Freebsd test crontab

freebsd test crontab

The flowscan process’ size is also a function of the number of active hosts in your network. This release of FlowScan uses more memory than previous releases. That is, the flowscan process will grow to a larger size than that in FlowScan-1. This is hopefully understandable since flowscan is carrying a full internet routing table when configured in this way. In my recent experience while testing this release, the flowscan process size to approximately 128MB when I use the new experimental BGPDumpFile option to produce “Top” reports by ASN. The memory requirements are significantly lessened if you do not use the BGPDumpFile option.

Please do not send email about such things to my personal email address, but instead check the FlowScan mailing list archive, and join the FlowScan mailing list. Use the Mailing List Please help me to help you. It is, unfortunately, not uncommon for one to have questions or problems while installing FlowScan. Information about the FlowScan mailing lists can be found at:.

Note that frequencies in general cannot be expressed; only step values which evenly divide their range express accurate frequencies (for minutes and seconds, that’s /2, /3, /4, /5, /6, /10, /12, /15, /20 and /30 because 60 is evenly divisible by those numbers; for hours, that’s /2, /3, /4, /6, /8 and /12); all other possible “steps” and all other fields yield inconsistent “short” periods at the end of the time-unit before it “resets” to the next minute, second, or day; for example, entering */5 for the day field sometimes executes after 1, 2, or 3 days, depending on the month and leap year; this is because cron is stateless (it does not remember the time of the last execution nor count the difference between it and now, required for accurate frequency counting—instead, cron is a mere pattern-matcher).

A Purdue graduate student, Robert Brown, reviewing this article, recognized the parallel between cron and discrete event simulators, and created an implementation of the Franta–Maly event list manager (ELM) for experimentation. Running the event simulator in “real time” instead of virtual time created a version of cron that spent most of its time sleeping, waiting for the scheduled time to execute the task at the head of the event list. Discrete event simulators run in virtual time, peeling events off the event queue as quickly as possible and advancing their notion of “now” to the scheduled time of the next event.

freebsd test crontab

For my tests, I used mkdir to create a directory valled /var/ramdisk:. FreeBSD Misc (2) *FreeBSD Networking (1) *FreeBSD Utilities (2) *FreeNAS (1) *Gadgets (2. In case I incur a head injury and need to memorize the crontab format again, here it is. Be sure to configure your.

Mf Makefile, you can use the examples there in to see how to build “Campus I/O by Network” and “AS to AS” graphs. The examples use UW-Madison network numbers, names of with which we peer and such, so it will be non-trivial for you to customize them, but at least there’s an example. For other custom graphs, if you use the supplied graphs.

This version of cron was basic and robust but it also consumed resources whether it found any work to do or not. In an experiment at Purdue University in the late 1970s to extend cron’s service to all 100 users on a time-shared VAX, it was found to place too much load on the system.

freebsd test crontab

This utility runs in the background and regularly checks /etc/crontab for tasks to execute and. One of the most useful utilities in FreeBSD is cron.

Crontab allows tasks to be scheduled to run regularly at a set interval, or at a. For example if we wanted run a task every 3 hours to check if a process was .

