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Linux add user to usb group


linux add user to usb group

The following modifications will cause any FTDI-serial device to stop working, so backup the existing file. The contents of this file should be:. Currently, there is a bit of a hack needed. You have to create (or modify if it exists) the file /etc/udev/rules.

This web page describes how to use the Linux usbnet driver, CONFIG_USB_USBNET in most Linux 2. (Unless you listen to Microsoft, who will tell you not to use such vendor-neutral protocols. 4 (or later) kernels. 0) ASIX 8817x based products. ) Traditional Ethernet Adapters such as the high-speed (USB 2. All that’s needed is the USB-IF Communications Device Class (CDC) “Ethernet” class, or a simplified variant if the hardware can’t implement CDC to spec. This driver originally (2. Linux PDAs, and other embedded systems like DOCSIS cable modems, are much the same. One type is a host-to-host network cable. They think a complex and poorly documented protocol they defined, RNDIS, is better for them. In current Linux it’s now a generalized core, supporting several kinds of network devices running under Linux with “minidrivers”, which are separate modules that can be as small as a pair of static data tables. They act as Hosts in the networking sense while they are “devices” in the USB sense, so they behave like the other end of a host-to-host cable. Early) focussed only on supporting less conventional types of USB networking devices. Those are good to understand, since some other devices described here need to be administered like those cables; Linux bridging is a useful tool to make those two-node networks more manageable, and Windows XP includes this functionality too.

You may be familiar with how bridging works with Microsoft Windows XP, when you connect your second network link. Only the tools and commands are very different on Linux hosts; most distributions for Linux don’t yet provide a way to automatically set up your bridge that’s as easy.

