Optionally update the source tree (in /usr/src. *With putty use Source port=10. For this example let’s use a virtual IP of 10. Install the kernel # reboot FreeBSD. Html is a simple and free.
Valid versions are 5. 2000 – FreeBSD jails *1979 – Unix V7 added chroot DISCLAIMER: This post is only a repeat. Download VirtualBox for your operating system. OpenStack is the second most popular open source project after the Linux Kernel. VirtualBox is an open source.
The command “openssl ciphers -v ‘ALL:@STRENGTH'” will show you all of the ciphers your version of OpenSSL supports. Also, notice we did NOT include any Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (DHE) or Triple DES (3DES) ciphers as they are six(6) to ten(10) times slower then ECDHE. Our Guide to Webserver SSL Certificates explains many of the details about ciphers and compatibility models.
Making Linux GPL’d was definitely the best thing I ever did. The Pragmatist of Free Software: Linus Torvalds Interview.
For example, if you serve a static site with no file uploads and only expect client to request files, you can safely set the receive buffer to as low as one(1) kilobyte for http connections and two(2) kilobytes for https connections. Accept_filter=dataready — is used for HTTPS listening servers since HTTPS requests are encrypted. The accf_data(9) filter buffers incoming connections until data arrives and then the nginx server is notified. Once an entire request is received, the kernel then sends it to the nginx server. With TCP, if data arrives and you aren’t reading it, the buffer will fill up, and the sender will be told to slow down (using TCP window adjustment mechanism). For example OpenBSD’s UFS filesystem is glacial compared to FreeBSD’s ZFS filesystem. Make sure you have the FreeBSD accf_http kernel module loaded. You may want to test setting up a send buffer size to around double your largest static resource. Rcvbuf is the system call SO_RCVBUF which is the size of the buffer the kernel allocates to hold the data arriving into the given socket during the time between it arrives over the network and when it is read by the program that owns this socket. If you server is quite busy you will want to increase this value. Note that since you using more ram to fulfill client requests you want to make sure you have enough system resources for the amount of clients you expect to serve at any one time. Rcvbuf=8K buffers incoming data (sysctl net. Using the sndbuf call can reduce constant small reads and allow the sysytem to buffer up data for slow client sends. The default is 32 kilobytes. For UDP, once the buffer is full, new packets will just be discarded. Filtering data connections is great way to stop a lot of the attacks and scans. Or it could fill up if there is a network problem, and the kernel is not getting acknowledgments for the data it sends (CWND size). Again, using TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT can stop many of the more obvious scans or SYN attacks from getting to the nginx server. The httpready accept filter buffers the entire HTTP request at the kernel level. SO_SNDBUF only matters for TCP (in UDP data is immediately sent out to the network). So, what kind of speed increases can you see by adding a larger buffer. This filter is an excellent way to filter out SYN scans and illegal connections and keep them away from the web server. Send buffer directive (sndbuf=128k) tells nginx to buffer up to 128 kilobytes in ram for returned file requests read from the filesystem. If you have a 500 kilobyte file you are sending to the client and the buffer is 128K then nginx will need to read at least four(4) times from the filesystem (500KB / 128 buffer = 3. You may see an even bigger advantage if your files on on slow hard disks or your OS is a bit slow at IO. The kernel will then slow down sending data on the network until, eventually, the outgoing buffer fills up. Only FreeBSD’s Accept Filters (accf_http) is currently supported. We recommend decrease the rcvbuf to the smallest size you expect a valid client to send to you at any one time. Make sure have the FreeBSD accf_data kernel module loaded. Accept_filter=httpready — is for HTTP only listening servers. If so, future write() calls to this socket by the application will block (or return EAGAIN if you’ve set the O_NONBLOCK option). Somaxconn) are the max number of backlogged client requests Nginx will process. This is a simplified method similar to FreeBSD’s accf_data as it does not buffer data but will wait for a completed TCP connection. Deferred — indicates to use that postponed accept(2) on Linux with the aid of the TCP option TCP_DEFER_ACCEPT. 1:80 tells nginx to listen to localhost (127. 1:80 default rcvbuf=8K sndbuf=128k backlog=128 : listen 127. This way nginx will read all 500K of the file and put it all into the 512K buffer reducing your disk reads to only one(1). In this case you may want to increase the send buffer to 512K or even 1M. For TCP, a program could fill the buffer either if the remote side is not reading or receiving (so that remote buffer becomes full, then TCP communicates this fact to your kernel, and your kernel stops sending data, instead accumulating it in the local buffer until it fills up). Rcvbuf can be decreased to as little as 1K, possible decreasing the probability of overflow during a DDoS attack. We saw an average decrease in random disk IO right away and reduced latency in fulfilling client requests by at least 62%.
TXT and BMP files on the other hand compress well at an average of 250% smaller. This makes your site “feel” significantly faster. For example, JPG’s are already compressed so it would be useless for us to try to compress them again. Smaller files mean less bandwidth used and less time to transmit the same amount of data. Gzip_types text/plain text/html text/css image/bmp are the only files types to be compressed.
This string is used by places like Alexia and Netcraft to collect statistics about how many and of what type of web server are live on the Internet. The Server: string is the header which is sent back to the client to tell them what type of http server you are running and possibly what version.
This directive will limit requests no matter how the client connects; for example they could connect though many individual TCP connections or use only a few TCP connections and pass many keepalive requests. Limiting requests is a good way of keeping a single client ip address from hammering your server. The ngx_http_limit_zone_module restricts the amount of requests an ip address can make. Limit_req_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=gulag:1m rate=60r/m; sets up a table we will call “gulag” which uses no more than 1 megabyte of ram to store session information keyed by remote ip address. This directive is used in conjunction with limit_req zone=gulag burst=200 nodelay;. This directive currently does _not_ take affect on SPDY connections, but should in the future when the SPDY patch is joined into the nginx source. An error 503 will be returned to the client if request processing is being blocked at the socket level and new requests from the same ip continue.
In order to be FIPS 140-2 compliant only TLSv1 (which stands for 1. Please check out the section lower down on this page where we explain how to build nginx with the latest version of OpenSSL for TLS v1. 0 or higher) can be used. 0 or greater (TLSv1). 2; tells the server to only allow TLS version 1. It is highly recommended never to use SSL version 2 (SSLv2) or SSL version 3 (SSLv3) as they have vulnerabilities due to weak key strength.
If you have a lot of data to send and your are limited by your upload speed of your connection then your server might be fast enough to send out the data, but you simply can not get the bits uploaded fast enough to the user. Also be aware of the packet switching rate of your connection is usually rated in packets per seconds or pps. Network speed and capacity: First and foremost you have to take in account your connection speed and packet rate to your users. Make sure that your network is up to the task of delivering your data.
If you would rather stick with packages for your software, it is probably best to wait until the update is repackaged. If you use portmaster before you upgrade your packages, because of the lag between port and package updates, there is a chance that some software that was previously installed using a package will now be updated using ports. If this is not a problem for you, feel free to use this method.
Curl is the tool of choice. So, the second request went over the same TCP connection as the first and thus saved us time. We see that the first connection completes the 3 way TCP handshake in 32ms and the SSL handshake finishes 95ms after that. Here we make two(2) connections to encrypted. The second connection on the next line is all 0. Com and time the responses from both the 3 way TCP handshake and the SSL negotiation of Google’s 1024 bit rsa certificate key. 00’s because Google allows keepalive connections. Keepalive’s are quite useful when used correctly.