Linux download kernel headers

Kernel for BKF Download

Only update the system when there is a new update for both kernel and the zfs-kmod. However, keep in mind that you will run into some problem eventually. Then you can update the kernel first, reboot, and then update the zfs-kmod after the reboot. Many packages depend on the newer kernel, if you try to update the system, it will complaint because you will need to update the kernel first before updating those packages. Another thing you can do is to disable the auto update. You can get around by skipping the broken packages (yum update –skip-broekn).

Installing a brand new kernel on server or desktop is not recommended. The latest version might be buggy and can crash your system. I wanted to install the same using apt-get command. I read your tutorial about compiling a stable version of the Linux kernel on a Ubuntu/Debian Linux. How can I install the latest (mainline) Linux kernel on Ubuntu Linux. However, if you need the latest version try the following instructions.

First, if one is using select proprietary or out-of-tree modules (ex. If you do not uninstall these modules first, then the upstream kernel more than likely will not boot. Vitualbox, nvidia, fglrx, bcmwl, etc. ) unless there is an extra package available for the version you are testing, you will need to uninstall the module first, in order to test the mainline kernel.

How to install kernel headers to Ubuntu or Debian Linux, and keep them up to date.

linux download kernel headers

The reason why i am keeping record here is that this drive is probably going to be used as a bcache cache device, and i am concerned about reliability, Granted that it is 90% read scenario, some websites are claiming that data corruption is a downside, but not providing any elaboration, http://alatest. Uk/reviews/solid-state-drives/corsair-reactor-r60-jmicron-jmf612-ssd/po3-116271270,383/#overview (The crosair reactor-r60 is identical to this drive).

The TS-7370 SBCs are configured to load the Debian Linux OS from the SD Card during boot up time. The full featured Debian Linux (version Sarge) distribution includes a complete GNU C/C++ embedded development environment installed. In addition, Apache Web Server, FTP, SSH, Telnet and Samba network services are available with C/PHP/Perl for embedded CGI development.

An hour is not too long to wait. “Test” messages are very, very inappropriate on the lkml or any other list, for that matter. Then post your letter to lkml. After you have read the following paragraphs, compose a real letter, not a test message, in an editor, saving the body of the letter in the off chance your post doesn’t succeed. Please remember that there are quite a number of subscribers, and it will take a while for your letter to be reflected back to you. If you want to know whether you can post, you must have something important to say, right. You’ll undoubtedly get a number of list messages. If you want to know whether the subscribe succeeded, wait for a couple of hours after you get a reply from the mailing list software saying it did.

linux download kernel headers

But mind you, a database that alters a few rows every second can probably make the most use of such OP space. Samsung recommends 10% of the disk’s space. We will use 10 as our writing patterns are not that harsh. Somewhere hidden in a PDF on their websites, they explain that OP space should be anywhere between 7% and 50%.

No default kernel stuff – a “sanitized” linux-header package is always used (always as up. Org is used exclusively. Visit the project page for details and download link. Linux-header package which currently uses 2. 0-beta4 “warm rain” released.

If that works then, experiment with different compiler/optimizations. This is what I work on when I don’t get distracted by kernel hacking. They will deliberately set their usage count to -1 to prevent unloading.  * Consider this feature BETA. The rest of the Makefile system will not know about the extra modules so it will not recompile them if the config changes nor will it install the modules. Don’t bother asking for a subject line modification. How do I unsubscribe from the linux-kernel mailing list. If both the compiler and kernel are changing then it’s anyone’s guess what went wrong. Unfortunately some people watch the list and think it’s a good idea to pick names from it. He’s a busy man. Knowledge that it worked in version 2. Kernel&meta= is a Google interface to the fa. X kernels up to version 2. 17, as well as 2. 2 kernel, read on. Write the Oops down by hand from the screen and type it in after you have rebooted. See the Linux Cyrix 6×86 HOWTO site for details. 4 it became too CPU intensive to calculate the total amount of shared memory. What are the licensing/copying terms on the Linux kernel. More threads information can be found here or in the excellent Linux Parallel Processing HOWTO by Professor Hank Dietz. PCI cards for example should be architecture independent. 4 are available at kernel. (TJ, with much information provided by H. If you are required to use your ISP’s mail relay, but it is crippled somehow, complain to your ISP or switch to one with competent staff. If you actually want your mails to no longer be blocked, get your ISP to clean up their act, or switch to a decent ISP. (RRR) Sure, it’s your kernel. Lpd on many systems) in favour of retaining data from files which have been used recently (e. (ADB) I have tried to put together some information on this topic, which you can find here. Note also that BSD documents slightly different behaviour from SUSv2. (REG) Yes, you can, although you should be careful. It can lead to the Subject: line from hell, since some mailers and users don’t behave sanely. You could for example create new “Versailles”, “Great Wall of China” or “Pyramid of Kheops” software development models. Try booting a simple program that says “hello world”. If you mail to someone and receive such an automatic response, don’t get upset. Ch/pub/packages/skip/ (*) Steganography is disguising sensitive data as noise in a digitized image, sound file, or the like. But the most important argument for/against splitting the kernel sources is not about how much space/download time you could save. Often one or more noted kernel developers will