It is available at: http://net. Mf Makefile, you can use the examples there in to see how to build “Campus I/O by Network” and “AS to AS” graphs. Mf [filetype=] [width=x] [height=y] [ioheight=y+n] [hours=h] [tag=_tagval] [events=public_events. You can try to install it using the CPAN shell like this: # perl -MCPAN -e shell cpan> install Net::Patricia If Net::Patricia is not found on CPAN, you can obtain it here: http://net. 18pre21 kernel: http://isunix. Subsequently in this document the “prefix” directory will be referred to as the “–prefix diretory” or using the environment variable $PREFIX. Cf $ cp cf/flowscan. Configuring Your Ciscos First and foremost, to get useful flow information from your Cisco, you’ll need to enable flow-switching on the appropriate ingress interfaces using this interface-level configuration statement: ip route-cache flow Also, I suggest that you export from your Cisco like this: ip flow-export version 5 peer-as ip flow-export destination 10. Cf by the LocalSubnetFiles directive. 52 sys = 350. Lastly, in complicated environments, choosing which particular interfaces should have ip route-cache flow enabled is somewhat difficult. These events are simply a list of points in time at which something of interest occurred. Once applied, you can reserve the 2nd processor solely for use by flowscan: root# mpadmin -r 1 Then launch flowscan on processor number 1: root# /usr/bin/nice –20 /usr/bin/runon 1 /usr/bin/su – username -c ‘/usr/bin/nohup /var/local/flows/bin/flowscan -v’ >> /var/local/flows/flowscan. 10 ADDRESSES: { 10. 013 CampusIO: Cflow::find took 394 wallclock secs (350. Generating Graphs Supplied Graphs To generate graphs, try the graphs. If possible, it’s best to define the list of NextHops to which you know your outbound traffic is forwarded. Cf (if you have selected it in your ReportClasses) Copy the template to the bin directory from which you will be running flowscan. Cf) Note: if you do not wish to have CampusIO attempt to identify Napster traffic, be sure to comment out all Napster related option in CampusIO. For instance, one could create a plain text file in the graphs directory called events. FlowScan This package is available at: http://net. /configure –help # note –with-. : $ mkdir $PREFIX/saved $ touch $PREFIX/saved/. Edu/~plonka/RRGrapher/ For other custom graphs, if you use the supplied graphs. Configuring cflowd This document does not attempt to explain cflowd. : $ event2vrule -h 48 events. Once you have this working, your ready to continue. A number of the directorives have paths to directory entries as their values. This is apparently a no-no with RRDTOOL since, although it allows you create files with these names, it doesn’t let you graphs using them because of how the API uses : to seperate arguments. Boulder The Boulder distribution includes the Boulder::Stream module and its prerequisites. Rrd files are missing, i. So, if you have two subnets, with different purposes, they should have seperate entries even if they are numerically adjacent. Cf files below, be sure to specify this using the OutputDir directive. As the chosen FlowScan user do: $ PREFIX=/var/local/flows $ mkdir -p $PREFIX/graphs Then, when you edit the. Don’t complain to the author if you’re saving flows and your file-system fills up ;^). Rrd A reminder for me to fix this is in the TODO list. Boulder should contain a list of the subnets on which you’d like to gather I/O statistics. However, if it prints some other value, such as www, then I suggest you modify your /etc/services file so that the line containing 80/tcp looks something like this: http 80/tcp www www-http #World Wide Web HTTP Be sure to leave the old name such as www as an “alias”, like I’ve shown here. Boulder (if you use ReportClasses SubNetIO) Copy the template to the bin directory. As of this writing, more info on Napster can be found at: http://napster. Use it at your own risk. For the time being, if you want to graph AS information, you must manually create symbolic links in your graphs sub-dir. The supplied content seems to work well as of this writing (Mar 10, 2000). I suggest that the FlowScan –prefix directory be owned by an appropriate user and group, and that the permissions allow write by other members of the group. Options e. Gzip_lock file created by this command is used as a lock file to ensure that only one cron job at a time. The samples configuration files ship with relative path specifications to minimize the changes a new user must make. The directory in which the flowscan perl script and FlowScan report modules are installed. This file should be referenced in CampusIO. You probably don’t want flow-switching enabled for interfaces that carry policy-routed traffic, such as that being redirected transparently to a web cache. HTML::Table The HTML::Table package is available on CPAN. For instance: SUBNET=10. “Boulder IO” format files, with the. Boulder file mentioned below. $ cd graphs $ ln -s 0:42. FlowScan identifies outbound flows based on the list of nexthop addresses that you’ll set up below. However, in this configuration, it is imperitive that flowscan be run in the –prefix directory if these relative paths are used. Furthermore, I applied this experimental patch to the Linux 2. If this is the case, it is probably because you skipped the configuration of /etc/services in Configuring Your Host. Try running this command: $ perl -le “print scalar(getservbyport(80, ‘tcp’))” You can continue with the next step if this command prints http. For advanced users that export from multiple Ciscos to the same cflowd/FlowScan machine, it is also very important to configure LocalNextHops. Mf Makefile to remove references to the missing or misnamed. 1 AUTH: none } And I invoke the patched cflowd like this: user$ cflowd -s 300 -O 0 -m /path/to/cflowd. I don’t really like this, but that’s the way it is for now. If, as in the example above, your log messages indicate that it took more than 300 seconds, FlowScan will not be able to keep up with the flows being collected on this machine (if the given flow file is representative). Also, if you’re saving your flow files, you should set up crontab entries to handle the “old” flows. Cf $PREFIX/bin $ chmod u+w $PREFIX/bin/flowscan. Please use that as the definitive reference on configuration options for those reports, e. The most important thing to consider configuring in CampusIO. Dist=HTML-Table Net::Patricia This is a new module which I have uploaded to PAUSE, but it not have entered CPAN yet. Boulder extension I’ve chosen Boulder IO’s “semantic free data interchange format” to use for related projects, and since this is the format in which our subnet definitions were available, I continued to use it. It is imperative that the number of seconds that Cflow::find took not usually approach nor exceed 300. (This is differnet than the similarly formatted our_subnets. Txt] [organization=’Foobar U – Springfield Campus’] as in: $ make -f graphs. Mf $PREFIX/graphs/Makefile $ cd $PREFIX/graphs $ make This should produce the “Campus I/O by IP Protocol” and “Well Known Services” graphs in PNG files. Stop flowscan, rename your www_*. A good way to avoid doing something dumb here is to not run FlowScan’s configure nor make as root. Entries are seperated by a line containing a single =. Otherwise, FlowScan could count the same traffic twice because of multiple flows being reported for what was essentially the same traffic making multiple passes through a border router. Copy and Edit local_nets. If the total of usr + sys CPU seconds totals more than 300 seconds, than this machine is not even capable of running FlowScan fast enough, and you’ll need to run it on a faster machine (or tweak the code, rewrite in C, or mess with process priorities using nice(1), etc. This script is meant to be used as a “wrapper” for running rrdtool(1), similarly to how one might run nohup(1). Usage: make -f graphs. Gzip_lock The. Also, turn on the set-group-id bit on the directory so that newly created files (such as the flow files and log file) will be owned by that group as well, e. If not, you should use the diagnostic warning and error messages or the perl debugger (perl -d flowscan) to determine what is wrong. Copy the template to the bin directory from which you will be running flowscan. 