Freebsd download img

freebsd download img

Подробное описание уже вышедших, текущих и планируемых релизов. Обращайтесь сюда, чтобы узнать, какая версия FreeBSD .

GNS3 is a graphical network simulator that allows you to design complex network topologies. Free download page for Project GNS3's freebsd-4.

Sinon, vous voudrez peut-être télécharger FreeBSD en utilisant le protocol BitTorrent. Torrent peuvent être récupérer auprès du serveur BitTorrent FreeBSD. Si vous comptez télécharger FreeBSD via FTP, veuillez consulter la liste des sites miroirs du manuel de référence pour déterminer lequel est le plus proche de chez vous.

Download links redirect to a download page on SourceForge. 7-Zip is a file archiver with a high compression ratio. Choose a download format.

Devil Penguin Cartoon Clip Art at Clker.com - vector clip

© Arrow Computer Services Ltd 2007 – 2017. Arrow Computer Services Ltd, 48 Montego Drive, Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, Bay Of  Plenty, New Zealand. Phone +64 (0) 2 7277 1699. Nz is proudly brought to you by the WinRAR Certified Distributor for New Zealand and Australia since 1994 and globally since 2004. Questions about this site: go to webmaster.

To have text appear identical on all screens, we should adjust for that discrepancy. A German language page on the calculation of dpi for screens. Typically, today, they range from 72 dpi to 96 dpi and with larger monitors well over 100 dpi. [Google] [More]  ⦿.

Created by Antonio Carusone, graphic designer and author of the design and typography blog AisleOne. Special thanks to Duane King for his help and wisdom. From the web site: Made popular by the International Typographic Style movement and pioneered by legends like Josef Müller-Brockmann and Wim Crouwel, the grid is the foundation of any solid design. [Google] [More]  ⦿. Great discussions of and links to the grid system, the basis of good typography. The Grid System is an ever-growing resource where graphic designers can learn about grid systems, the golden ratio and baseline grids.

freebsd download img

A comparison between the main web page fonts based on percent installed. For sans typefaces, these the three winners are, respectively, Lucida Sans Unicode (93%), Lucida Grande (88%) and Bitstream Vera Sans (79%). For monospaced fonts, Tejat reports these percentages: on Windows machines, 96% for Lucida Console. On Linux, Bitstream Vera Sans Mono grabs 80%. On Macs, Andale Mono wins with 85%. [Google] [More]  ⦿.

In reality the generator is little more than a web-based interface to FontForge. Cufon consists of a font generator, which converts fonts to a proprietary format and a rendering engine written in JavaScript. The resulting document is then converted into JSON with a mix of functional JavaScript. [Google] [More]  ⦿. The SVG font is then parsed and SVG paths are converted to VML paths. First, the generator builds a custom FontForge script based on user input and then runs it, saving the result as an SVG font. This is a crucial step in achieving stellar performance in Internet Explorer, as it supports VML natively. This has numerous advantages: To include a font, you only need to load it with the standard tag as any other JavaScript file and it will be registered automatically There is no need to manually parse the file on client-side again External JavaScript files block execution until they have loaded, which helps us to achieve a flicker-free, clean replacement It compresses extremely well. While often somewhat large in terms of file size without any compression, a compressed font usually weighs in 60-80% less than the original. Tutorial by Jeffrey Way, who argues that Cufon beats sIFR in simplicity and ease of use, but warns that text is not selectable and that the hover element does not work.

Xz, 411435844, 2014-Nov-11 21: 21.

Xz, 415771464, 2016-Sep-29 01: 56.

TrueOS (formerly PC-BSD) is a FreeBSD derivative with a graphical installer. The desktop option installs The Lumina Desktop Environment, a fully BSD Licensed desktop, with impressive desktop tools aimed at ease of use for the casual computer user.

Freeware: Task Coach - organizujte své úkoly | PC World.cz

15 thoughts on “Freebsd download img

  1. CaTS Post authorReply

    Fedora Workstation is a polished, easy to use operating system for laptop and desktop computers, with. Test it in the Download section.

  2. torpedo Post authorReply

    They package it for use in their distribution. The robustness of an application has far more to do with a developer than a distributor. Applications in Open Source environments are typically developed by contributors, not the distributors. You do realize that Fedora does not develop the apps that run on Gnome or even Gnome itself for that matter. If you want to run apps that are not in Fedora’s repositories I suggest learning how to compile from source. Thus, most applications that are packaged in Fedora can run on any Linux distribution.