shoot down the idea with a dismissive “that’s a dumb idea” or “all pain, no gain”, without a detailed explanation of why it’s a bad idea. He is currently a member of the Technical Board of Linux International. MkLinux has become a historical footnote. Glibc has LinuxThreads merged in. Since then, Xinu has been expanded and ported to a wide variety of platforms, including: IBM PC, Macintosh, Digital Equipment Corporation VAX and DECStation 3100, Sun Microsystems Sun 2, Sun 3 and Sparcstations, and Intel Pentium. If you are lucky, someone who likes your idea may find the time to implement it. But if people understand your idea but maintain it is flawed, it’s time to stop pushing it. 3 was the recommended compiler for all kernels. You can either attach a real printer, or another computer with EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) support, which pretends to be a printer. And a few device drivers. A lot of things are evolving on Linux and newer versions of the kernel may break older packages (especially on the development kernels). There are estimated to be over 10 million users of GNU/Linux systems today. It should be noted, however, that kernels developers are exceptionally busy people, and generally prefer to write code than engage in lengthy discussions about why some idea is not good (at least for the kernel). So, even though the executable is certainly larger for 2. There are objects with public and private data, methods and inheritance. There are lots of different ways to build a computer around a processor. His day job at MIT is concerned with Kerberos and other network security and I/T architecture issues. A number of new utilities would need to be written, and a large number of shell scripts would have to be audited for correctness in a multiple-stream world. Exceptions are being touted as a replacement for goto in new driver code but the sample patch only works for i386. You should check his original article. Can I post job offers/requests to the list. Most mailers with filtering capabilities can be similarly configured. It doesn’t work for cross-posted messages, as the subject line for a single email will change depending on which list it was sent via. In fact, there would then be extra traffic, because of the number of issues that hit both the development and stable kernels, or even farther back. 2) is the recommended compiler for 2. [Richard Farley: Software engineering concepts, Mc Graw-Hill, 1985, page 11]. Net/ ITRON (Japanese CPU used by DoCoMo in 3G mobile phones) http://www. This would still be a major effort, and has the problem that there may be uses of some C++ keywords which don’t generate a compiler error, but do generate unintended code. Give him a break. Richard Stallman is the principal author of the GNU C Compiler, a portable optimizing compiler which was designed to support diverse architectures and multiple languages. X kernels have the ability to “jettison” kernel initialization code, freeing the corresponding physical memory. Give it up, Subject: line modification is a bad idea. The VFS (Virtual Filesystem Switch) is a prime example of object-oriented programming techniques. Note that the GNUstep/Foundation library has the NSBundle class, which provides this functionality. Berg (Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-443698-9). Since the interrupt flag is one of the flags saved by save_flags(), it will be correctly restored to its previous state by restore_flags(). (REW) Although the list maintainers do their best to keep the list spam free, it is not possible to do this 100%. (TJ) This is in linux/Documentation/Changes that comes with the kernel sources: “For support for new features like IPv6, upgrade to the latest net-tools. No-one wants to see it all anyway (list archives allow people to see everything if they missed it). How do I subscribe to the linux-kernel mailing list. The 386 config option (-M386) does not suffer from excessive padding, but does not produce code optimized for recent x86 CPUs either, so it is also deprecated, except for kernels included in GNU/Linux distributions which must run on the widest possible range of machines. That way you can learn what’s considered an appropriate post and what isn’t. There is a bunch of different error messages that you can get if you have bad or marginal hardware. Org/ports/coldfire/ VAX (DEC) http://linux-vax. Are there other ways to search the Web for information on a particular Linux kernel issue. Do I have to be subscribed to post to the list. It turned out that compiling a piece of C code with g++ would give you worse code. It is also safe to call cli() multiple times on one CPU: the global IRQ lock is only grabbed the first time. From the interrupt routine). We cannot afford bloat. Sometimes an Oops is so bad that the kernel is completely hung. For example, you could have one thread read blocking on a socket while another reads something from disk. Is it related to a specific driver/hardware configuration. (REG, quoting “The Doctor What”) There are some situations that make a kernel oops useless. It doesn’t matter if it takes twice as long for you to compose a more readable message, if it halves the time a hundred key kernel developers spend trying to decode your message. Org could expedite the issue. The recommended binutils is 2. Contributing Contributions are welcome on this FAQ. 33 4 nfs 15. Linux developers have enough work tracking kernel bugs, to also be swamped with compiler related bugs. C -o -name *. Why doesn’t the kernel see all of my RAM. Who is Roger Wolff. The limitation is due to the classic triply-indirect addressing scheme. If you want to give your guesses in your bug reports, they’re of course welcome, but this is not a substitute for raw data. Also, operations performed in kernel space are not pre-emptive: this means other processes are prevented from running until the operation completes. This is in Documentation/Changes that comes with the kernel sources. STREAMS will never be available in the standard Linux kernel, it will remain a separate implementation with some add-on kernel support (that comes with the STREAMS package). ” 😉 I compiled the kernel with xyz compiler and get the following warnings/errors/strange-behavior, should I post a bug report to the list. Instead, email them privately saying that you don’t like their rudeness. I need encryption and steganography*. Nowadays Alpha 21164 machines are much more affordable than one or two years ago, but it’s certainly harder to put one together than your average PC clone. When the node rejoins the cluster, applications can be moved back to it, manually or automatically, if required. This is not wrong, just different from what Sendmail expects. How do I get more than 16 SCSI disks. Last updated on 17 Oct 2009 by Richard Gooch. When a transfer fails this test, it is retried, and this warning is reported. 