0/24 DESCRIPTION=luser subnet Preserving “Old” Flow Files If you’d like to have FlowScan save your flow files, make a sub-directory named saved in the directory where flowscan has been configured to look for flow files. Boulder (if referenced in CampusIO. ) Performance Problems. Currently, RRD files for the configured ASPairs contain a : in the file name. Dist=ConfigReader I’m using ConfigReader-0. FlowScan does not require or use this environment variable, it’s just a documentation convention so you know to use the directory which you passed as with –prefix. Edu/~plonka/FlowScan/ Configuring FlowScan Prerequisites Choose a User to Run cflowd and FlowScan I recommend that you create a user just for the purpose of running these utilities so that all directory permissions and created file permissions are consistent. Cf is the method by which CampusIO should identify outbound flows. To help ensure that flows are exported in a timely fashion, I suggest you also do this if your IOS version supports it: ip flow-cache timeout active 1 Some IOS versions, e. You should format this file like the aforementioned local_nets. That command will cause these VRULE arguments to be passed to rrdtool, at the end of the argument list: COMMENT:n VRULE:981841080#ff0000:2001/02/10 1538 added support for events to FlowScan graphs COMMENT:n VRULE:982015260#ff0000:2001/02/12 1601 allowed the events file to be named on make command line COMMENT:n Custom Graphs Creation of other graphs will require the use of a tool such as RRGrapher or knowledge of RRDTOOL. 1 2055 Of course the IP address and port are determined by your cflowd. Rrd files, so there’s hope. Php3 Copy and Edit SubNetIO. Final Setup Once you feel that flowscan is working correctly, you can set it (and cflowd) to start up at system boot time. There is good documentation provided with that package. The directives are documented in comments within those sample configuration files. Mf template Makefile has options to specify such things as the range of time, graph height and width, and output file type. 10, } CFDATAPORT: 2055 # COLLECT: { flows } } COLLECTOR { HOST: 127. Mf Makefile: $ cp graphs. This file is used by the SubNetIO report class, and therefore is only necessary if you have defined ReportClasses SubNetIO rather than ReportClasses CampusIO. 0(9), use this syntax instead: ip flow-cache active-timeout 1 unless you’ve specified something such as downward-compatible-config 11. These two reports are mutually exclusive – SubNetIO does everything that CampusIO does, and more. If you decide not to modify the service name in this way, FlowScan should still work, but you’ll be on your own when it comes to producing graphs. Boulder should contain a list of the networks/subnets in use by Napster, i. This will reduce the risk of breaking existing applications which may refer to the service by that name. For FlowScan, one usually wants it enabled for any interface that is an ingress point for traffic that is from inside to outside or vice-versa. For most purposes, the default values for the rest of the CampusIO directives should suffice. FlowScan looks for its configuration files in its bin directory – i. Adjust the values using the required and optional configuration directives documented there-in. Remember that lines containing just = are record seperators. 48 CPU) sleep 300. You may have to edit these scripts depending on your ps(1) flavor and where various commands have been installed on your system. Beware that if you define neither, CampusIO will resort to using the flow destination address to determine whether or not the flow is outbound. 0/24 DESCRIPTION=power user subnet = SUBNET=10. I use one crontab entry to gzip(1) recently processed files, and another to delete the files older than a given number of hours. Rrd $ ln -s 42:0. Cf extension This format should be relatively self-explanatory based on the sample files referenced below. Once you have the CampusIO stuff working, you can always go back and configure flowscan to use SubNetIO instead. You may find it useful to add other tags such as DESCRIPTION for documentation purposes. Txt containing these lines: 2001/02/10 1538 added support for events to FlowScan graphs 2001/02/12 1601 allowed the events file to be named on make command line Then to generate the graphs with those events included one might run: $ make -f graphs. I find that the verbosity and complexity of adding new graph targets to the Makefile makes my brain hurt. There is POD documentation provided with the CampusIO and SubNetIO reports. Copy and Edit Napster_subnets. Copyright and Disclaimer Note that this document is provided `as is’. Mf filetype=gif height=400 hours=24 io_services_bits. That is, if you have two adjacent subnets that can be coallesced into one specification, do so. Txt rrdtool graph -s -48h. Note that the graphs. User-to-webcache, webcache-to-outside world (on behalf of that user). : user$ chmod g+ws $PREFIX Configuring Your Host The current FlowScan graphing stuff likes your machine to have the 80/tcp service to be called http. You can install it using the CPAN shell like this: # perl -MCPAN -e shell cpan> install ConfigReader::DirectiveStyle If you want to fetch it manually you can probably find it at: http://search. If this command fails to produce those graphs, it is likely that some of the requisite. Create the Output Directory The OutputDir is where the. Adjust the values using the required and optional configuration directives documented there-in. One has a choice of configuring these as either relative or absolute paths. See the example/crontab file. For most purposes, the default values should suffice. Future Directions for Graphs The current Makefile-based graphing, while coherent, is cumbersome at best. This has been specified with the FlowFileGlob directive in flowscan. ConfigReader::DirectiveStyle The ConfigReader package is available on CPAN. As for the tweaks necessary to get cflowd to play well with FlowScan, hopefully, an example is worth a thousand words. On a 2 processor Intell PIII, to keep flowscan from having to compete with other processes for CPU, I have recently had good luck with setting the flowscan process’ nice(1) value to -20. Conf Those options cause a flow file to be “dropped” every 5 minutes, skipping flows with an output interface of zero unless they are multicast flows. Be sure to set up a crontab entry as is mentioned below in Final Setup. FlowScan Configuration Files The FlowScan Package ships with sample configuration files in the cf sub-directory of the distribution. Look at the above output carefully. The information in it is not warranted to be correct. Cf and is usually the same directory that is specified using the FLOWDIR directive in your cflowd. 18 distribution and also those in the old “boulder. Cf I strongly suggest you configure: ReportClasses CampusIO rather than: ReportClasses SubNetIO The CampusIO report class is simpler than SubNetIO, requires less configuration, and is less CPU/processing intensive. Rrd files and graphs will reside. Cf Copy the template to the bin directory. During initial configuration you will copy and sometimes modify these sample files to match your network environent and your purposes. This prefix should be the directory where the patched cflowd has been configured to write flow files. Edu/~thockin/pset/ This patch enables users to determine which processor or set of processors a process may run on. It is imperative that this file is maintained accurately since flowscan will use this to determine whether a given flow represents inbound traffic. FlowScan currently uses two kinds of cofiguration files: Directive-style configuration files, with the. This can be troublesome if you do not accurately define your local networks (below), since flows forwarded to any non-local addresses will be considered outbound. You should probably specify the networks/subnets in as terse a way as possible. RRGrapher, my Graph Construction Set for RRDTOOL is available at: http://net. ] Technically, SUBNET is the only tag required in each record. Alternatively, you may copy and customize the graphs. Log 2>&1