  3. a-ga Post authorReply

    Yes there is information about 3/4 the way down the page after the massive colour frames that occupy well over half the page but people are clearly clicking those big graphics with download buttons that appear when you move the cursor over them rather than scrolling any further down.

  4. Polkovnik Post authorReply

    Posted at December 28, 2014 by Michal Papis tags: releases, rvm1 RVM. 0 released, includes CentOS 7 support. 0 released, includes CentOS/RHEL support. Continue reading › ∞RVM 1. Continue reading › ∞RVM 1.

  5. VasekRu Post authorReply

    By downloading CentOS software, you acknowledge that you understand all of the following: CentOS software and technical information may be subject to.

  6. GiFriDER Post authorReply

    It provides a rich and powerful web based user interface to administrate the server along with all the popular applications like Apache, BIND, Squid Proxy etc. Webmin is free and open source web based system administration tool for Unix systems. It is available for almost all popular Unix based operating systems including CentOS, Ubuntu, Debian, SUSE, BSD etc.

  7. TORRO Post authorReply

    NAS-Server, den Router, etc. Danke für das Tutorial. Deine Konfiguration erlaubt es VPN-Clients nicht, Geräte im Intranet (serverseitig) zu erreichen, z. Ich habe noch einen Verbesserungsvorschlag bezüglich der Schritte 9 und 11. Schön einfach und funktioniert wunderbar.

