accept all MAC addresses macaddr_acl=0 # Use WPA authentication ONLY auth_algs=1 # Require clients to know the network name ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 # Enable Wireless MultiMedia class of service (WMM) wmm_enabled=1 # Enable 802. So I’m using the following different GPIO pins on my Rpi3 for various uses: Direwolf PTT on Rpi2: Rpi pin 37 (Broadcom GPIO 26) :: connect this to the PTT circuit Rpi pin 39 ( electrical GND ) :: connect this to the PTT circuit Direwolf DCD on Rpi2: Rpi pin 33 (Broadcom GPIO 13) :: connect to cathode of LED (short lead / smaller metal inside LED) Rpi pin 34 – GND :: connect to anode of LED (long lead / larger metal inside LED) PiShutdown Rpi pin 18 (Broadcom GPIO 24) :: connect to 10k resistor, then one side of a momentary switch Rpi pin 20 – GND :: Connect to other side of momentary switch +———————————————————————————+ | Reminder: | | | | It’s critical that whatever username runs the direwolf program, that user is | | given the required Unix permissions to access the GPIO pins. Or your transmissions won’t be decoded very well or at all. 654767 sec @ 4800bps gpsd:WARN: can’t use GGA time until after ZDA or RMC has supplied a year. Field-keywords=SD-CM-UAUD It’s is proven reliable and also doesn’t spew RF noise on 144. I’ll openly mention that there are errors in there on my system that seem to be bugs in Raspbian Stretch and/or the Linux kernel today. Local file: — echo -e “nStarting up LCD on I2C address: 0x37” #this test script seems to initialize the LCD properly every time python /usr/local/sbin/examples. If you don’t do this, your Raspberry Pi could get hacked especially if you chose not to disable the default “pi” account that has a well known password. Zip or another alternative: https://dl. Now remove the SD card from this secondary Linux machine and put it back into your Raspberry Pi 8. Next, Noatime File system optimization Enable the noatime option to minimize file system writes on your root file system. On the D74, go into Menu –> Configuration –> Interface –> # PC Output (GPS): Bluetooth # PC OUtput (APRS): Bluetooth # KISS : Bluetooth # DV/DR : Bluetooth # # 3. The weaker it’s reception, the longer this can take (if it ever works). V4 — k. This effectively makes Linpac able to support simultaneous QSOs to the same callsign+SSID like KI6ZHD-6. Disable auto-login Double check: If you installed the GUI version of Raspbian (not the Lite version), the system by default will auto-login the “pi” user to the LXDE desktop. So go get a test program: #This fork of another user’s program works well # It 100% initializes well and shows text and graphics the first time, every time # #RPi_I2C_driver. Zip 2. 2 The rest of configuring the AX. Raspbian also now uses the dhcpcd (read that as DHCP *client*) process for all network interfaces (strangely enough. 646 — In the above output, if you only see SHM to SHM, somethings isn’t working right. Log so it won’t fill up the RAM drive. Sh # sudo mv /tmp/mount-usb-hd. D – While gpsmon or cgps is still running, run the following command in another window (yes, gpsmon or cgps MUST be running in another window for this to work): sudo systemctl start ntp 34. If you want to allow more packets, increase # these specific configuration items to suit your needs # IGTXLIMIT 6 10 — 24. Local — #Send a message to root when the Rpi reboots date | mailx -s “host: `uname -n` was rebooted” — root — 13. Connecting your Radio to the Soundcard with tips There are multiple ways to connect the RPi to your radio’s PTT line depending on the radio, etc. If your Raspberry Pi isn’t going to be directly connected to the raw Internet (not behind some form of a NAT/Router), you probably don’t need to do this. Ifnames=0 biosdevname=0 | | — | | | | Reboot your Raspberry Pi and things will work from there on out. — Validate the output: — 0 – Maintainer: [ ki6zhdattrinityos. Org/downloads/formatter_4/ Why. Deb (–unpack): | | trying to overwrite ‘/usr/include/netax25/ax25. If so, they both MUST be in-place to communicate to the TNC-Pi to change it’s settings (for either serial OR I2C mode). 7 GiB) [ 360. Com/using-your-raspberry-pi-3-as-a-wifi-access-point-with-hostapd/ but I’ve added informational and troubleshooting commands, modernized it’s commands to use native Systemd commands and added IPTABLES firewall sections to protect your system IP Addressing: This doc will use the 192. Service #Remove any disabling of the wlan interface sudo rfkill unblock 0 At this point, not a whole lot will be changed as the wireless interface still doesn’t have any network associations but Raspbian Stretch: Won’t show any IP address in the output of “ifconfig -a” just yet Raspbian Jessie: If you run “ifconfig -a” should show the 192. Sh script’s “FET_LIBAX25_PATH” variable to point to the | | directory where the libax25 package is available. For use with the Linpac terminal programs as well as others — Validate the output: — 0 – Maintainer: [ ki6zhdattrinityos. Disable_ipv6 = 1 net. Net/documentation/linux/Useful_SystemD_commands/ #show running daemons systemctl | grep running #I recommend to disable Avahi (Bonjour) for it’s network spamming sudo systemctl disable avahi-daemon. Save and exit your changes in the rules. Sh chmod 700 /usr/local/sbin/start-adhoc. It’s worth noting that Debian includes an auto-updating package. | | | | If you have a recommended, not too expensive GPS receiver unit that’s more | | RF quiet, please email me on your recommendation. 