5 million lines of code in *. Be prepared to defend your patch in a broader context, and demonstrate that it doesn’t have costly side-effects. 8, even after applying the workaround of copying the ioport. (REG, contributed by Erik Mouw) Yes, the processes still share memory, but due to changes to the VM in 2. Don’t quote signatures, entire patches, entire config files or entire posts. The APIC checksum is quite weak, so even a few failures is a cause for concern, since it implies that some corruption has likely gone undetected. Contact me if you need one. The address of the list is [email protected] (REG) Prior to the introduction of tmpfs, many people asked for its development, on the grounds that it would be faster than /tmp in a conventional file-system. Any OS that can save the log after a catastrophic kernel failure must do so without kernel support, that typically means using the underlying hardware. Tell me again why the existing mechanisms are not working and why we need exceptions. There’s no point in shouting at the people who are defending themselves against spam (no-one is obliged to receive any and all email), go pester the spammers instead. They are allowed to do this because it only affects the kernel, but any change to kernel register usage will probably require a corresponding change to setjmp/longjmp. 1(1) Fixed-in Version: 5. If you don’t have the expertise to do this yourself, please wait for another day, before reporting the problem. Developers cannot be expected to provide translations Bug reports should be submitted in English, and that includes kernel messages. Having these features in the standard kernel would therefore cause great inconvenience to people in those countries. 0 networking, modular sound, video capture and helps collect up and sort patches to the kernel. Why are the kernel developers so dismissive of new techniques. It’s very easy to criticize someone else’s code, but when you write something for the first time, it’s not that simple. APIC is the hardware that ia32 systems use to communicate between CPUs to handle low-level events like interrupts and TLB flushes. Gcc is actually quite efficient, when we look at the assembler code generated. Most instances of the global SMP spinlock have been replaced with finer grained locking. (MEA) Quite often I see things like what this summary report tells: FAILED: 32 Mb of RAM were installed on the Linux box. However, keep in mind it is more of a hack than true tmpfs. The old SysV shared memory code has been replaced with a new shm file-system, which is much simpler and cleaner, thanks to the improved VFS. ) 3 -> Personal Workstation 600 AU. Once it’s completed, send an email to the FAQ maintainer. Check your application sources for routines that only operate on/test the last two digits of the year field/variable(s). Majordomo, once correctly setup, will manage the list in an autonomous fashion. How well does Linux scale for SMP. On a single processor system, a normal application would have at most two threads, over 10 threads is seriously flawed and hundreds or thousands of threads is progressively more insane. Normally, if Linus allows a simple typo into a release kernel which prevents it from compiling, a patch is posted to the list within hours, yet still there are clueless idiots who continue to ask about it for weeks thereafter. OTOH once you post to the list, expect to get a few undesirable mails in the following days. 2 and glibc 2. These are not “feature patches” (which may add new features and have new bugs), but purely bug fixes, and thus should be safe to use, even for the most paranoid. Section 9 – Feature specific questions GNU/Linux Y2K compliance. [chS]” | xargs cat | wc -l 4078662 So there’s over 4 million lines of kernel source. If you’re right, you’ll have the last laugh. ” Who is Paul Gortmaker. Org is considered to be LOOPING somewhere, and is thus diverted to list-owner. This is relevant to the authors of 3rd party device drivers, filesystems and other code. Efforts to insert a bit of truth have generally fallen on deaf ears. Here is a primer document which explains some of the problems and explores some solutions. It sits on top of Mach3. The Beowulf project provides an API and system management software to write parallel distributed applications on a network of Linux machines. (REW) I’d say more than 23 thousand lines in 2. Here is a short list: MkLinux was funded by Apple, and runs Linux on PowerPC Macs. These lists have been set up to protect people against spam. Patch available for download here. This is critical for code that may be called with interrupts either on or off. Who is Mark Lord. Related concepts, in increasing order of obfuscation: the KISS rule-of-thumb, the “Small is Beautiful” concept, Occam’s Razor and Complexity Theory. If it should be a non-zero value, you will need to initialise it. The end result is about one spam a month. How do I check if the running kernel is tainted. (REG, by “hacksaw”) It’s true that the lkml is a high traffic list and can be a lot to handle. Why don’t we rewrite the Linux kernel in C++. Quoting from a SparcLinux paper by Miguel de Icaza:
“Thanks to having an international team of developers and support people, when the first Linux/SPARC distribution on CD went out we had a very strong port: a port that had taken only 22 months to engineer and complete (starting from scratch up to releasing the operating system on a bootable CD-ROM). Finally, although this is not a rule, most Linux kernel contributors prefer to keep a low profile, for various reasons. (ADB) Assuming you have found a genuine Oops (those are rare nowadays, but they happen), you should post the relevant portions of your system log, kernel configuration file and kernel symbol map, plus a description of your hardware and the circumstances under which the Oops occurred. IDE modes are generally also generated from the system clock, so if you’re overclocking (for instance, running AGP at 75 MHz), you’re violating IDE specs, and should not expect correct behavior. Aside from that, you may get “mail rejected” error messages if you try to contact some major contributors of the list. In effect, the C++ standards bodies would be dictating what variable names we’re allowed to have. Note that someone once submitted a patch which performed this “cleaning up”. It’s just consuming idle cycles (normally charged to the idle task, which is displayed differently in top). MTRRs are registers in PPro and Pentium II CPUs which define memory regions with distinct properties. Org/ Java has JIGS at: http://www. Tests performed on a Pentium/MMX 200. This will probably be implemented in the 2. Way back then, the safe thing for the kernel to do was trust the standard bios memory detection mechanism. A C++ support layer would be frequently be broken by such changes (as whoever is making the changes would probably not bother fixing the C++ code to match), and thus would require a strong commitment from someone to regularly maintain it. If you let that happen, you can be quite sure that your subscription will be removed as soon as possible. Make sure that you have the System. They have a very heavy kernel, so a pure kernel space implementation would be too slow (remember the time it takes to enter/exit the kernel). What is at issue is not whether other compilers can optimize better, but whether they will compile the kernel correctly. 0-test6, but it stopped working in 2. Alan Cox recommends the following procedure to detect the Memory Rusting Effect:
(if you have > 8 MB of RAM installed, reboot with mem=8M as a kernel boot parameter before) time make zImage find / -print time make zImage Comparing the results of the time measurements will show whether the memory has been rusted or not by the find. (ADB) For 386 class machines, compile as a 386. What’s devfs and why is it a Good Idea ™. ”
Please stop asking for them, we have agreement amongst the head guy, the networking guys, and the fringe folks like myself that they aren’t going in. Cross-posting will make the Subject: line from hell problem more frequent. This would generate an ongoing maintenance burden on the kernel developers. Make a new arch directory and start putting things in there that implement whatever needs implementing on your processor. When this occurs, almost anything that requires kernel support is also dead. An example procmail recipe would look like this: # Linux-kernel list :0 f * ^X-Mailing-List:. People talk about user space vs. Also consider that for parallel processing jobs, the kernel is not involved, so even Kernel v2. (TJ) There’s a FAQ on capabilities under Linux at ftp://ftp. I learned many things this way. 67 Digital Unix 4. Discuss) or ask a lawyer, but don’t ask about it on the linux-kernel list. ), device drivers and hardware interrupt handlers. This does indeed look arrogant and dismissive, and gives the impression that the kernel developers are a pack of old dogs unwilling to learn new tricks. Please complain about it to your ISP and don’t post to the list about spam. Building tarballs (compressed tarfiles) of the whole kernel already represents a considerable amount of work; splitting it into various architecture-dependent tarballs would dramatically increase this effort and would probably pose serious maintainability problems too. The MTRRs were inconsistent, but they aren’t anymore. IOW, if you don’t want to spend a lot of time installing and fine-tuning GNU/Linux, and you have a limited budget, your “best” choice is an x86 machine. There could be some aging code around that makes too many assumptions about the compiler (especially true about inline assembly), some of the newer compilers break these statements. Various patches exist which allow you to increase these limits. (REG) Here are some performance optimizations which are only available on 2. You must NOT post a message to the kernel list about this, as the people there cannot and will not help you. Is there any magic in /proc/scsi that I can use to rescan the SCSI bus. Linux is not a good computer science project. As soon as you have found a link to a message that interests you, try to follow the thread. Using save_flags-cli-restore_flags does incur in a very slight overhead as compared to the cli()-sti) pair, which may be significant for speed critical code (apart from being superfluous if it’s known a priori that the code will never be called with interrupts off). A bug is when something (in the kernel, presumably) doesn’t behave the way it should, either with a driver or in some kernel algorithm. Note that Eric’s article describes two among an infinite range of possible different development models. Who is Linus Torvalds. The two most obvious are if your are overclocking your CPU or running VMWARE’s vmmon. How do I capture an Oops. 6 2 afs 71. If you have very specific needs (e. Initial work on Large File Summit; files over 2G in size, was his) Who is H. 5 threads per processor and/or one thread per RT input stream. It does not indicate anything about the data I/O rate to an existing file. Section 15 – Programming Religion Why is the Linux kernel written in C/assembly. ” or do you mean “Who takes decisions relative to the Linux kernel”. You can access the fa. Html Note that a separate problem is the storage of “extended attributes”. How do I post an Oops. If you are convinced that your favourite technique has value, you have to prove it. (REG) And please reply after the quoted text, not before it (as per RFC 1855). Also search the mailing list archives to see if that topic has been raised before. (REG) Finally, while Linus maintains the development kernel, he is the one who makes the final call. A hand-held computer running Linux, where the low power ARM architecture would be the ideal choice, or a workstation dedicated to scientific applications, where an Alpha or a Sparc would provide superior performance), check the various architectures, list your specific requirements, and make a choice. This will also fix other problems. 7 #If you know the version you wish to build. (ADB) There are basically three known bugs that affect x86 processors, and each CPU design got its fair share it seems: The Intel Pentium F00F “Death” bug, affects ALL Pentium and Pentium MMX CPUs. Html yields information that ONE of their backup MX servers refuses to send email thru to them. It’s _especially_ broken for kernels. As