This is apparently a no-no with RRDTOOL since, although it allows you create files with these names, it doesn’t let you graphs using them because of how the API uses : to seperate arguments. You can install them using the CPAN shell like this: # perl -MCPAN -e shell cpan> install Boulder::Stream If you want to fetch it manually you can probably find it at: http://search. They are available on CPAN in the “Boulder” distribution. 18 distribution and also those in the old “boulder. From my cursory look at the GNU make ChangeLog, perhaps any version >= 3. 1, and most recenlty a dual PIII Dell server, 2x600Mhz, w/256MB running Debian Linux 2. ) perl 5 If you don’t have this already, you’re probably way over your head, but anyway, check out the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN): http://www. ] Technically, SUBNET is the only tag required in each record. Generating Graphs Supplied Graphs To generate graphs, try the graphs. You can install it using the CPAN shell like this: # perl -MCPAN -e shell cpan> install ConfigReader::DirectiveStyle If you want to fetch it manually you can probably find it at: http://search. FlowScan Configuration Files The FlowScan Package ships with sample configuration files in the cf sub-directory of the distribution. Beware that if you define neither, CampusIO will resort to using the flow destination address to determine whether or not the flow is outbound. 013 CampusIO: Cflow::find took 394 wallclock secs (350. If the total of usr + sys CPU seconds totals more than 300 seconds, than this machine is not even capable of running FlowScan fast enough, and you’ll need to run it on a faster machine (or tweak the code, rewrite in C, or mess with process priorities using nice(1), etc. Both require disk space and the amount depends upon a number of things: The rate of flows being exported and collected The rate at which FlowScan is able to process (and remove) those files Whether or not you have configured FlowScan to “save” flow files The number of hours after which you remove gzip(1)ped flow files To find the characteristics of your environment, you’ll just have to run the patched cflowd for a little while to see what you get. Rrd files to http_*. Boulder should contain a list of the networks/subnets in use by Napster, i. ) Boulder The Boulder distribution includes the Boulder::Stream module and its prerequisites. If this is the case, it is probably because you skipped the configuration of /etc/services in Configuring Your Host. Below, I’ve attempted to present them in a reasonable order in which to obtain, build, and install them. Alternatively, you may copy and customize the graphs. As the chosen FlowScan user do: $ PREFIX=/var/local/flows $ mkdir -p $PREFIX/graphs Then, when you edit the. However, if you want to process a fair amount of traffic (e. (This is differnet than the similarly formatted our_subnets. Dist=ConfigReader I’m using ConfigReader-0. I suggest that the FlowScan –prefix directory be owned by an appropriate user and group, and that the permissions allow write by other members of the group. It is referenced below in Custom Graphs. The flowscan process is not being scheduled to run often enough because of context switching or because of its competing for CPU with too many other processes. User-to-webcache, webcache-to-outside world (on behalf of that user). $ cd graphs $ ln -s 0:42. ) The format of an entry is: SUBNET=10. Of course, one should assure that the requisite bandwidth is available along the full path between the exporting Cisco(s) and the collecting host. Cf $ cp cf/flowscan. Adjust the values using the required and optional configuration directives documented there-in. The “right” number of hours is a function of your file-system size and the rate of flows being exported/collected. 013 CampusIO: report took 3 wallclock secs ( 0. If this command fails to produce those graphs, it is likely that some of the requisite. So, you want to keep the time to process 5 minutes of flows under 300 seconds on average. 6 machine with GNU make 3. 0/8 [TAG=value] [. Boulder Copy the template to the bin directory. Cf files below, be sure to specify this using the OutputDir directive. Mf filetype=gif height=400 hours=24 io_services_bits. Dist=Boulder I’ve tested with the modules supplied in the Boulder-1. For FlowScan, one usually wants it enabled for any interface that is an ingress point for traffic that is from inside to outside or vice-versa. : $ event2vrule -h 48 events. In” appears to be trying to handle this situation. Try this command on your router if you are unsure: ip flow-export version. Create the Output Directory The OutputDir is where the. This is because FlowScan expects that you’ve built and installed RRDTOOL something like this: $. The directory in which the flowscan perl script and FlowScan report modules are installed. Once you have this working, your ready to continue. These two reports are mutually exclusive – SubNetIO does everything that CampusIO does, and more. As for the tweaks necessary to get cflowd to play well with FlowScan, hopefully, an example is worth a thousand words. Configuring FlowScan Configure and Install Do not use the same –prefix value as might for other packages. If you’re new to “Boulder IO”, the examples referenced below should be sufficient. Log 2>&1 install HTML::Table If you want to fetch it manually you can probably find it at: http://search. 52 sys = 350. (The main flowscan script itself is currently single-threaded. Mf Makefile: $ cp graphs. 6 “/usr/ccs/bin/ld” although earlier cflowd releases built fine with it. A good way to avoid doing something dumb here is to not run FlowScan’s configure nor make as root. Gif Adding Events to Graphs There is a new graphing feature which allows you to specify events that should be displayed in your graphs. During initial configuration you will copy and sometimes modify these sample files to match your network environent and your purposes. 