1 on4hu-0 on4hu. Make sure there aren’t any “inet6″ addresses showing up (even link-local ones). C – Setting up Bluetooth on the Rpi for pairing BT keyboards —————————————————- Assuming you didn’t disable the bluetooth support on your Rpiv3 via the raspi-config program, here is an example to associate to a BT keyboard to interact with the Rpi while viewing the display via the HDMI port. Other HOWTOs on the internet use ISC’s DHCPd server and ISC’s Bind DNS servers but they are additional packages to install and using ISC’s industrial strength programs are major overkill for this simplier use-case To start off with, let’s make sure Linux sees the Wifi hardware. 25 startup scripts As part of my setup, I have several AX. It should just work. Log To manually shutdown your packet station, run the command: sudo /etc/ax25/ax25-down — Shutting down Linpac linpac: no process found nodesave: no NET/ROM port data configured N/R routes saved Ending beacon – 31354 Ending mheardd – 31357 Ending listen – 31343 Stopping Kissattach spattach: no process found Detach Ax/Nr/Sp Devices ls: cannot access ‘/proc/sys/net/ax25’: No such file or directory Stopping mkiss Stopping Direwolf Ax25 Stopped — 26. Deb | | | | You can read more but this bug at: | | https://github. Err to mail. 92W_169/000g000t059r000p000P000h83b10154 vhfdrop: fm K6ODX to APOT30 via WA6YLB-7* N6ZX-3* WIDE2* ctl UI pid=F0(Text) len 50 /162640h3637. As such, try to determine the least used channel around you # It might be worth noting that HAMs with our amateur radio license give us # special high power privileges on channel 1. ” icon in the very upper right part of the screen. In the future, I might add a physical switch connected to GPIO pins to allow you to choose how the Rpi will exclusively act but that’s not documented here yet (is mentioned in my old Rpi doc available at: http://www. Tuning-direwolf for more details on tuning your various RF levels and timing — Unless you plan on using the TCP KISS (not the same as “serial KISS”) feature or the AGW/PE API support (Direwolf does *not* support connected sessions for things like Outpost, etc), then plan on disabling both of these: AGWPORT 8000 KISSPORT 8001 to AGWPORT 0 KISSPORT 0 — Depending on your use of your packet station, you might want to enable the FIX_BITS section to be either APRS centric or standard packet centric error prediction: – The first parameters of 1 or 2 is the number of bits Direwolf will try to correct – the second parameter of AX25 essentially disables the APRS-centric hinting which is useful if you’re a classic packet user and not an APRS user FIX_BITS 1 AX25 — GPS locations beacon for using on APRS: It’s a good idea that your packet system beacons it’s presence on the frequency. You can run the command “dpkg -l | grep libgps” to see what version is installed on your Rpi. Conf file: sudo make install-conf The checkconfig program will automatically install the resulting. If you | | run the command “ifconfig” or “ip addr”, you will no longer see Ethernet | | interfaces with names like “eth0” but instead, you’ll see something like | | “enxb827eb5f05”. Conf — interface=wlan0 no-dhcp-interface=eth0 domain=rpi-trinnet. | | Please read the Direwolf tuning section above and make sure THESE settings here | | align with the settings you put in the direwolf. 11N Wifi and Bluetooth 4. Py wget https://gist. Run the following command to confirm you see the “wlan0” interface: /sbin/ifconfig -a — wlan0: flags=4099 mtu 1500 ether b8:27:eb:0a:50:6e txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet) RX packets 0 bytes 0 (0. It’s important to know that this command will not start spewing out NMEA sentences. For this example, I am using “vhfdrop” 6. How did that signal sound. As such, you can skip ahead to Chapter 25 to take it from there. NOTE: You might be thinking to yourself, “Why do this if I have a GPS running. This means everything in Linux is COMPLETELY changed the way that the Linux network stack gets configured. Com/HAM/CentosDigitalModes/RPi/ to see other potentially interesting scripts and tools as I add them. Bz2 — Now edit the /etc/logrotate. Sh chmod 755 image-raspbian-zip-to-rpi-sd-card. — 1: lo: mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1 link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127. In Northern California, we’ve standardized on: -0 :: (aka. Mac — [email protected] KI6ZHD — In this example, I ONLY only want to associate the KI6ZHD-6 callsign and SSID to the F1 and F2 keyboard keys (by default, it has F1-F8 associating). 