  8. Desperado Post authorReply

    –dhcp-duid=, (IPv6 only) Specify the server persistent UID which the DHCPv6 server will use. –tftp-mtu= Use size as the ceiling of the MTU supported by the intervening network when negotiating TFTP blocksize, overriding the MTU setting of the local interface if it is larger. 199 tells dnsmasq to always allocate the machine lap the IP address 192. Slaac tells dnsmasq to offer Router Advertisement on this subnet and to set the A bit in the router advertisement, so that the client will use SLAAC addresses. –dnssec Validate DNS replies and cache DNSSEC data. 0 is not treated specially in encapsulated options. These are denoted like this: –dhcp-option=vi-encap:2, 10, text The number in the vi-encap: section is the IANA enterprise number used to identify this option. DNSMASQ_LOG_DHCP is set if –log-dhcp is in effect. We will walk through three scenarios of increasing complexity. 0/24,eth0 (The “eth0” argument in auth-zone adds the subnet containing eth0’s dynamic address to the zone, so that the interface-name returns the address in outside queries. For IPv6 ranges, the lease time maybe “deprecated”; this sets the preferred lifetime sent in a DHCP lease or router advertisement to zero, which causes clients to use other addresses, if available, for new connections as a prelude to renumbering. When it receives a SIGUSR1, dnsmasq writes statistics to the system log. –ra-parm=eth0,0,0 (A value of zero for the interval means the default value. Com must be derived from the address of the relevant interface. These server specifications optionally take a domain name which tells dnsmasq to use that server only to find names in that particular domain. –ra-param=eth0,mtu:1280,low,60,1200 The interface field may include a wildcard. If this queueing allows multiple state changes occur to a single lease before the script can be run then earlier states are discarded and the current state of that lease is reflected when the script finally runs. This should be set to the system default value by the script which is responsible for starting dnsmasq. If they are not, then dnsmasq will not be able to determine the trusted status of answers. The cache statistics are also available in the DNS as answers to queries of class CHAOS and type TXT in domain bind. Encap: and vendor: are may not both be set in the same dhcp-option. If this option is not given, then AXFR requests will be accepted from any secondary. This second technique allows for dynamic update of the server addresses by PPP or DHCP. Note that during this operation, dnsmasq will not be running as root. Only one tag may be set, but more than one tag may be matched. The enterprise-id is assigned by IANA, and the uid is a string of hex octets unique to a particular device. 0″) is supplied by PXE, and need not be added to the basename. Eg on my network I can set –domain=thekelleys. This flag suppresses that behaviour, this is useful, for instance, to allow Windows clients to update Active Directory servers. –trust-anchor=[],,,,, Provide DS records to act a trust anchors for DNSSEC validation. Bind When it receives SIGUSR2 and it is logging direct to a file (see –log-facility ) dnsmasq will close and reopen the log file. It is always allowed to have more than one dhcp-range in a single subnet. 4 sends the option when the tag purple is not in the set of valid tags. This generates an interesting chicken-and-egg problem for machines which don’t have a hardware real time clock. The advantage of using this option is the same as for –dhcp-hostsfile: the dhcp-optsfile will be re-read when dnsmasq receives SIGHUP. 0 is taken to mean “the address of the machine running dnsmasq”. If the optional interface argument is given, the directory is only used for TFTP requests via that interface. Access control for DHCP clients has the same rules as for the DHCP server, see –interface, –except-interface, etc. When read by dnsmasq these lines have exactly the same effect as –dhcp-host options containing the same information. It is also allowable to omit the hardware address and include the hostname, in which case the IP address and lease times will apply to any machine claiming that name. Note that this is only happens for directly-connected networks, (not one doing DHCP via a relay) and it will not work if a host is using privacy extensions. -K, –dhcp-authoritative Should be set when dnsmasq is definitely the only DHCP server on a network. (If using this in a command line rather than a configuration file, be sure to escape. ], Read all the files in the given directory as configuration files. -N, –no-negcache Disable negative caching. The value of –dns-forward-max can be increased: start with it equal to the number of clients and increase if DNS seems slow. Note that in IPv6 only, vendorclasses are namespaced with an IANA-allocated enterprise number. -3, –bootp-dynamic[=[,]] (IPv4 only) Enable dynamic allocation of IP addresses to BOOTP clients. Ra-advrouter enables a mode where router address(es) rather than prefix(es) are included in the advertisements. Changes to the lease database are which require the script to be invoked are queued awaiting exit of a running instance. This can be used to selectively send DHCP options just for this host. –tftp-max= Set the maximum number of concurrent TFTP connections allowed. This is undesirable if the relay agent is adding extra information to the DHCP packets, such as that used by dhcp-circuitid and dhcp-remoteid. –dhcp-scriptuser Specify the user as which to run the lease-change script or Lua script. As a special case, in DHCPv4, it is possible to include more than one hardware address. -C, –conf-file= Specify a different configuration file. It is allowed to use client identifiers (called client DUID in IPv6-land) rather than hardware addresses to identify hosts by prefixing with ‘id:’. 