 *     SCSI was not designed for this you could damage your
 *     hardware. Make sure you copy the correct System. You can write a fault tolerant application for a network of computers without direct OS support: you just need to structure your application appropriately. The Pentium option uses a header file that breaks down the complex string opcodes into simpler operations (which are faster on the Intel Pentium and Pentium MMX). Threads should only be used to take advantage of multiple processors or for specialised applications (i. This is a lot different from standard UNIX processes that are scheduled and run in sequential fashion. (ADB) There are no more known bugs in later kernel versions than in earlier kernel versions. What about those x86 CPU bugs I read about. L=linux-kernel keeps a collection of Linux related list archives. There is a long thread going on about something completely offtopic, unrelated to the kernel, and even some people who are in the “Who’s who” section of this FAQ are mingling in it. Neither is better than the other and also note that I am not referring to the respective implementations. Only four architectures have widely available, reasonably homogeneous distributions: x86 (or i386), Alpha, Sparc and Power-PC. 33 4 ext2 2218. List traffic is very heavy; the average number of messages per day is ~400 [07/2007 – 02/2008]. Neither operation has to delay the other. Why doesn’t the Linux kernel have a graphical boot screen like $toomuch OS. (REW) But then again, it could be a bug anyway. (ADB) Sure, you can do (almost) anything you want with Free Software. (TJ) The text below is from drivers/scsi/scsi. (REG) You send a message to the address [email protected] Also, you normally don’t want to copy these attributes when copying files around, thus these extended attributes don’t present the problems of massive breakage that resource forks would. Check the latest Linux kernel revision to see if the specific computer you’re buying is supported. 5-ac6 1 arla 73. (REG) It is, however, generally considered good netiquette to be subscribed to a list (or a newsgroup for that matter) and lurk for a while before posting. In any event, trees which will compile just fine are available via two mechanisms, the vger CVS tree (accessible via read-only anonymous CVS) and pre made tarballs of known working stable or test kernel trees. If that happens, then come and talk about it on the kernel list. 110) has about 1. If all else fails post a bug report (see Q/A on bug reports) to the list. (ADB, OK’ed by Paul) Paul has contributed various pieces of kernel code over the last few years, among other things the Real Time Clock driver. People complained about the performance drop. Why is the Linux kernel monolithic. Been there, done that. Utilities for manipulating affinity and the patches for 2. What are those __initxxx macros. Majordomo will get you a nice note saying you’re still subscribed if suddenly everybody went dumb. It can allow you to divide your problems into more logical units, and have each of those run separately. The global kernel lock is recursive per process. Org/ Sparc (32 and 64 bits) http://sunsite. The software provides the ability to detect when either node leaves the cluster, and will automatically trigger recovery scripts which perform the procedures necessary to restart applications on the remaining node. 10 it has also been possible to use a parallel port line printer as a console. He is also a member of the Internet Engineering Task Force, where he serves as a member of the Security Area Directorate. Usually system keepers notice the situation, and it becomes fixed within 1-2 days without messages being lost, but we don’t track the entire world. In a complete hang, you have three options. The kernel now assumes a buffer is OK. Who is Larry McVoy. Are there more bugs in later versions of the Linux kernel, compared to earlier versions. If, like most people, you are only interested in i386, you could save about 230 k lines by removing the other architecture-specific trees. What posting style should I use for the list. Actually, the Linux kernel is now 7 years old, and has seriously involved 100 to 1000 programmers. If someone wants to write such a library, please do so. (RRR) The cli()-sti() pair assumes that interrupts were enabled when execution of the code began, and thus proceeds to reenable them at the end. Is the list moderated. (ADB) You should probably read the definition of creeping featurism first. (If you’re comfortable disecting patches, fell free, taking apart the individual file changes and try to isolate to a particular change. (ADB) cli() is a kernel wide function that disables maskable interrupts, whereas sti() is the equivalent function that enables maskable interrupts.  * However perhaps it is legal to switch on an
 * already connected device. The Linux accept(2) call can return the ETIMEDOUT error when there are system resource problems. Also changes can happen to major interfaces in the kernel and the Sparc port is not updated at the same time. Andi Kleen has stated: Linux counts internal headers in the buffer. You can’t demand that other people spend the time explaining to you why they think it’s a bad idea. If you have a libc 6 (aka glibc 2) system, you shouldn’t need to do anything. Most of these patches require that the keyboard still works and even that can be useless when the kernel hangs. If you are really desperate for a reduced kernel, set up some automated procedure yourself, which takes the patches which are made available, applies them to a base tree and then tars up the tree into multiple components. But this is getting off topic: if you don’t have access to the source code, then it’s not relevant to GNU/Linux. Feel free to make up (d). What CPU types does Linux run on. This message indicates that a transaction failed; it’s only a problem when there are many of them. Alpha, by DEC (now Compaq). There are many ways to avoid spam, check the dedicated anti spam sites on the list. Why don’t we replace all the goto’s with C exceptions. They too need to post from different addresses. 