(March 1, 2017) Memory management Aaron Lu: mm: support parallel free of memory. Some of the operations are unidirectional operations as well, where the receiver doesn’t need to generate a response message. (March 1, 2017) Andi Kleen: perf: Improve support for uncore JSON event lists. G GB_I2C_TYPE_TRANSFER */ __u8 result; /* Result of request (in responses only) */ __u8 pad[2]; /* must be zero (ignore when read) */ } Here, size is the size of the header (8 bytes) plus size of the payload data. (February 28, 2017) Device drivers Enric Balletbo i Serra: power: Add support for the Toby Churchill SBS battery monitor driver. A process that wants huge pages badly enough to be willing to wait for them, though, can call madvise(MADV_HUGEPAGE) to ask the memory-management system to go into direct reclaim if necessary to make huge pages available. Miscellaneous: Intel INT3496 ACPI OTG ports, Maxim DS2405 addressable switches, Motorola CPCAP power-management ICs, Zeitec ZET6223 I2C touchscreen controllers, Samsung Exynos PCIe PHYs, MIPI display bus interface LCD controllers, STMicroelectronics STM32F4 I2C controllers, NVIDIA Tegra BPMP I2C controllers, Cortina systems Gemini (SL3516) SoC watchdogs, and ZTE zx2967 SoC watchdogs. (February 28, 2017) Anatolij Gustschin: Xilinx Slave Serial FPGA Manager. Greybus bundles can also represent complex functionalities, such as audio or camera. , and a single bundle device may look insufficient to represent them all. The connection is established between hd_cport_id and intf_cport_id. Later on, it would be nice to get Motorola’s Moto Mods support merged into the kernel and include its improvements to the Greybus subsystem. (February 27, 2017) Jerome Brunet: Add es7134 DAC driver support. The module_id is set to the ID of the primary interface. Industrial I/O: Texas Instruments ADS7950 analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), Texas Instruments TLC4541 ADCs, AVIA HX711 ADCs, Maxim max11100 ADCs, Renesas R-Car gyro ADCs, Amlogic Meson SAR ADCs, Capella CM3605 ambient light and proximity sensors, TI TMP007 infrared thermopile sensors, STMicroelectronics LSM6DSx inertial modules, Maxim MAX5481-MAX5484 digital potentiometers, ChromeOS EC barometers, and Devantech SRF08 ultrasonic ranger sensors. And the data from the camera on the module is received over the data connection. (February 26, 2017) Security-related Kees Cook: Introduce rare_write() infrastructure. (March 1, 2017) Greg KH: Linux 4. (February 26, 2017) Greg KH: Linux 4. (February 27, 2017) Milo Kim: Support TI LMU devices. (February 27, 2017) Core kernel code Patrick Bellasi: Add capacity capping support to the CPU controller. (February 26, 2017) Viresh Kumar: PM / Domains: Implement domain performance states. Otherwise, once the response is received, it first checks the response header to check the result of the operation. It returns zero on success or a negative number to represent errors. The bridged PHY drivers, instead, implement protocols whose purpose is to support communication with the modules on the Greybus network that do not comply with a device-class protocol; these include integrated circuits using alternative physical interfaces to UniPro. Wong: vfs/xfs/ext4: GETFSMAP support. 0x7f); operation 0x00 is reserved. The Greybus core implements the supervisory controller (SVC) protocol (described later), which is used by the application processor (AP — the CPUs running Linux) to communicate to the SVC. They are a lot like sockets and are called “connection ports” (or CPorts). Each bundle will get a struct device for itself and a greybus driver will bind to that device. Each UniPro device has virtual ports within it, which can be seen as sub-addresses within the device. If the administrator writes the new value defer+madvise to /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag, the default behavior will be to do defragmentation in the kcompactd kernel thread. (February 28, 2017) Darrick J. UniPro follows the architecture of the classical OSI network model, except that it has no application layer defined. The Greybus modules have electrical connectors on them, connecting them to the phone’s frame. The manifest is a data structure containing the manifest header along with a set of descriptors. Comments (none posted) Patches and updates Kernel trees Greg KH: Linux 4. ; Simple Audio Interface Manifest ; ; Provided under the three clause BSD license found in the LICENSE file. The Greybus or UniPro “connection” is a bidirectional communication path between two CPorts. These entities receive a message from AP which they translate and send to the UniPro network. The interfaces are represented within the Linux kernel by the struct gb_interface: struct gb_interface { struct device dev; struct gb_control *control; struct list_head bundles; struct list_head manifest_descs; u8 interface_id; struct gb_module *module;. AP, SVC, and modules) is managed by the Greybus core. (February 26, 2017) Andi Kleen: perf, tools, script: Add brstackinsn for branch stacks. Jonathan Corbet wrote an earlier article on Greybus; readers may want to look at that to catch up on some history. Clock: HiSilicon Hi3660 clocks, IDT VersaClock5 programmable clock generators, Allwinner V3s and sun5i clock control units, and ST Microelectronics STM32 realtime clocks. The internals of how various components work together to represent the camera are hidden from Greybus and hence the AP. } Here, dev is the module’s device structure, module_id is a unique eight-bit number assigned to the module by the SVC, interfaces points to the interfaces present within the module, and num_interfaces is their count. The primary interface is special as the AP receives module insertion event with the ID of the primary interface and the module can only be ejected from the frame using the primary interface. The bundles are represented within the Linux kernel by the