0″ to any client whose vendor-class matches “PXEClient”. ) If the value is a string, substring matching is used. Conf and /etc/dhcpc/resolv. CNAME used in this way (only) may be wildcards, as in cname=*. This option maps vendor classes to tags, so that DHCP options may be selectively delivered to different classes of hosts. The file must be stored on a persistent filesystem, so that it and its mtime are carried over system restarts. For example, to set the default route option to 192. The intention is to constrain hostnames so that an untrusted host on the LAN cannot advertise its name via dhcp as e. Use this with care, since each address allocated to a BOOTP client is leased forever, and therefore becomes permanently unavailable for re-use by other hosts. Sending SIGUSR1 to dnsmasq makes it log information which is useful for tuning the cache size. DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASSn for the data. 4 requests file “myfile” then the effective path will be “/tftp/1. ” are rejected, to stop clients getting outside the specified root. Conf which contain non-ASCII characters will be translated to the DNS-internal punycode representation. –dnssec-debug Set debugging mode for the DNSSEC validation, set the Checking Disabled bit on upstream queries, and don’t convert replies which do not validate to responses with a return code of SERVFAIL. Conf is created at any time. IPv6 addresses must be bracketed by square brackets thus: –dhcp-host=laptop,[1234::56] IPv6 addresses may contain only the host-identifier part: –dhcp-host=laptop,[::56] in which case they act as wildcards in constructed dhcp ranges, with the appropriate network part inserted. Server name and address are optional: if not provided, the name is left empty, and the address set to the address of the machine running dnsmasq.   AUTHORITATIVE CONFIGURATION Configuring dnsmasq to act as an authoritative DNS server is complicated by the fact that it involves configuration of external DNS servers to provide delegation. Com A 192. 4 exists or /tftp/myfile otherwise. However the PXE system is capable of more complex functions when supported by a suitable DHCP server. When dnsmasq is configured to act as an authoritative server, the following data is used to populate the authoritative zone. -X, –dhcp-lease-max= Limits dnsmasq to the specified maximum number of DHCP leases. All DHCP requests arriving on that interface will we relayed to a remote DHCP server at the server address. This facility can be used to load balance the tftp load among a set of servers. If the extension starts with * then only files which have that extension are loaded. If the timeout is zero then the first available menu item will be executed immediately. -6 –dhcp-script= Whenever a new DHCP lease is created, or an old one destroyed, or a TFTP file transfer completes, the executable specified by this option is run. If a name appears in /etc/hosts, the associated address can be allocated to a DHCP lease, but only if a –dhcp-host option specifying the name also exists. Note that validation by clients is the most secure DNSSEC mode, but for clients unable to do validation, use of the AD bit set by dnsmasq is useful, provided that the network between the dnsmasq server and the client is trusted. Text or dotted-quad IP addresses as arguments to option 120 are handled as per RFC 3361. Option data which consists solely of periods and digits will be interpreted by dnsmasq as an IP address, and inserted into an option as such. Conf /etc/hosts /etc/ethers /var/lib/misc/dnsmasq. This limit is to prevent DoS attacks from hosts which create thousands of leases and use lots of memory in the dnsmasq process. SIGHUP does NOT re-read the configuration file. If not specified, the prefix length defaults to 24 for IPv4 and 64 for IPv6. 3 – A problem occurred with a filesystem operation (missing file/directory, permissions). Note that the “layer” suffix (normally “. As alternative to directly specifying the subnets, it’s possible to give the name of an interface, in which case the subnets implied by that interface’s configured addresses and netmask/prefix-length are used; this is useful when using constructed DHCP ranges as the actual address is dynamic and not known when configuring dnsmasq. Note that the “*” will need to be escaped or quoted on a command line, but not in the configuration file. –dhcp-broadcast[=tag:[,tag:]] (IPv4 only) When all the given tags appear in the tag set, always use broadcast to communicate with the host when it is unconfigured. Note that setting this may affect DNS behaviour in bad ways, it is not an extra-logging flag and should not be set in production. The IPv6 option name space is disjoint from the IPv4 option name space. This is because the name-IP pair is automatically added into dnsmasq’s DNS view. If the list of interfaces is provided, that defines which interfaces receive TFTP service. Change the way the lease-change script (if one is provided) is called, so that the lease database may be maintained in external storage by the script. More may be added in the future, so scripts should be written to ignore unknown actions. The special keyword “ignore” tells dnsmasq to never offer a DHCP lease to a machine. Com NS our. –dhcp-hostsdir= This is equivalent to dhcp-hostsfile, except for the following. Setting this option also forces the leasechange script to be called on changes to the client-id and lease length and expiry time. Com Adding auth-sec-servers enables zone transfer in dnsmasq, to allow the secondary to collect the DNS data. 37: earlier versions did not scale as well. This is done using interface-name Something like: auth-server=our. Com has now become a glue record, it solves the chicken-and-egg problem of finding the IP address of the nameserver for our. -U, –dhcp-vendorclass=set:,[enterprise:,] Map from a vendor-class string to a tag. The size