33: cold cache: 0. Can I call printk() when interrupts are disabled. Colin Plumb is working on new code for the Linux kernel software clock. Experiments with 14 processor UltraSparc machines shows that Linux scales well, indicating that the current locking strategy is not hurting us for these machines. No core developer supports this. BTW the code snippet in the /arch/i386/kernel/time. There are also other projects to create microkernel-based Unix-like implementations. Make oldconfig make dep clean bzImage modules # install, boot Why do I get unresolved symbols with __bad_ in the name. Section 4 – “How do I” questions How do I post a patch. How do I compile the kernel. 0-test7-pre1, is extremely helpful, and will save developers a lot of time. Are you ready to join the Order of the Great Penguin, and be called a “Linux geek” for the rest of your life. So is your shell. This is probably why both have a ram base file system. Should I post a patch. Why do I see sometimes a cli()-sti() pair, and sometimes a save_flags-cli()-restore_flags sequence. I think it is fair to say that it takes more skill to write efficient C++ code than C code. Did you manage to identify the piece(s) of kernel code concerned. Section 6 – CPU questions What is the “best” CPU for GNU/Linux. Some people are just too stupid, I guess. Why does my kernel report lots of “APIC error” messages. If kernel messages were to be output in some other language, most developers could not help in fixing bugs Translation can be performed in user-space, there is no need to change the kernel It would bloat the kernel sources Finally, it will not be done. Why is my Cyrix 6×86/L/MX/MII detected by the kernel as a Cx486. It really depends on the kind of bug you found. 107 Further information may obtained from http://gtf. Unfortunately these patches are very hardware specific. Trust me – writing kernel code in C++ is a BLOODY STUPID IDEA. Map file installed the appropriate place so that klogd can find it (the standard search path is in the /boot, /, and /usr/src/linux directories). Or perhaps the developer has had prior experience with this technique and found it lacking. (ADB) Does it affect system security. He is currently a Professor of Computer Science at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where he heads the Computer Systems Group. Furthermore, Xinu has been used as an embedded system in products by companies such as Motorola, Mitsubishi, Hewlett-Packard, and Lexmark. Org or some mirror of it, and it doesn’t compile on the Sparc, what gives. X kernels, you may actually get a smaller memory footprint. You can workaround the 64 MiB limit with obsolete kernels by telling the kernel how much memory you have, by using the mem= boot argument. Note that you can make user space memory non-swappable by using the mlock(2) system call. Any C++ code in the kernel would be a second-class citizen, as it would be ignored by most kernel developers when changes to internal interfaces are made. (ADB) No, you don’t have to be subscribed to the list to post to it. (RRR, ADB) Cyrix 6×86 CPUs are different in many ways from Pentium ™ and AMD K5/K6 ™ CPUs, so special code must be included for adequate CPU detection, setup and reporting. Let’s assume 10% is comments, so there’s about 3. If you want to start pruning drivers away, the problem becomes much harder, since most of that code is architecture independent. No arch independent code can use exceptions until you have arch specific code that does the equivalent of longjmp for _all_ architectures. These are: Should the kernel use object-oriented programming techniques. FIASCO is another project for creating MicroKernel LINUX. If you can’t find your bug mentioned, and you’re not running a truly ancient kernel, posting a bug report is worthwhile. Write for maximum efficiency of reading. (ADB) Very shortly, threads are “lightweight” processes (see the definition of a process in the Linux Kernel book) that can run in parallel. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award. Com> ->> 550 50) in small memory systems (e. Why not a hybrid kernel/user space implementation. In 1998 he received the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s Pioneer award along with Linus Torvalds. I wrote the Specialix and Olicom device drivers. Your email may also be blocked (permanently rejected) by that individual or their ISP. If your ISP is unresponsive and you don’t have an alternative ISP you could switch to, you’ll just have to accept that an increasing fraction of people will block your email (as more and more people subscribe to the anti-spam lists). Also note that Solaris Threads took a long time to get right, because of problems such as signal delivery to threads. Why does ifconfig show incorrect statistics with 2. Since the Linux kernel is one designed to be used, rather than to demonstrate theory, sound engineering principles take priority. He’s a selfish little guy. What’s the advantage of each. You may find the Linux STREAMS package (LiS) to be quite useful if you need to port protocol drivers from Solaris or UnixWare, as Caldera did. How many open files can I have. A quick reference for programmers wishing to port their code to v2. The standard PC RTC chip will not wrap the century. They may save lines of source code, but can easily generate much more object code. 2 is available here. Since accept(2) is not part of the POSIX standard, it cannot be claimed that Linux is violating it. 107) restore the flags when printk() is finished. The WWW pages for these projects are listed as well. Kernel, but you can only read the mailing list there, not post directly. However for non floating point applications the issue is not as clear-cut. (REG) Note that Linus does not read linux-kernel very much. (DW) Some mailing lists automatically add a Reply-To: header to the mails which go through them, forcing people to reply to the list, rather than replying personally to the original poster. This causes the split messages to go back into the mailagent queue for further processing. As long as the end result is under a GNU/GPL license, it will still be Free Software. Johnson has recently proposed a small patch that takes care of this problem. (REG) There is a weekly summary called “Kernel coverage at LWN. Why don’t you split the list, such as having one each for the development and stable series. Oh, OS CTE-variant is not Free Software. This is a cost the Linux kernel developers (and apparently, the users) are unwilling to bear. (RRR) In the root directory of the Linux kernel source tree (e. Html Scheme has gstep-guile at: http://www. To justify the enormous effort in rewriting the kernel in C++, significant gains would need to be demonstrated. What is the fastest CPU for GNU/Linux. (REW) On the other hand, accidents with the mailing list server have happened. I’ve mounted a filesystem in two different places and it worked. /proc/scsi/scsi