struct gb_bundle: struct gb_bundle { struct device dev; struct gb_interface *intf; u8 id; u8 class; size_t num_cports; struct list_head connections;. All module insertion and removal events are first reported to the SVC, which in turn informs the AP about them using the SVC protocol. A simple example of that can be the audio management protocol or the camera management protocol. As Project Ara is discontinued now, it would be quite interesting to find new targets (like the Internet of things) for the Greybus subsystem and adapt Greybus to support them. The IDR and IDA mechanisms have been extensively rewritten and are now based on the kernel’s radix tree implementation. Com: fs: Support compiling out the pivot_root syscall. The Greybus core also performs runtime power management for all individual entities. What’s next It would be interesting to do a couple of things going forward. 5 years, were merged; these contributions came from over 50 developers representing at least five organizations (Google, Linaro, BayLibre, LeafLabs, and MMSolutions). The Greybus core also binds itself to the Linux kernel driver core and provides a sysfs interface at /sys/bus/greybus. ), and attach them to the frame of the phone. The interface with the smallest interface ID is configured as the primary interface and all other are called secondary interfaces. The AP isn’t part of the Greybus network really and so isn’t represented in the above picture. You will also notice a lot of similarities with the USB framework in the Linux kernel, as it was taken as a reference during the development of Greybus. The drivers themselves should be moved to their respective frameworks:. The SVC represents an entity within the Greybus network that configures and controls the Greybus (UniPro) network, mostly based on the instructions from the AP. The CPort numbers are unique within an interface. During initial development of the Ara smartphone, there were no SoCs available with built-in UniPro support. There were a lot more developers and companies involved in the development of the other parts of the Ara software and hardware. The device classes and bridged PHY protocols will be listed later. The special protocols are the core Greybus protocols with administrative powers over the Greybus network. UniPro communication happens over bidirectional connections between entities, like the modules on the Ara smartphone; it doesn’t need to go through the processors. The special ID zero is reserved for unidirectional operations. The bundle ID is unique within an interface. Crypto: MediaTek EIP97 cryptographic engines, Cavium cryptographic accelerators, and Broadcom symmetric crypto/hash accelerators. For example, cameras, batteries, sensors, etc. (February 28, 2017) Miscellaneous Lucas De Marchi: kmod 24. These electrical connectors are called “interface blocks” and are represented in software by the term “interface”. The AP controls the network via the SVC using this protocol. When a module and its interfaces are connected to the Greybus network (by attaching the module to the frame of the phone), the AP starts enumerating its interfaces over CPort0. Note that it is optional to add the control CPort0 in the manifest file. (February 26, 2017) Ben Hutchings: Linux 3. The communication over the connections is governed by a predefined set of operations and the semantics of those operations is defined by the Greybus protocols (covered later). 2 (Bundle) │   │   │   ├── bundle_class │   │   │   ├── bundle_id │   │   │   └── state │   │   ├── 1-2. Support for the %Z format-string directive has been removed. As NFS maintainer Bruce Fields put it: “But, having them on by default is a disaster, as it generally only makes sense if all your clients and servers have similar enough selinux policies “. The Greybus driver is represented by the following structure and it accepts the bundle structure as argument to all its callbacks: struct greybus_driver { const char *name; int (*probe)(struct gb_bundle *bundle, const struct greybus_bundle_id *id); void (*disconnect)(struct gb_bundle *bundle); const struct greybus_bundle_id *id_table; struct device_driver driver; }; Here, name is the name of the Greybus driver, probe and disconnect are the callbacks, id_table is the device bundle ID table, and driver is the generic device driver structure. The manifest file is converted into a binary blob using the Manifesto library. Only the AP can initiate operations (send requests) under this protocol and the module must respond to those requests. (February 27, 2017) Ben Hutchings: Linux 3. (February 23, 2017) Greg KH: Linux 4. There is a switch on the bus that sets up the actual routes. The control protocol serves the purpose of communication between the AP and the module’s interfaces. The following figure gives a glimpse of how various parts of the kernel interact with the Greybus subsystem. That will mostly depend on the Motorola community, though. The result field is ignored for request messages; it contains the result of the requested operation in the response message. It then waits for timeout milliseconds for a response from the other side and errors out if no response is received within that time. (February 26, 2017) Hans de Goede: mfd: Add Cherrytrail WhiskeyCove PMIC driver. There are multiple helpers which can be used to send/receive Greybus messages over a connection, but most of the users end up using the following: int gb_operation_sync_timeout(struct gb_connection *connection, int type, void *request, int request_size, void *response, int response_size, unsigned int timeout); Here, connection represents the communication path over which UniPro messages are sent, type is the operation type, request is the request payload, request_size is the size of the request payload, response is the space for response payload, response_size is the size of the expected response payload, and