of the DNS cache may be increased: the hard limit is 10000 names and the default (150) is very low. Conf, if it exists. In the default mode, this means that all replies will be marked as untrusted. Conf and will use the contents of whichever changed last, giving automatic switching between DNS servers. If the timeout is given then after the timeout has elapsed with no keyboard input, the first available menu option will be automatically executed. The machine can be specified by hardware address, client ID or hostname, for instance –dhcp-host=00:20:e0:3b:13:af,ignore This is useful when there is another DHCP server on the network which should be used by some machines. If extension(s) are given, any files which end in those extensions are skipped. Off-link tells dnsmasq to advertise the prefix without the on-link (aka L) bit set. Note that once set, the DUID is stored in the lease database, so to change between DUID-EN and automatically created DUIDs or vice-versa, the lease database must be re-initialised. ” This is useful when a client presents a client-id sometimes but not others. To use this option, dnsmasq must be compiled with the correct support. For IPv4 only: DNSMASQ_CLIENT_ID if the host provided a client-id. DNSMASQ_SERVER_DUID containing the DUID of the server: this is the same for every call to the script. There are four further actions which may appear as the first argument to the script, “init”, “arp-add”, “arp-del” and “tftp”. Changed or new files within the directory are read automatically, without the need to send SIGHUP. If suffix is specified, then hostnames with a domain part are allowed, provided the domain part matches the suffix. To work around this, add the CNAME to /etc/hosts so that the CNAME is shadowed too. Note that dnsmasq determines both the language for messages and the assumed charset for configuration files from the LANG environment variable. The lease time is in seconds, or minutes (eg 45m) or hours (eg 1h) or “infinite”. If giving it on the command line, be sure to escape * characters. Dnsmasq supports PXE “proxy-DHCP”, in this case another DHCP server on the network is responsible for allocating IP addresses, and dnsmasq simply provides the information given in pxe-prompt and pxe-service to allow netbooting. –tag-if=set:[,set:[,tag:[,tag:]]] Perform boolean operations on tags. –enable-tftp[=[,]] Enable the TFTP server function. In the case of DHCPv6, the server address may be the ALL_SERVERS multicast address, ff05::1:3. Finally, two port numbers allows arbitrary specification of both server and client ports for DHCP. 4 – Memory allocation failure. In addition the DNSSEC records are stored in the cache, making validation by clients more efficient. The later corresponding to tab, escape, backspace, return and newline. 4 even if queries in the upstream DNS would otherwise return a different address. The interval between router advertisements may be set (in seconds) with –ra-param=eth0,60. When used with a DHCP range or static DHCP address this results in the client having both a DHCP-assigned and a SLAAC address. Com eth0 is the external network interface on which dnsmasq is listening, and has (globally accessible) address 192. The priority field for the router may be altered from the default of medium with eg –ra-param=eth0,high. On more capable hardware, it is possible to increase the limits, and handle many more clients. The file is created and its timestamp set automatically by dnsmasq. , which is a shell metacharacter) When selecting dhcp-options, a tag from dhcp-range is second class relative to other tags, to make it easy to override options for individual hosts, so dhcp-range=set:interface1. -4, –dhcp-mac=set:, Map from a MAC address to a tag. The nameservers upstream of dnsmasq must be DNSSEC-capable, ie capable of returning DNSSEC records with data. Beware that this is a dangerous thing to do, it will only work reliably if only one of the hardware addresses is active at any time and there is no way for dnsmasq to enforce this. If no domain suffix is specified, then any DHCP hostname with a domain part (ie with a period) will be disallowed and logged. The default is 150 names. ) If the client provides a hostname, DNSMASQ_SUPPLIED_HOSTNAME If the client provides user-classes, DNSMASQ_USER_CLASS0. See RFC 4702 for details. ) If the domain name option has been set, that is sent. Note that if no subnets are specified, then no reverse queries are answered. 5 – Other miscellaneous problem. ] Define a DNS zone for which dnsmasq acts as authoritative server. Com” always return 1. Domains may be be given unconditionally (without the IP range) or for limited IP ranges. See pxe-service for details of menu items. The IP address for that machine is available from dnsmasq both as “laptop” and “laptop. If the domain is given as “#” then the domain is read from the first “search” directive in /etc/resolv. 4 will only match a Token-Ring hardware address, since the ARP-address type for token ring is 6. If an integer boot service type, rather than a basename is given, then the PXE client will search for a suitable boot service for that type on the network. The script is not invoked concurrently: at most one instance of the script is ever running (dnsmasq waits for an instance of script to exit before running the next). If it gets a reply, then the address must already be in use, and another is tried. To force a literal string, use quotes. 0, in /etc/hosts or an additional hosts file. It is possible to omit the vendorclass completely; –dhcp-option=vendor:,1,0. A full relay implementation can use the RFC 5107 serverid-override option to force the DHCP server to use the relay as a full proxy, with all packets passing through it. This mode is enabled using the proxy keyword in dhcp-range. The path MUST be a directory, and not an individual file. If a directory is given, then read all the files contained in that directory. The number of seconds until lease expiry is always stored in DNSMASQ_TIME_REMAINING. If a directory is given, then read all the files contained in that directory. If TCP DNS queries are in progress, the old logfile will remain open in child processes which are handling TCP queries and may continue to be written. Defaults to adding IP address (in standard dotted-quad format).   