372576] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial [262398. It’s generally recommended to buy a Wifi device that uses the Realtek RTL8188CUS chipset. (there’s always a “but”). Check the output mixer settings, try a different sound device, etc. For example, I’m naming my unit “rpi3. Gz cd ax25mail-utils-0. The below script comes from: https://www. Connect your USB keyboard and mouse to the USB hub d. Ax25tools # git clone https://github. Appendix 90. If the test was successful, Type in the following to forground the hostapd program and then exit it: — fg %1 control-c — If the above tests DIDN’T WORK, you can try a few things: 1) You might have an incompatible Wifi channel configured. You can put anything in here that helps identify this AX. None -/var/log/debug — 3. Power back up your Raspberry Pi and everything is as it was but now you have a backup 9. New override settings # originally loaded in direwolf. Find the line: kern. This script will activate the firewall and then prompt you # to make sure things went ok. 25 connection cannot gracefully disconnect via issuing the “b” command on a remote KPC3 TNC. NOTE: —– I’ve seen that many programs just barely show any text on the LCD display If you look very closely, at an angle, you’ll be able to tell the text is but it’s way too faint. 25 # # 10/15/17 – Changed out to a new pishutdown2. Cable up and power up your Rpi a. Zip unzip adafruit_hostapd_14128. To do so, run: sudo python /usr/local/sbin/pishutdown. If you don’t install this rotation system (usually installed by default), the RAM drive can get full and you’ll loose important diagnostic logs, etc. You can change it now to just be the text “1” here or remove that spec file and re-run this step over again. Fl connector for external # antennas # – add a link to EOL dates for Rasbpian (Jessie went EOL early) # – Updated the update-glibc-ax25-workaround. # Recommended: hostapd and dnsmasq HostAP and a LB-Link BL-LW05-AR5 802. 8) and the status of the NTP session (do we have Internet time) – The current running callsign and the number of received AX25 packets – The system load with 1min / 5min / 15min details You can grab a copy of my modified script here: wget http://www. – The above script doesn’t support a debouncing capability and I was experiencing false shutdowns due to I beleive RFI issues. This example will only # allow 6 packets in 1 minute or 10 packets within 5 minutes. TRS0&_nkw=easydigi&_sacat=0 – Another option to consider is to build the time-limited PTT circuit that’s found in Direwolf’s Raspberry-Pi-APRS. If it’s not set (and accurate), things either won’t work at all or you’ll get data from APRS-IS that isn’t appropreate for your area — # Enable Igate connectivity – connects go on TCP port 14580 # If you are in other locations in the world, choose a closer APRS-IS pool listed at http://aprsisce. I know because I killed one SD card this way. 16 p – 64 0 0. You might see many | | disassociations and reassociations on the Wifi and/or Bluetooth side when | | either system is busy. Screenrc-svxlink -S linpac sudo linpac — to — screen -d -m -S linpac sudo linpac #screen -d -r linpac — It’s important to have that last line commented out or screen will try to reconnect to the current TTY but no one is logged in. Ptional projects to add to your Raspberry Pi / APRS / Packet PRoject 60. # [1]+ Done sudo /usr/local/sbin/firewall-confirm. This URL might be a better fit for our simple needs: http://youness. As wlan0 operation | is currently unreliable | | | * So what’s busted. Let’s also confirm the Wifi device can be interrogated: iwconfig wlan0 — wlan0 IEEE 802. 1 4112 1764 ttyAMA0 Ss+ 08:24 0:18 /sbin/agetty –keep-baud 115200 38400 9600 ttyAMA0 vt102 — Disable the getty running on /dev/ttyAMA0 permanently the Jessie / SystemD way with: sudo systemctl stop [email protected] Now, connect up the following simple circuit (this example uses Broadcom GPIO 24): 1. At this point, a set of configurations will go into /root/LinPac/ and Linpac will automatically start up. If you’d like to put a copy of this newly created SD image onto another SD card 9. – Hostname – Make the hostname something unique – Boot options – Desktop / CLI – If you installed the “Lite” version of Raspbian, you’re not going to be running Xwindows and consuming all that RAM for the GUI. Net/projects/linpac/files/LinPac/ ] 9 – Alternate source location: [ ] 10 – Requires: [ libax25,ax25-apps,ax25-tools,libncurses5 ] 11 – Provides: [ linpac ] 12 – Conflicts: [ ] 13 – Replaces: [ ] — If your output looks similar to your screen, hit ENTER to begin the packaging and install the resulting package +—————————————————————————–+ | CRITICAL NOTE: | | With a recent change to Raspbian 9 / Debian 9 Stretch, changes to | | the version of GCC has made the Debian apt version of Linpac

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