timeout is the timeout period for the operation in milliseconds. (February 23, 2017) Vishwanathapura, Niranjana: Omni-Path Virtual Network Interface Controller (VNIC). See this commit for documentation. The message header is represented by following structure: struct gb_operation_msg_hdr { __le16 size; /* Size in bytes of header + payload */ __le16 operation_id; /* Operation unique id */ __u8 type; /* E. Almost 2400 patches, developed over 2. Greybus messages (both request and response) are managed using the following structure within the Linux kernel: struct gb_message { struct gb_operation *operation; struct gb_operation_msg_hdr *header; void *payload; size_t payload_size;. Messages can pass at a rate of around 10Gb/s; the bus also has message prioritization, error handling, and notification of delivery problems, though UniPro doesn’t support streams or multicast delivery. A module can have one or more interfaces. (February 23, 2017) Ben Hutchings: Linux 3. The operation type is an eight-bit number that defines the type of the operation. The “TinyDRM” subsystem makes it easy to provide graphics support for small, simple displays. For example, an interface with vibrator and battery functionalities will have two bundles, one for the vibrator and one for the battery. 2 (Interface) │   │   ├── 1-2. For example, only the AP can initiate operations on the control protocol. The operation_id allows many operations to be “in flight” on a connection at once. (February 28, 2017) Ricardo Neri: x86: Enable User-Mode Instruction Prevention. Each Greybus protocol defines a set of operations, with formats of their request and response messages. Greybus/ └── greybus1 (AP Bridge) ├── 1-2 (Module) │   ├── 1-2. Each CPort is managed by exactly one protocol. The module side contains the firmware that makes all these components work together; it takes inputs from the AP over the connections present within the bundle. So I’ve built a git tree with all of the changes going back to the first commit, and merged it into the kernel tree, just like btrfs was merged into the kernel. Operations defined under this protocol include module insertion and removal events, the creation and destruction of routes and connections, and more. Normally all communication is bidirectional, in that for every request message from a sender, the receiver responds with a response message. (February 23, 2017) Build system [email protected] The main purpose of this protocol is to help the AP enumerate a new interface and learn about its capabilities. The Greybus protocols are broadly divided into three categories: special protocols, device-class protocols, and bridged PHY protocols. This would take reasonable amount of time and effort. They can receive messages over USB and send them over UniPro and vice versa. (March 1, 2017) Georgi Djakov: Introduce on-chip interconnect API. [manifest-header] version-major = 0 version-minor = 1 [interface-descriptor] vendor-string-id = 1 product-string-id = 2 ; Interface vendor string [string-descriptor 1] string = Project Ara ; Interface product string [string-descriptor 2] string = Simple Audio Interface ; Bundle 1: Audio class [bundle-descriptor 1] class = 0x12 ; Audio Management protocol on CPort 1 [cport-descriptor 1] bundle = 1 protocol = 0x12 ; Audio Data protocol on CPort 2 [cport-descriptor 2] bundle = 1 protocol = 0x13 Greybus messages Greybus communication is built on UniPro messages, which are used to exchange information between the AP, SVC, and the modules. 11 have been merged. }; Here, hd represents the AP bridge through which the AP communicates with the module, intf represents the parent interface, bundle represents the parent bundle, hd_cport_id represents the CPort ID of the AP bridge, intf_cport_id represents the CPort ID of the interface, and operations is the list of operations that are getting exchanged over the connection. The modules that only implement device-class protocols are said to be device-class conformant. The meaning of the type value depends on the protocol in use. (February 28, 2017) Matthew Wilcox: Introducing the eXtensible Array (xarray). Greybus protocols The Greybus protocols define the layout and semantics of messages that are exchanged over a Greybus connection. The AP is responsible for administrating the Greybus network via the SVC. The first CPort within the interface is always the control CPort (CPort0, which is not part of any bundle) while the rest of the CPorts are numbered starting with one. The Greybus subsystem also supports processors with built-in UniPro support; they are represented by native UniPro host controllers. The Greybus specification provides device discovery and description at runtime, network routing and housekeeping, and class and bridged PHY protocols, which devices use to talk to each other and to the processors. The most significant bit (0x80) of the operation type is used as a flag that distinguishes a request message from its response. The AP controls individual interfaces using this protocol. To begin with, the Greybus core should be moved from the staging tree to the kernel’s drivers directory. The Greybus Interfaces can contain one or more bundles, each of which represents a logical Greybus device in the kernel. During system suspend, the Greybus core puts the SVC and the modules into low-power states and, on system resume, it brings up the Greybus network. Once the modules are connected to the Greybus network, the AP and the SVC enumerate the modules and fetch per-interface manifests to learn about their capabilities. A single module is accessible via the APB and the module presents a single interface that contains two bundles (devices) within it. There are two special protocols: SVC and Control. Modules that implement any of the bridged PHY protocols are said to be non-device-class conformant. (February 27, 2017) Ben Hutchings: Linux 3. (February 26, 