The “arp-add” and “arp-del” actions are only called if enabled with –script-arp They are are supplied with a MAC address and IP address as arguments. The file contains information about one host per line. Note that in the sequential mode, clients which allow a lease to expire are much more likely to move IP address; for this reason it should not be generally used. If –dnssec-check-unsigned is set and the upstream servers don’t support DNSSEC, then DNS service will be entirely broken. 0/24 and two records in the external DNS server. -G, –dhcp-host=[][,id:|*][,set:][,][,][,][,ignore] Specify per host parameters for the DHCP server. The file will not be created, read, or written. Dnsmasq acts as an authoritative server for in-addr. Data types allowed are comma separated dotted-quad IPv4 addresses, []-wrapped IPv6 addresses, a decimal number, colon-separated hex digits and a text string. Time: 13:40:03 GMT, October 02, 2017.   If the client provides vendor-class, DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASS. IPv6 options are specified using the option6: keyword, followed by the option number or option name. A static-only subnet with address all zeros may be used as a “catch-all” address to enable replies to all Information-request packets on a subnet which is provided with stateless DHCPv6, ie –dhcp-range=::,static For IPv4, the may be proxy in which case dnsmasq will provide proxy-DHCP on the specified subnet. The set of option-names known by dnsmasq can be discovered by running “dnsmasq –help dhcp”. If the lease time is given, then leases will be given for that length of time. Secondly, the file is re-read and the configuration therein is updated when dnsmasq receives SIGHUP. For subnets which don’t need a pool of dynamically allocated addresses, use the “static” keyword in the dhcp-range declaration. (IPv4 only) A normal DHCP relay agent is only used to forward the initial parts of a DHCP interaction to the DHCP server. If a lease used to have a hostname, which is removed, an “old” event is generated with the new state of the lease, ie no name, and the former name is provided in the environment variable DNSMASQ_OLD_HOSTNAME. Upstream servers may also be specified on the command line or in the configuration file. There is one exception to this: if the upstream DNS contains a CNAME which points to a shadowed name, then looking up the CNAME through dnsmasq will result in the unshadowed address associated with the target of the CNAME. Most DHCP clients which need broadcast replies set a flag in their requests so that this happens automatically, some old BOOTP clients do not. is used) If no tag: appears set: tags are set unconditionally. If a file is deleted for changed after it has been read by dnsmasq, then the host record it contained will remain until dnsmasq receives a SIGHUP, or is restarted; ie host records are only added dynamically. The server address can be given as a domain name which is looked up in /etc/hosts. By default, dnsmasq reads /etc/resolv. The number of concurrent TFTP connections is limited by the size of the port range. Com NS server. For IPv6 only: If the client provides vendor-class, DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASS_ID, containing the IANA enterprise id for the class, and DNSMASQ_VENDOR_CLASS0. The value may also be of the same form as in dhcp-option in which case the option sent is treated as an array, and one element must match, so –dhcp-match=set:efi-ia32,option:client-arch,6 will set the tag “efi-ia32” if the the number 6 appears in the list of architectures sent by the client in option 93. Com A 1. The cost of this is more upstream queries and slower performance. By default, the relevant link-local address of the machine running dnsmasq is sent as recursive DNS server. As soon as reliable time is established, a SIGHUP should be sent to dnsmasq, which enables time checking, and purges the cache of DNS records which have not been throughly checked. There are a few extra tags which hold the data supplied as arguments to –dhcp-script. Com, and the zone for which dnsmasq is authoritative our. is client system type, only services of the correct type will appear in a menu. If the MAC address is from a network type other than ethernet, it will have the network type prepended, eg “06-01:23:45:67:89:ab” for token ring. Xml –dnssec-check-unsigned As a default, dnsmasq does not check that unsigned DNS replies are legitimate: they are assumed to be valid and passed on (without the “authentic data” bit set, of course). Negative caching allows dnsmasq to remember “no such domain” answers from upstream nameservers and answer identical queries without forwarding them again. This forms a template which describes how to create ranges, based on the addresses assigned to the interface. If pxe-prompt is omitted the system will wait for user input if there are multiple items in the menu, but boot immediately if there is only one. Addresses will be given out from the range to and from statically defined addresses given in dhcp-host options. If no boot service type or filename is provided (or a boot service type of 0 is specified) then the menu entry will abort the net boot procedure and continue booting from local media. These servers must be configured to get zone data from dnsmasq by zone transfer, and answer queries for the same authoritative zones as dnsmasq. This name can be associated in /etc/hosts with multiple IP addresses, which are used round-robin. 