 * with  “0 1 2 3” replaced by your “Host Channel Id Lun”. Each thread takes only 8 kiB of kernel memory for the stack and thread creation and context switching is very fast. 3(3) Fixed-in Version: 3. In general, I’d say that anybody who designs his kernel modules for C++ is either (a) looking for problems (b) a C++ bigot that can’t see what he is writing is really just C anyway (c) was given an assignment in CS class to do so. OK, so you have this great idea for the kernel. The longer answer involves the motivations behind the question. (REG) When people talk about threads, they usually mean kernel threads i. I installed kernel x. Also there are many more C programmers than C++ programmers around. (REG, based on contribution from Mark Hahn) Some older distributions like (RedHat 6. The compiler now supports over 30 different architectures and 7 programming languages. There are just too many ways that the two can interact and cause trouble (a recent example: gcc 2. With that in mind, you should make sure that you are not wasting the time of other people on the list. Jettisoning useless code represents a nice way to save RAM. Usually the first answer is the most detailed, so the archives contain far better information than you will get from somebody who has answered the same question a dozen times or more. (REG) Admittedly, all those goto’s do look a bit ugly. (REG) OK, that’s great. This is very important. (ADB) Perhaps because there is no Linux Kernel Team, per se. (REG) Today (Nov-2000), people claim that compiler technology has improved so that g++ is not longer a worse compiler than gcc, and so feel this issue should be revisited. Write for maximum efficiency of reading. In 1990 he was awarded a MacArthur Foundation fellowship, and in 1996 an honorary doctorate from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. Contact the author of the code, explain the issue, and try to get the point across in a simple, humble way. GNU is free software: everyone is free to copy it and redistribute it, as well as to make changes either large or small. And it’s embarrassing: it makes you look like a newbie. In this sense C can be considered the “canonical” language for OS kernel implementation, and particularly for UNIX variants. Sometimes, we may feel your contribution is controversial and/or incomplete and/or could be improved somehow. (REW, ADB) The CPU field is very active in terms of technological developments. He just compiles the version that runs on his computers, and then releases it. Org/ M68K (Motorola M68000 family) http://www. So if you want him to see a patch, you will need to send it to him directly (say by Cc:ing him if you post to the list). A second problem is the difficulty in implementing C exceptions in kernel-space. You should never use cli() in a user space program/daemon. As a general rule, large pieces of code tend to have undetected bugs. Linux, on the other hand, has a very efficient kernel, so the difference between a kernel context switch under Linux and a user space context switch under Solaris 2 is pretty small. Remember, the raw numbers by themselves will generally not be useful. Not only can this confuse simple-minded filtering recipes, it can also break threaded mail readers (people may end up reading the same message twice). Read the Source, Luke. The reason is that overclocking can introduce random bit errors, while VMWARE’s vmmon has the ability to (and does) change parts of the kernel. Com/ Why do I get bounces when I send private email to some people. OTOH, the core code for the Linux kernel seems to have stabilized at around 16 thousand lines of C code, according to Larry McVoy. Low-latency real-time), not as a way of avoiding programmer effort (writing a state machine or an event callback system is quite easy). This is a problem, as it limits the amount of useful information that can be seen in the Subject: line, making it harder to scan through a list of subject lines looking for interesting subjects. (REG) Some people, like Alan Cox, bounce messages. ) is: “If it breaks, you get to keep the pieces. Org/ OpenRISC (unfinished) http://www. The best thing to do is to try to repeat it with a new version of the kernel. Make dep, make modules and make modules_install will automatically handle your modules. This material is based on the BSD implementation, which differs from Linux in fundamental ways. Read “Threads Primer” by Bill Lewis and Daniel J. Edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/ has a search by word/subject capability. (ADB) Overclocked processors very often fail long compilations with a sig11, because a long gcc compilation puts more strain on the processor. Wait for half a day. It means that the kernel cannot free the internal data structures associated with a released socket because there are still socket data buffers (in the above case 212 bytes read memory) accounted to the socket. Patch information: Bug Id : CSCds40921 Headline: LD rejects syn with reserved bits set in flags field of TCP hdr Product: ld Component: rotor Severity: 3 Status: R [Resolved] Version Found: 3. 0D 3 nfs 14. O O_TARGET := your-module. Who is David S. Here are the results: OS Hardware FS Type Loops/Second ——————————————————————– Linux 2. Kernel (REG) Unfortunately not all news servers have the fa heirarchy. For reference, all IDE must: have a cable length of 18″ or less have both ends plugged in (no stub) be 80-conductor cable if you’re using a mode > udma33. The Linux kernel is y2k compliant. It also contains a “switch” to specific filesystem types (ext2, vfat, iso9660 and so on), which is why Linux supports so many different filesystems. Example: time find /usr -name gcc -print