2017) Christoph Hellwig: failure atomic writes for file systems and block devices. All management instructions are sent to the module or configurations are received from the module using the management connection. Comments (none posted) Greybus March 1, 2017 This article was contributed by Viresh Kumar The Linux kernel gained a new subsystem during the 4. (February 28, 2017) Greg Kurz: vfs: implement fchmodat2() syscall. Following is a simple example of a raw manifest file that represents an interface that supports a single audio bundle. During module initialization (after the module is detected on Greybus), the Greybus core parses the module’s manifest, which describes the capabilities of the module, and creates devices within the kernel to represent it. H rework which, if it is merged in this cycle, will go in right at the end of the merge window. These entities are called as AP Bridge (APB) host controllers. There is a new defragmentation policy available for use with transparent huge pages. Kroah-Hartman made sure that Greybus was merged with all its history preserved, saying: Because this was 2 1/2 years of work, with many many developers contributing, I didn’t want to flatten all of their effort into a few small patches, as that wouldn’t be very fair. There are discussions going on to evaluate the feasibility of using the protocols provided by Greybus in applications like the Internet of things, and for other parts of the kernel that need to communicate in a platform-independent way. Usually, a timeout of 1ms is chosen. UniPro and the internals of the Greybus subsystem The Project Ara smartphone was designed to be customizable. Ctrl (Control CPort) │   │   │   ├── product_string │   │   │   └── vendor_string │   │   ├── ddbl1_manufacturer_id │   │   ├── ddbl1_product_id │   │   ├── interface_id │   │   ├── product_id │   │   ├── serial_number │   │   └── vendor_id │   ├── eject │   ├── module_id │   └── num_interfaces ├── 1-svc (SVC) │   ├── ap_intf_id │   ├── endo_id │   └── intf_eject └── bus_id The functionality provided by the modules is exposed using device-class and bridged PHY drivers. Some of the operations allowed under this protocol can get an interface’s manifest, or activate, deactivate, suspend, or resume a bundle. It is governed by a special protocol, the control protocol (described later). Networking: Broadcom NetXtreme-E 10/25/40/50G RDMA adapters. The CPort0 of the APB is used for the SVC connection (don’t confuse that with the CPort0 of each module interface which is used for the control protocol). Power management for the whole UniPro network (i. (February 27, 2017) Peter Pan: Introduction to SPI NAND framework. Gb_operation_sync_timeout() creates the operation and its messages, copies the request payload into the request message, and sends the request message header and its payload over the Greybus connection. Module hierarchy A module is the physical hardware entity that can be connected or disconnected statically (before powering the system on) or dynamically (while the system is running) from the Greybus network. The device-class drivers implement protocols whose purpose is to provide a device abstraction for the functionality commonly found on the mobile handsets. Some discussions are going on about that. The following figure gives a glimpse of how the module hierarchy looks in the Greybus subsystem: Modules are represented within the Linux kernel by a struct gb_module: struct gb_module { struct device dev; u8 module_id; size_t num_interfaces; struct gb_interface *interfaces[0];. Initially, Greg Kroah-Hartman tried to merge Greybus core in the kernel’s drivers directory but, after some objections (people wanted to do more detailed reviews before merging it) everyone agreed to merge it into the staging tree instead. The connections are represented within Linux kernel by the struct gb_connection: struct gb_connection { struct gb_host_device *hd; struct gb_interface *intf; struct gb_bundle *bundle; u16 hd_cport_id; u16 intf_cport_id; struct list_head operations;. }; Here, connection represents the communication path over which UniPro messages are sent, request and response represent the Greybus messages, and type and id are as described earlier in the message header. The SVC protocol serves the purpose of communication between the AP and the SVC. (March 1, 2017) Page editor: Jonathan Corbet
Next page: Distributions>>. There are two new namespace-oriented ioctl() commands: NS_GET_NSTYPE returns the type of a namespace, while NS_GET_OWNER_UID returns the owner of a namespace. The user could select a subset from a wide range of modules, providing interesting capabilities (like cameras, speakers, batteries, displays, sensors, etc. The bridged PHY protocols provide communication with the modules on the Greybus network that do not comply with an existing device class protocol, and which include integrated circuits using alternative physical interfaces to UniPro. (February 27, 2017) Taeung Song: perf annotate: Introduce the new source code view. A lot of effort has been put in to make the specification as generic as possible, in order to make it fit for other use cases as well. Otherwise, it copies the response payload into the memory pointed by the response field and destroys the operation and message structures. Separate hardware entities were designed to connect the AP to the UniPro network. As mentioned earlier, the device-class protocols provide a device abstraction for the functionality commonly found on mobile handsets. For example, a bundle representing the camera will have two connections: data and management. The module ID and interface ID both start from zero and are unique within the Greybus network. As the Greybus specification was initially written for the Project Ara smartphone, it is greatly inspired by Ara’s design, where modules can be inserted into or removed from the phone’s frame on the fly. For example, devices connected via GPIO, I2C, SPI, USB, etc. The same was also required in the other direction: receive messages from UniPro and translate them to the AP. One exception might be the sched. (February 26, 2017) Logan Gunthorpe: New Microsemi PCI Switch Management Driver. Changes visible to kernel developers include: The new VGACON_SOFT_SCROLLBACK_PERSISTENT configuration option will, when set, cause the VGA console code to retain scrollback information when switching between consoles. If result field indicates an error, then gb_operation_sync_timeout() errors out. The LZ4 compression module has been replaced with a newer, better-performing version. 