1999), we were usually collecting about 150-300,000 flows from our peering router every 5 minutes. A GNU/Linux or Unix machine If you have a trivial amount of traffic being exported to cflowd, such as a T1’s worth, perhaps any old machine will do. Also, you could produce your graphs using a graphing tool such as RRGrapher mentioned below in Custom Graphs. 0/24 DESCRIPTION=luser subnet Preserving “Old” Flow Files If you’d like to have FlowScan save your flow files, make a sub-directory named saved in the directory where flowscan has been configured to look for flow files. Php3 Copy and Edit SubNetIO. Org/pub/arts++/ As of arts++-1-1-a5, the arts++ build appears to require GNU make 3. Time to process 5 minutes of flows: SPARC – 284 sec Intel – 111 sec Note that it is important that flowscan doesn’t take longer to process the flows than it does for your network’s activity and exporting Cisco routers to produce the flows. If not, you should use the diagnostic warning and error messages or the perl debugger (perl -d flowscan) to determine what is wrong. That command will cause these VRULE arguments to be passed to rrdtool, at the end of the argument list: COMMENT:n VRULE:981841080#ff0000:2001/02/10 1538 added support for events to FlowScan graphs COMMENT:n VRULE:982015260#ff0000:2001/02/12 1601 allowed the events file to be named on make command line COMMENT:n Custom Graphs Creation of other graphs will require the use of a tool such as RRGrapher or knowledge of RRDTOOL. It is imperative that the number of seconds that Cflow::find took not usually approach nor exceed 300. This is apparenly `normal’. Cf $ # edit $PREFIX/bin/flowscan. Mf Makefile, you can use the examples there in to see how to build “Campus I/O by Network” and “AS to AS” graphs. GIF files may be produced using the filetype option mentioned below. This will reduce the risk of breaking existing applications which may refer to the service by that name. Cf by the LocalSubnetFiles directive. Try running this command: $ perl -le “print scalar(getservbyport(80, ‘tcp’))” You can continue with the next step if this command prints http. /configure –prefix=/var/local/flows user$ make user$ make -n install user$ make install By the way, in the above commands, all is OK if make says “Nothing to be done for `target”’. Other RRDTOOL front-ends that produce graphs should be able to work with FlowScan-generated. Stop flowscan, rename your www_*. These events are simply a list of points in time at which something of interest occurred. If for some reason you don’t already have ksh, check out: http://www. On a 2 processor Intell PIII, to keep flowscan from having to compete with other processes for CPU, I have recently had good luck with setting the flowscan process’ nice(1) value to -20. For complete information on this format, do: $ perldoc Boulder # or “perldoc bolder” if that fails Here’s a step-by-step guide to installing, reviewing, and editing the FlowScan configuration files: Copy and Edit flowscan. Disk Space I recommend devoting a file-system to cflowd and FlowScan. Rrd files for those targets. Arts++ arts++ is required by cflowd and is available at: ftp://ftp. This file should be referenced in CampusIO. For instance, one could create a plain text file in the graphs directory called events. Edu/~plonka/Net-Patricia/ Cflow This perl module is used by FlowScan to read the raw flow files written by cflowd. Also there may be trouble if you don’t have flex headers installed in your “system” include directory, such as “/usr/include”, even though “configure. The information in it is not warranted to be correct. Mf template Makefile has options to specify such things as the range of time, graph height and width, and output file type. While it is not required, I highly recommend installing RRGrapher if you want to produce other graphs. However, in this configuration, it is imperitive that flowscan be run in the –prefix directory if these relative paths are used. 48 CPU) sleep 300. Cf I strongly suggest you configure: ReportClasses CampusIO rather than: ReportClasses SubNetIO The CampusIO report class is simpler than SubNetIO, requires less configuration, and is less CPU/processing intensive. I’ve run FlowScan on a SPARC Ultra-30 w/256MB running Solaris 2. The supplied content seems to work well as of this writing (Mar 10, 2000). If you do this, flowscan will move each flow file to that saved sub-directory after processing it. Edu/~plonka/RRGrapher/ For other custom graphs, if you use the supplied graphs. Please use that as the definitive reference on configuration options for those reports, e. Early in this project (c. Txt] [organization=’Foobar U – Springfield Campus’] as in: $ make -f graphs. Future Directions for Graphs The current Makefile-based graphing, while coherent, is cumbersome at best. This document may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety (including this authorship, copyright, and permission notice), provided that no charge is made for the document itself. Mf $PREFIX/graphs/Makefile $ cd $PREFIX/graphs $ make This should produce the “Campus I/O by IP Protocol” and “Well Known Services” graphs in PNG files. This has been specified with the FlowFileGlob directive in flowscan. A number of the directorives have paths to directory entries as their values. It is imperative that this file is maintained accurately since flowscan will use this to determine whether a given flow represents inbound traffic. 0(9), use this syntax instead: ip flow-cache active-timeout 1 unless you’ve specified something such as downward-compatible-config 11. Configuring Your Ciscos First and foremost, to get useful flow information from your Cisco, you’ll need to enable flow-switching on the appropriate ingress interfaces using this interface-level configuration statement: ip route-cache flow Also, I suggest that you export from your Cisco like this: ip flow-export version 5 peer-as ip flow-export destination 10. 