4″ in /etc/hosts will ensure that queries for “mycompany. (On FreeBSD, the file is /usr/local/etc/dnsmasq. This has two effects; firstly it causes the DHCP server to return the domain to any hosts which request it, and secondly it sets the domain which it is legal for DHCP-configured hosts to claim. –tftp-unique-root[=ip|mac] Add the IP or hardware address of the TFTP client as a path component on the end of the TFTP-root. ) For IPv6, the mode may be some combination of ra-only, slaac, ra-names, ra-stateless, ra-advrouter, off-link. If the external address is static, this can be done with an /etc/hosts entry or –host-record. The tftp function is called in the same way as the lease function, and the table holds the tags destination_address, file_name and file_size. Most DHCP clients provide a “vendor class” which represents, in some sense, the type of host. Only one hostname can be given in a dhcp-host option, but aliases are possible by using CNAMEs. For example dhcp-vendorclass=set:printers,Hewlett-Packard JetDirect will allow options to be set only for HP printers like so: –dhcp-option=tag:printers,3,192.   NOTES When it receives a SIGHUP, dnsmasq clears its cache and then re-loads /etc/hosts and /etc/ethers and any file given by –dhcp-hostsfile, –dhcp-hostsdir, –dhcp-optsfile, –dhcp-optsdir, –addn-hosts or –hostsdir. The client will use a SLAAC address, and use DHCP for other configuration information. Unlike the IPv4 case, the prefix length is not automatically derived from the interface configuration. When a value is given, set the tag only if the option is sent and matches the value. The special form with vi-encap: matches against vendor-identifying vendor classes for the specified enterprise. Note that this is the only role of this record: as dnsmasq is now authoritative from our. Ra-stateless sends router advertisements with the O and A bits set, and provides a stateless DHCP service. –bridge-interface=,[,] Treat DHCP (v4 and v6) request and IPv6 Router Solicit packets arriving at any of the interfaces as if they had arrived at . This flag disables this check. Ethernet addresses (but not client-ids) may have wildcard bytes, so for example –dhcp-host=00:20:e0:3b:13:*,ignore will cause dnsmasq to ignore a range of hardware addresses. This defaults to root, but can be changed to another user using this flag. 2 and is used in mobile IPv6. –dhcp-optsdir= This is equivalent to dhcp-optsfile, with the differences noted for –dhcp-hostsdir. For IPv4 subnets, the prefix length should be have the value 8, 16 or 24 unless you are familiar with RFC 2317 and have arranged the in-addr. 0 in which case the encapsulated option is always sent. –auth-soa=[,[,[,[,]]]] Specify fields in the SOA record associated with authoritative zones. See also the warning about upstream servers in the section on –dnssec –dnssec-no-timecheck DNSSEC signatures are only valid for specified time windows, and should be rejected outside those windows. Addresses of DHCP leases, provided the address falls into one of the subnets specified in the –auth-zone. The built-in TFTP server is capable of many simultaneous file transfers: the absolute limit is related to the number of file-handles allowed to a process and the ability of the select() system call to cope with large numbers of file handles. ) The format of this file consists of one option per line, exactly as the long options detailed in the OPTIONS section but without the leading “–“. –dhcp-client-update Normally, when giving a DHCP lease, dnsmasq sets flags in the FQDN option to tell the client not to attempt a DDNS update with its name and IP address. If dnsmasq is being run as root, different rules apply: –tftp-secure has no effect, but only files which have the world-readable bit set are accessible. -M, –dhcp-boot=[tag:,],[[,|]] (IPv4 only) Set BOOTP options to be returned by the DHCP server. DNSMASQ_CIRCUIT_ID, DNSMASQ_SUBSCRIBER_ID, DNSMASQ_REMOTE_ID if a DHCP relay-agent added any of these options. This is deliberately limited to that needed to net-boot a client. The set: construct sets the tag whenever this dhcp-host directive is in use. At dnsmasq startup, the script will be invoked for all existing leases as they are read from the lease file. Typically these will be the DS record(s) for Zone Signing key(s) of the root zone, but trust anchors for limited domains are also possible. /etc/ethers is re-read when dnsmasq receives SIGHUP. It can be used, to make sure that answers contain only global routeable IP addresses (by excluding loopback, RFC1918 and ULA addresses). Be careful: no checking is done that the correct type of data for the option number is sent, it is quite possible to persuade dnsmasq to generate illegal DHCP packets with injudicious use of this flag.   CONFIG FILE At startup, dnsmasq reads /etc/dnsmasq. IPv6 (only) supports another type of range. It may be repeated with different tag sets. Note that whilst it is quite possible to write configurations which appear to act as a server and a relay on the same interface, this is not supported: the relay function will take precedence. This is useful when an interface has dynamically determined global IPv6 addresses which should appear in the zone, but RFC1918 IPv4 addresses which should not. IPv6 addresses in options must be bracketed with square brackets, eg. When internationalisation is compiled in, dnsmasq will produce log messages in the local language and support internationalised domain names (IDN). –dhcp-fqdn In the default mode, dnsmasq inserts the unqualified names of DHCP clients into the DNS. For instance –dhcp-range=::1,::400,constructor:eth0 will look for addresses on eth0 and then create a range from ::1 to ::400. The number of cache hits and misses and the number of authoritative queries answered are also given. Dnsmasq must be compiled with HAVE_DNSSEC