1 (Bundle) │   │   │   ├── bundle_class │   │   │   ├── bundle_id │   │   │   └── state │   │   ├── 1-2. There is a new control-group controller for access to RDMA resources and bandwidth. And that’s where Greybus fits in. The main purpose of this protocol is to help the AP create routes between various CPorts, sense module insertion or removal, etc. The modules on the Greybus network should not implement it. The AP can talk directly to them without the USB subsystem. }; Here, operation is the operation to which the message belongs, header is the header to be sent over UniPro, payload is the payload to be sent following the header, and payload_size is the size of the payload. The size of payload data is defined by each operation of every protocol. CPort0 is special and is used for the management of its interface. The following diagram depicts the sysfs hierarchy for a single AP Bridge (APB) connected to the AP. For requests, this bit is zero, for responses, it is one. Greybus was initially designed for Google’s Project Ara smartphone (which is discontinued now), but the first (and only) product released with it is Motorola’s Moto Mods. At this point, the flow of patches has slowed considerably, so it is probably safe to assume that almost all of the major changes for 4. Each message sent over UniPro begins with a short header, followed by operation-specific payload data. All of these entities will be described later in detail. The interfaces can present any number of functionalities, which can be supported with the bandwidth available to the respective interface block. See this commit for a brief description of what was done and why. The specification of this bus is managed by the MIPI alliance. The AP fetches a block of data from the interfaces, called the interface manifest. New hardware support includes: Audio Broadcom BCM2835 audio interfaces, Intel HDMI LPE Atom audio interfaces, Nuvoton NAU85L40 audio codecs, and Allwinner SUN8I audio codec. For example, if a module isn’t being used, the Greybus core will power it off and will bring it back only when it is required. But that’s how Greybus represents such devices. Which entity (AP, SVC, or the module) can initiate a request message depends on the individual operation as defined by the respective protocol. GPIO: Cortina Systems Gemini GPIO controllers, Exar XR17V352/354/358 GPIO controllers, and ACCES PCI-IDIO-16 GPIO controllers. (March 1, 2017) Filesystems and block I/O Deepa Dinamani: vfs: Add timestamp range check support. (February 28, 2017) Device driver infrastructure Sakari Ailus: ACPI graph support. The hope is that it can replace a large number of framebuffer drivers over time. (February 26, 2017) Architecture-specific Khalid Aziz: Application Data Integrity feature introduced by SPARC M7. }; Here, dev is the interface’s device structure, control represents the control connection (described below), bundles is the list containing bundles within the interface, manifest_descs is the lists of descriptors created from the interface manifest, interface_id is the unique ID of the interface, and module is the pointer to the parent module structure. The figure also represents the control CPort per interface and the SVC per APB, along with a list of attributes for each entity. That subsystem is Greybus and this article will briefly take you through its internals. Security labels for NFS-exported filesystems are now off by default, a change from previous kernels. The manifest allows the AP to learn about the capabilities of the interface. An entire Greybus operation (a request and its response) is managed using the following structure within the Linux kernel: struct gb_operation { struct gb_connection *connection; struct gb_message *request; struct gb_message *response; u8 type; u16 id;. (February 26, 2017) Sebastian Andrzej Siewior: v4. There can be one or more CPorts within a bundle. Greybus developers also showed up in the list of most active developers (the top four by changesets) for the 4. USB: Qualcomm USB HS and HSIC ULPI PHY modules, Broadcom NorthStar plus USB3 PHYs, ChipIdea ULPI PHYs, Microchip USB251XB hub controllers, and Renesas uPD78F0730 USB serial ports. In the following example, the bundle has two connections: “Management” and “Data”. (March 1, 2017) Goldwyn Rodrigues: Non-blocking AIO. The modules could communicate with the main processors or other modules directly over the UniPro bus. Lower-case %z should be used instead when printing size_t and ssize_t values. Normally, such complex devices consist of multiple components working together, like sensors, DMA controllers, bridges, audio interfaces, codecs, etc. Only 127 operations are available for a given protocol (0x01. (February 26, 2017) Greg KH: Linux 4. } Here, dev is the bundle’s device structure, intf is the pointer to the parent interface, id is the unique ID of the bundle within the interface, class is the class type of the bundle (like, camera or audio), connections is the connections within the bundle, and num_cports is the count of the connections. It also defines which side of the connection can initiate each request. The operation_id is a unique, 16-bit number which is used to match request and response messages.