55 CPU) for 23610455 flow file bytes, flow hit ratio: 254413/429281 2000/03/20 17:07:41 flowscan-1. You may find it useful to add other tags such as DESCRIPTION for documentation purposes. Cf Decide which FlowScan Reports to Run The FlowScan package contains the CampusIO and SubNetIO reports. There is POD documentation provided with the CampusIO and SubNetIO reports. Since mine were in the “local” include directory, I hand-tweaked the classes/src/Makefile’s “. The directives are documented in comments within those sample configuration files. They have not yet been created by FlowScan, such as http_dst. 1 on a sparc-sun-solaris2. Rrd A reminder for me to fix this is in the TODO list. You may find this useful especially if you have multiple network engineers accessing the flows. Rrd then do this: $ cd $prefix/graphs $. /configure –help # note –with-. I find that the verbosity and complexity of adding new graph targets to the Makefile makes my brain hurt. I have not had problems building the patched cflowd-2-1-a9 or cflowd-2-1-a6 under Debian Linux 2. Cflowd cflowd itself is available at: http://www. “Boulder IO” format files, with the. If you decide not to modify the service name in this way, FlowScan should still work, but you’ll be on your own when it comes to producing graphs. HTML::Table The HTML::Table package is available on CPAN. Here are some hints on getting the most out of your hardware if you find that FlowScan is processing 300 seconds of flows in less an averave of 300 CPU seconds or less, but not 300 seconds of real time; i. The most important thing to consider configuring in CampusIO. Edu/~plonka/FlowScan/ Configuring FlowScan Prerequisites Choose a User to Run cflowd and FlowScan I recommend that you create a user just for the purpose of running these utilities so that all directory permissions and created file permissions are consistent. Rrd files and graphs will reside. Rrd $ ln -s 42:0. Perl Modules RRDs This is the shared-library perl module supplied with rrdtool. At ~OC-3 rates) you’ll want a fast machine. You should probably specify the networks/subnets in as terse a way as possible. Cf and is usually the same directory that is specified using the FLOWDIR directive in your cflowd. Conf Those options cause a flow file to be “dropped” every 5 minutes, skipping flows with an output interface of zero unless they are multicast flows. Edu/~plonka/Cflow/ You’ll need Cflow-1. My recent testing has indicated that 600-850MHz PIII machines can usually process 3000-4000 flows per second, if flowscan doesn’t have to compete with too many other processes. Copy and Edit local_nets. Com/ or: http://www. 10, } CFDATAPORT: 2055 # COLLECT: { flows } } COLLECTOR { HOST: 127. Current), try this: $ cd /dir/containing/your/time-stamped/raw/flow/files $ flowscan The output should appear as something like this: Loading “bin/Napster_subnets. That is, if you have two adjacent subnets that can be coallesced into one specification, do so. FlowScan This package is available at: http://net. I addressed this by reconfiguring my hosts with a 100 Mb/s fast ethernet NIC or 155 Mb/s OC-3 ATM LANE interface and have not seen that problem since. Their presence or absence will be detected by FlowScan’s configure script but you’ll save yourself some frustration by getting ahead of the game by collecting and installing them first. Also, if you’re saving your flow files, you should set up crontab entries to handle the “old” flows. Cf $PREFIX/bin $ chmod u+w $PREFIX/bin/flowscan. Gzip_lock file created by this command is used as a lock file to ensure that only one cron job at a time. Mf to your graphs sub-directory. Conf file looks like this: OPTIONS { LOGFACILITY: local6 TCPCOLLECTPORT: 2056 TABLESOCKFILE: /home/whomever/cflowd/etc/cflowdtable. Use it at your own risk. Rrd, modify /etc/services, and restart flowscan. Upgrading your RRD Files If you are upgrading, it is necessary to add two new Data Sources to the some of your existing RRD files. RRGrapher, my Graph Construction Set for RRDTOOL is available at: http://net. For instance: SUBNET=10. 1 AUTH: none } And I invoke the patched cflowd like this: user$ cflowd -s 300 -O 0 -m /path/to/cflowd. This prefix should be the directory where the patched cflowd has been configured to write flow files. Ca/~michael/pdksh/ If you’re using GNU/Linux, pdksh is available as an optional binary package for various distributions. So, if you have two subnets, with different purposes, they should have seperate entries even if they are numerically adjacent. ) Performance Problems. FlowScan looks for its configuration files in its bin directory – i. The Intel machines are definitely preferably in the sense that flowscan processes flows in about 40% of the time that it took the SPARC. Boulder extension I’ve chosen Boulder IO’s “semantic free data interchange format” to use for related projects, and since this is the format in which our subnet definitions were available, I continued to use it. (Otherwise it would simply remove them. Gz However, I suggest you don’t install it in the same place as your existing perl. If, as in the example above, your log messages indicate that it took more than 300 seconds, FlowScan will not be able to keep up with the flows being collected on this machine (if the given flow file is representative). : $ cd bin $ perldoc CampusIO Copy and Edit CampusIO. 6, a Dell Precision 610 (dual Pentium III, 2x450Mhz) w/128MB running Debian Linux 2. In order of preference, you should define NextHops, or OutputIfIndexes, or neither. (I was unable to build cflowd-2-1-a6 with the sparc-sun-solaris2. This can be troublesome if you do not accurately define your local networks (below), since flows forwarded to any non-local addresses will be considered outbound. Be sure to set up a crontab entry as is mentioned below in Final Setup. Network Interface Card Regarding the host machine configuration, consider the amount of traffic that may be exported from your Cisco(s) to your collector machine if you have enabled ip route-cache flow on very many fast interfaces. Options e. Entries are seperated by a line containing a single =. Txt containing these lines: 2001/02/10 1538 added support for events to FlowScan graphs 2001/02/12 1601 allowed the events file to be named on make command line Then to generate the graphs with those events included one might run: $ make -f graphs. Lastly, in complicated environments, choosing which particular interfaces should have ip route-cache flow enabled is somewhat difficult. 