enabled, and DNSSEC trust anchors provided, see –trust-anchor. Prerequisites for all of these scenarios are a globally accessible IP address, an A or AAAA record pointing to that address, and an external DNS server capable of doing delegation of the zone in question. The domain names are cachesize. It is possible, for instance to use this to set a different printer server for hosts in the class “accounts” than for hosts in the class “engineering”. If –dhcp-fqdn is set, then the fully qualified names associated with DHCP leases are used, and must match the zone’s domain. This option is not normally required as dnsmasq creates a DUID automatically when it is first needed. This can be used as workaround for bugs in PXE boot firmware that does not function properly when receiving an instant reply. –dhcp-hostsfile= Read DHCP host information from the specified file. Com and our. In this case, the system time is considered to be valid once it becomes later than the timestamp on the specified file. This flag may be given on the command line or in a configuration file. Com it too must provide this record. -c, –cache-size= Set the size of dnsmasq’s cache. Com Note that at present, reverse (in-addr. Performing ping check) if any. Options may be encapsulated (IPv4 only) within other options: for instance –dhcp-option=encap:175, 190, iscsi-client0 will send option 175, within which is the option 190. If it can, dnsmasq moves the boot server and filename information (from dhcp-boot) out of their dedicated fields into DHCP options. An example command to query this, using the dig utility would be dig +short chaos txt cachesize. Setting this flag removes the time-window checks (but not other DNSSEC validation. –tftp-no-blocksize Stop the TFTP server from negotiating the “blocksize” option with a client. If a single argument is given, that port number is used for the server and the port number plus one used for the client. The timestamp file is created after dnsmasq has dropped root, so it must be in a location writable by the unprivileged user that dnsmasq runs as. It is, for instance, useful to allocate a stable IP address to a laptop which has both wired and wireless interfaces. When the –tftp-secure flag is given, only files owned by the user running the dnsmasq process are accessible. If a second DHCP client appears which has the same name as an existing client, the name is transferred to the new client. 0/24,local is identical to –domain=thekelleys. For options which may only be specified once, the configuration file overrides the command line. DNSMASQ_TAGS contains all the tags set during the DHCP transaction, separated by spaces. –tftp-no-fail Do not abort startup if specified tftp root directories are inaccessible. This flag provides an alternative method of doing the same thing, for relays which don’t support RFC 5107. In addition to the invocations given in –dhcp-script the lease-change script is called once, at dnsmasq startup, with the single argument “init”. This is useful for requests from Windows machines, which have case-insensitive filesystems and tend to play fast-and-loose with case in filenames. “add” means a lease has been created, “del” means it has been destroyed, “old” is a notification of an existing lease when dnsmasq starts or a change to MAC address or hostname of an existing lease (also, lease length or expiry and client-id, if leasefile-ro is set). DNSMASQ_REQUESTED_OPTIONS a string containing the decimal values in the Parameter Request List option, comma separated, if the parameter request list option is provided by the client. Alternatively, the basename may be a filename, complete with suffix, in which case no layer suffix is added. Any tag appearing as set: is set if all the tags which appear as tag: are set, (or unset when tag:. The address range can be of the form , or / or just a single . This allows a machine with a particular hardware address to be always allocated the same hostname, IP address and lease time. DHCPv6 doesn’t handle complete network configuration in the same way as DHCPv4. For DHCPv4, the special option id:* means “ignore any client-id and use MAC addresses only. –tftp-port-range=, A TFTP server listens on a well-known port (69) for connection initiation, but it also uses a dynamically-allocated port for each connection. This does not protect against an attacker forging unsigned replies for signed DNS zones, but it is fast. 2 – A problem with network access occurred (address in use, attempt to use privileged ports without permission). DNSMASQ_INTERFACE stores the name of the interface on which the request arrived; this is not set for “old” actions when dnsmasq restarts. -l, –dhcp-leasefile= Use the specified file to store DHCP lease information. –ra-param=,[mtu:||off,][high,|low,][,] Set non-default values for router advertisements sent via an interface. The minimum lease time is two minutes. –quiet-dhcp and quiet-dhcp6 are over-ridden by –log-dhcp. Note that more transfers are possible when the same file is being sent than when each transfer sends a different file. Com IPv4 and IPv6 addresses from /etc/hosts (and –addn-hosts ) and –host-record and –interface-name provided the address falls into one of the subnets specified in the –auth-zone. This allows new hosts to get a lease without a tedious timeout under all circumstances. Arpa) zones are not available in zone transfers, so there is no point arranging secondary servers for reverse lookups. If this flag is set, dnsmasq will check the zones of unsigned replies, to ensure that unsigned replies are allowed in those zones. 4″ Encapsulated Vendor-class options may also be specified (IPv4 only) using –dhcp-option: for instance –dhcp-option=vendor:PXEClient,1,0. Pid   SEE ALSO hosts(5), resolver(5)   AUTHOR This manual page was written by Simon Kelley

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