Page 68 of Security & Encryption Software - Utilities -

In this example, the “processes” P2 and P3 could, in fact, be threads belonging to the same process. Note that T1 is able to contain both the thread group T2 and the process P3. The thread groups (“T1” and “T2”) form their own hierarchy below B, which has been marked as a thread point.

6 to add and remove device files in. The Linux Kernel contains both generic USB interface drivers and higher level. Udev is the mechanism called by Linux Kernel 2. Allow a certain user and/or group or the whole world access to all USB .

Thanks for your help here. I can see where to choose to set a persistant file to save work to when downloading the distro to the usb, but how much room should I set, as much as I want. Will that amount make the usb run slower. How do I save my work when I shut down for the day on the usb. Also, could I load Minecraft on to the usb. Minecraft works on linux, I know, but will it run on the usb. So, on this instructable on how to put a linux disto on a usb drive and get apps is good.

Configure and Deploy OpenVPN Clients for Remote Users – Untangle

Oh, and also, even though i realize this isn’t the right place to ask this, i have no idea where else to ask and i’ve been seraching for this for hours how do you mount a new hard drive. There’s plenty of info telling how to mount a cdrom or a floppy drive, or even a usb thumb drive, but NOWHERE does anything or anyone say how to mount a simple hard drive. I can’t believe that that would be impossible, so there’s got to be a way. Is it not possible to add an additional hard drive.

Resource controllers that are not explicitly enabled for thread mode will never see the hierarchy above; instead, the thread groups will, from their point of view, be collapsed out of existence and the hierarchy will look as it did in the first diagram above. Controllers that are able to deal with the thread mode will see the entire hierarchy, though, and will be able to perform resource control at thread granularity.