0/24 DESCRIPTION=power user subnet = SUBNET=10. 15-20 MB of raw flow file data every 5 minutes) and only a 10 Mb/s ethernet NIC, I found that the host was dropping some of the incoming UDP packets, even though the rate of incoming flows was less than 2 Mb/s. Before running flowscan, backup your RRD files, e. Mf [filetype=] [width=x] [height=y] [ioheight=y+n] [hours=h] [tag=_tagval] [events=public_events. You probably don’t want flow-switching enabled for interfaces that carry policy-routed traffic, such as that being redirected transparently to a web cache. I’ve also managed to build the patched cflowd-2-1-a6 with gcc-2. However, if it prints some other value, such as www, then I suggest you modify your /etc/services file so that the line containing 80/tcp looks something like this: http 80/tcp www www-http #World Wide Web HTTP Be sure to leave the old name such as www as an “alias”, like I’ve shown here. 79 because its Makefiles use glob for header dependencies, e. Cflowd patch My patches are available at: http://net. Software Requirements The packages and perl modules required by FlowScan are numerous. Boulder (if referenced in CampusIO. Initial Install Requirements Hardware Requirements Cisco routers If you don’t have Cisco at your border, you’re probably barking up the wrong tree with this package. Copy and Edit Napster_subnets. Pdksh works fine too. ) In an early performance test of mine, using 24 hours of flows from our peering router here at UW-Madison, here’s the comparison of their ave. : $ mkdir $PREFIX/saved $ touch $PREFIX/saved/. Korn shell ksh is used as the SHELL in the Makefile for the graphs. Cf extension This format should be relatively self-explanatory based on the sample files referenced below. See the example/crontab file. The samples configuration files ship with relative path specifications to minimize the changes a new user must make. I use one crontab entry to gzip(1) recently processed files, and another to delete the files older than a given number of hours. 1 2055 Of course the IP address and port are determined by your cflowd. Rrd files are missing, i. Note that the graphs. Txt This feature was implemented using a new script called event2vrule that is supplied with FlowScan. This was evidenced by a constantly-increasing number of udpInOverflows in the netstat -s output under Solaris. FlowScan currently uses two kinds of cofiguration files: Directive-style configuration files, with the. Some of these are described below in Supplied Graphs. With lots of exported flow data (e. Sample rc scripts for Solaris and Linux are supplied in the rc sub-directory of this distribution. Don’t complain to the author if you’re saving flows and your file-system fills up ;^). Rrd files, so there’s hope. Edu/~thockin/pset/ This patch enables users to determine which processor or set of processors a process may run on. This file is used by the SubNetIO report class, and therefore is only necessary if you have defined ReportClasses SubNetIO rather than ReportClasses CampusIO. FlowScan does not require or use this environment variable, it’s just a documentation convention so you know to use the directory which you passed as with –prefix. Don’t use /usr/local or a similar directory in which other things are installed. Cf is the method by which CampusIO should identify outbound flows. As long as make completes without an error, all is OK. You can try to install it using the CPAN shell like this: # perl -MCPAN -e shell cpan> install Net::Patricia If Net::Patricia is not found on CPAN, you can obtain it here: http://net. Boulder should contain a list of the subnets on which you’d like to gather I/O statistics. : user$ chmod g+ws $PREFIX Configuring Your Host The current FlowScan graphing stuff likes your machine to have the 80/tcp service to be called http. Surely YMMV, currently a 35GB file-system allows us to preserve gzip(1)ped flow files for about 2 weeks. You may wish to copy graphs. /configure –enable-shared $ make install site-perl-install That last bit is important, since it makes the rrdtool perl modules available to all perl scripts. This script is meant to be used as a “wrapper” for running rrdtool(1), similarly to how one might run nohup(1). Ch/~oetiker/webtools/rrdtool/ I recommend that you install rrdtool from source, even if it is available as an optional binary package for operating system distribution. RRDTOOL This package is available at: http://ee-staff. However, the SUBNET tags and values in this file should be listed exactly as you use them in your network: one record for each subnet. This will enable you to report on each of those user populations independently. 0 you can install it thusly: # perl -MCPAN -e shell cpan> install G/GS/GSAR/perl-5. To help ensure that flows are exported in a timely fashion, I suggest you also do this if your IOS version supports it: ip flow-cache timeout active 1 Some IOS versions, e. O” default rule to include that directory as well. Cf Copy the template to the bin directory. Gzip_lock The. Usage: make -f graphs. As of cflowd-2-1-a6, beware that during the build may pause for minutes while as(1) uses lots of CPU and memory to building “CflowdCisco. Mf Makefile to remove references to the missing or misnamed. Also, FlowScan currently requires that your IOS version supports NetFlow version 5. As of this writing, more info on Napster can be found at: http://napster. For most purposes, the default values should suffice. Also, turn on the set-group-id bit on the directory so that newly created files (such as the flow files and log file) will be owned by that group as well, e. You may have to edit these scripts depending on your ps(1) flavor and where various commands have been installed on your system. One has a choice of configuring these as either relative or absolute paths. Org/pub/cflowd/ In my experience with building cflowd, you’re the most likely to have success in a GNU development environment such as that provided with GNU/Linux or FreeBSD. Copyright (c) 2000-2001 Dave Plonka

This utility runs in the background and regularly checks /etc/crontab for tasks to. Before using a custom script, make sure it is executable and test it with the .

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7 thoughts on “Freebsd test crontab

  1. ILYAS- Post authorReply

    Namun fitur iCloud di iPhone sendiri bisa menjadi bomerang bagi pemiliknya,  dimana jika orang yang tidak cukup pintar alias awaw lupa atau hilang ingatan dengan password code Apple ID dan password email yang sering digunakan. Jadi berhati-hatilah dalam menjaga Email, Password iCloud yang amat penting tersebut.

  2. Ho... Post authorReply

    WiFi publik sangat berbahaya dan tempat paling mudah untuk diretas. Jadi, jika Anda cenderung berkoneksi ke WiFi kafe favorit Anda setiap kali Anda memesan kopi, Anda sebaiknya terus membiarkan perangkat Anda tersambung ke VPN. Jika Anda sedang menjelajah web menggunakan pada hotspot WiFi publik, sangat disarankan untuk menyambung ke VPN.

  3. tMia Post authorReply

    How
    doulCi Team performed the first iCloud hack disabling lockscreen on Apple . Interested in bypass icloud. Want to know what iCloud bypass/doulCi is.

  4. -Dana_Scully- Post authorReply

    If you have only one policy for a server, provide the server hostname here: BackupClient1. It presented with an easy command line interface to create the config file for the client. 25 rows in set (0. 64-redhat-linux-gnu redhat Enterprise release Daemon started 22-Nov-15 16:23.

  5. AlexHell Post authorReply

    1) in the 10. Below is an example of setting static routes to a different subnet, on a machine in the 192. 0/24 subnet, and an eth1 interface (10. The example machine has an eth0 interface in the 192.

  6. Flake Post authorReply

    A fej egy évet üzemelt, egy másik gépben. Alig használt, gyakorlatilag új nyomtató gyári, vagy jó minőségű többszörösen kipróbált után gyártott festékkel. A tartalék gép még idén dolgozott. A helyszínen tetszőlegesen tesztelhető, de garancia nem jár hozzá. A gépek szárazon vannak letárolva, így a méter teljesítést nem tudom megnézni. A gépeket érdeklődés esetén, a részletek egyeztetése után fogom beüzemelni. Tartalék alkatrésznek adok egy másik ugyanilyen gépet, fej nélkül. Új gyári damper szűrőkkel , új tisztítóegységgel, igény szerint festékellátóval, szerviz programmal.

  7. KISSA Post authorReply

    000
    Alku nélküli vásárlásnál adom hozzá a gyári feltekercselőjét, aminek 150-200. Eladó Roland VP – 540 nyomtató-vágógép, jó fejjel, tökéletes állapotban, természetesen végig gyári festékkel használva. 000 ft az értéke, illetve két 137 cm-es megkezdett médiát (molino, fényes vinyl). Azt hiszem a Roland márkanevet egy potenciális érdeklődőnek nem kell bemutatnom.

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