(February 22, 2017) Device driver infrastructure Jarkko Sakkinen: in-kernel resource manager. Scheduler maintainer Peter Zijlstra, who has been an ongoing critic of the control-group changes, was not entirely pleased with this version either. In a nutshell, this API looks like: #include refcount_t count = REFCOUNT_INIT(initial_value); void refcount_set(refcount_t *r, unsigned int n); unsigned int refcount_read(const refcount_t *r); bool refcount_add_not_zero(unsigned int i, refcount_t *r); void refcount_add(unsigned int i, refcount_t *r); bool refcount_inc_not_zero(refcount_t *r); void refcount_inc(refcount_t *r); bool refcount_sub_and_test(unsigned int i, refcount_t *r); bool refcount_dec_and_test(refcount_t *r); void refcount_dec(refcount_t *r); bool refcount_dec_if_one(refcount_t *r); bool refcount_dec_not_one(refcount_t *r); bool refcount_dec_and_mutex_lock(refcount_t *r, struct mutex *lock); bool refcount_dec_and_lock(refcount_t *r, spinlock_t *lock); See this commit for the full interface and implementation. That moves the threaded group back out to a leaf, resolving the issues. A new proposal for a control-group “thread mode” has generated more disagreement but, maybe, some hope for a resolution as well. When a threaded group would share the same parent group as a non-threaded group, the answer is to interpose another group. (February 16, 2017) Imran Khan: soc: qcom: Add SoC info driver. (February 20, 2017) Heikki Krogerus: USB Type-C Connector class. The process P1 is contained within A, while P2 and P3 are inside B. (February 20, 2017) Anup Patel: Broadcom SBA RAID support. Resource controllers that are not explicitly enabled for thread mode will never see the hierarchy above; instead, the thread groups will, from their point of view, be collapsed out of existence and the hierarchy will look as it did in the first diagram above. (February 21, 2017) Eugeniy Paltsev: dmaengine: Add DW AXI DMAC driver. Zijlstra had actually wanted to make things even more flexible by allowing a threaded group to contain a non-threaded group — essentially doing the thread-point transition in reverse. (February 16, 2017) Andrey Smirnov: i. With the new thread mode, the administrator can designate any empty control group as being a “thread point”. The PAX “structleak” GCC plugin has been ported to the mainline. (February 19, 2017) Architecture-specific Tom Lendacky: x86: Secure Memory Encryption (AMD). The kernel now has a SipHash implementation, providing hashing that should be both faster and more secure. Control-group maintainer Tejun Heo’s latest attempt is called “thread mode”. When the control-group interface was reworked, two fundamental design decisions shaped the result in ways that are relevant to the CPU controller. (February 22, 2017) Miscellaneous Cody Santing: systemtap 3. That would be a welcome end to a project that has taken rather longer than anybody involved would have expected or wanted. (February 20, 2017) Tom Herbert: xdp: Infrastructure to generalize XDP. (February 20, 2017) Core kernel code Alexey Gladkov: Add pidfs filesystem. 11 release can be expected at the end of April. Consider, for example, a traditional control-group hierarchy that looks like this: There are two control groups (“A” and “B”) below the root group. (February 17, 2017) Ramiro Oliveira: Add support for Omnivision OV5647. (February 19, 2017) Sebastian Andrzej Siewior: v4. (February 20, 2017) Karel Zak: util-linux v2. As usual, LWN will continue to watch the patch stream and summarize the rest of the merge window in the coming weeks. This group can then be populated with a hierarchy of “thread groups” below it. Potential solutions to this problem have been under discussion for some time. (February 22, 2017) Page editor: Jonathan Corbet
Next page: Distributions>>. (February 16, 2017) David Daney: genirq/gpio: Add driver for ThunderX and OCTEON-TX SoCs. (February 20, 2017) Elena Reshetova: Kernel subsystem refcounter conversions. The new API also differs from the original in that it only allows entire processes to be placed within a group; if a process is multi-threaded, all of its threads must be in the same group. Heo’s current patch will not support this mode, though, since threaded groups cannot be contained within the same parent group as non-threaded groups. (February 20, 2017) Hoegeun Kwon: Add support for the S6E3HA2 panel on TM2 board. The form that solution will take is not entirely clear, but Heo outlined one possibility. The purpose here is to better hide the internals of this structure so that they can be changed to use the new refcount_t type. Pin control: TI IODelay pin controllers, Intel Gemini Lake pin and GPIO controllers, Allwinner H5 SoC pin controllers, and STMicroelectronics STM32H743 pin controllers. (February 20, 2017) Con Kolivas: linux-4. In particular, he disliked the constraint that the thread groups can only appear at the bottom of the hierarchy. (February 20, 2017) Jacopo Mondi: Renesas RZ/A1 pin and gpio controller. Thread groups look like regular control groups, but with some significant differences: they can contain both threads and other thread groups, and a single process’s threads can be spread across multiple thread groups. (February 22, 2017) Memory management Anshuman Khandual: Enable parallel page migration. (February 20, 2017) Zi Yan: Accelerating page migrations. New hardware support includes: Media: SPI-connected infrared LEDs, Mediatek IR remote receivers, NXP i. Com: Add Arria10 System Manager Reset Controller. (February 20, 2017) Device drivers thor. But it seems possible that this work might finally be on a path where it can get past the roadblocks that have kept it out of the mainline until now. In this example, the “processes” P2 and P3 could, in fact, be threads belonging to the same process. (February 17, 2017) Baolin Wang: Introduce usb charger framework to deal with the usb gadget power negotation. Comments (none posted) Control-group thread mode By Jonathan Corbet
February 22, 2017 The transition to the version-2 control-group API has been underway for a few years now. Rather than create a new “resource group” abstraction under application control, it extends the control-group mechanism to provide special groups at the leaves of the hierarchy. (February 20, 2017) Jozsef Kadlecsik: ipset 6. (February 22, 2017) Willem de Bruijn: socket sendmsg MSG_ZEROCOPY. (February 21, 2017) Hugues Fruchet: Add support for MPEG-2 in DELTA video decoder. Some controllers, though, can work well in a more flexible mode; the CPU controller is at the top of that list. (February 20, 2017) Chris Zhong: Rockchip dw-mipi-dsi driver. Txt for more information. For non-thread-capable controllers, the thread groups would vanish and the processes contained therein would appear to be contained in the parent — the root group in this case. (February 16, 2017) Steve Longerbeam: i. (February 16, 2017) sean. This plugin will force the initialization of structures that are copied to user space in the hope of preventing information leaks. (February 20, 2017) Patrick Vogelaar: add driver for cypress cy8cmbr3102. (February 20, 2017) Yannick Fertre: STM32 LCD-TFT display controller. (February 17, 2017) Vikas Shivappa: x86/intel_rdt: Intel Memory bandwidth allocation. There will, undoubtedly, be further disagreements to be worked out. (February 17, 2017) Hemant Kumar: IMC Instrumentation Support. There are solid reasons for these decisions: for many controllers, it is difficult to define rational semantics when processes and groups are competing in the same parent group, and a number of resources (memory usage, for example) are not amenable to control at the thread level. Wong: vfs/xfs/ext4: GETFSMAP support.

At this writing, that’s not easily done except for specific GNU/Linux distributions (or families of them). In general, you’d rather automate such things. The standard hotplug distribution works for everything that supports the ifup command, but that command unfortunately requires some pre-configuration.

That uses a USB host-to-host cable. See the sections on PDAs and other USB gadgets or, for dynamic configuration, zeroconf. USB “gadgets” that embed Linux can work much the same, but they seldom run RedHat’s Linux distribution.

linux add user to usb group


6 responses on “Linux add user to usb group

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