2. Don’t go around buying second hand R4000 computers because the Linux kernel runs on the R4000 processor. Check the Coda Web site for more information. De/~jain/software/outlook-quotefix/ for Outlook These fixes make these mailers more standards compliant. Because of this, avoid pushing ideas which you read in a book or heard from some CS notable. (REG) There are several reasons why this should not be done: It would bloat the kernel sources It would drastically increase the cost of maintaining the kernel message database Kernel message output would slow down English is the language in which the kernel sources are written, and thus is the language in which kernel messages are written. So if you write an initialization function, whose code will never be used again after your driver is initialized, you can use __initfunc() around its declaration in order to reduce your kernel memory footprint by a few KB of memory. What are the plans for future versions of the Linux kernel. You may create both stateful and stateless firewalling configurations. If not, you have to figure out if it’s been fixed yet. Org/ Power PC 32 bit http://www. Org/ S390/S390x (IBM mainframe) http://linux. (REG) Maximum file size depends on the block size on your filesystem. The calls assure the task has been successfully scheduled to a valid CPU before returning. Comer completed the original version of Xinu (and wrote “The Xinu approach” book) in 1979. (REG, contributed by Mark Hahn) You may get messages like: APIC error on CPU1: 00(08). Attach your patch and a one line README file describing it very succinctly, and mentioning your name and email (either as two ASCII files or as a MIME encoded tarball). People are running 4 processor Intel Xeon machines and 14 processor UltraSparc machines. The LSF allows you to capture some or all packets and pass them to user-space. Add together the totals from kernel, mm, arch//, subtract fpu-emulation. 2% 0+0k 0+0io 85pf+0w
2. Remember that the list is a community. So you have arch dependent code which has to be done for all architectures before any driver can use it and the code has to be kept up to date by each arch maintainer. X kernels will detect buggy K6 processors and report the problem in the kernel boot message. An example procmail recipe would look like this: # Linux-kernel list :0: /var/lib/emacs/lock/. This is a major project, not exactly the kind of thing you do over the weekend. (REG) Firstly, this is not a bug in the Linux kernel, despite the fact that the “Sendmail 8. With a pure kernel threads implementation, signal delivery is much simpler. Com/ ColdFire by Motorola (incompatible derivative of MC68000) http://www. Some of these warnings may even be warranted (i. (REW) There is no “best” CPU. Devfs also only has device nodes for devices that you have available. The limit for a single filesystem (partition) on a 32 bit CPU is 4 Gi blocks. The kernel does things differently from user space and sometimes the arch maintainers decide to change the internal register usage. 2 kernel which has not fundamentally changed since mid-to-late 1998. Finally, some personal advice. If you really want to get the feel of a toy mailing list, you can write a procmail recipe which will modify the Subject: line. What is this “World Domination” thing. This matches seemingly innocuous words like `Deutschland’ as in `Sitecom Deutschland GmbH’. How can I search the archive for a specific question. When will the Linux accept(2) bug be fixed. 0, is not recommended and will inevitably lead to unpredictable kernel behaviour. The fear is that C++ will continue to expand its claim on the namespace. Again, this is OK, because each driver has different source files, and those are selectively compiled in the kernel executable or built as modules according to the specified kernel configuration. On the Pentium, K6 and C6 CPUs, power consumption gets automatically reduced from an average 12-24 Watts operating power down to 2-3 Watts when the processor is Halted. Check the newsgroups instead, particularly comp. (REG, quoting Keith Owens) The exceptions patch has to use assembler to walk the stack frames. These extra streams of data may be manipulated by any user who has write access to the file, just as the “primary” stream can be manipulated. Html for information on Majordomo. We don’t want to make the same mistakes. However, even without SMP hardware, using threads can be good. Read the devfs FAQ for more details. In the subject of your post, put: [PATCH] , kernel . Testing the kernel, the BIOS and the RTC hardware is relatively easy if you are allowed to reboot the machine; just enter the CMOS setup routine and set the time to Dec 31 1999, 23:58:00. It trades some efficiency for flexibility. It is mostly used in syscalls and functions called from userspace and is better than cli/sti pair, because most of the time there is no need to mask interrupts on hardware level. Check your domain backup MX servers by using the tool at: http://vger. Net/Kernel/, which can save you a lot of time. In general this is a Bad Idea ™ (see “creeping featurism” above), since kernel space resources are more “heavy” than user space resources. On the practical side, when Linux got started gcc didn’t have an efficient C++ implementation, and some people would argue that even today it doesn’t. The save_flags-cli-restore_flags sequence doesn’t make this assumption. Can I lock a process/thread to a CPU. CVS and ftp://vger. Pushing harder will just get you ignored. If you don’t know anything about kernel hacking, this is a good time to start learning:-) By the time you’ve implemented your idea, you’ll be able to call yourself a Linux Guru. Can I be ejected from the list. The next closest is Solaris writting to tmpfs, and its still far behind ext2. (ADB) Here are a few implicit rules which you should be aware of: Stick to the subject. It has done so since the earliest i386 implementation, even though on the i386 we didn’t care about power saving; it’s just that halting the CPU is the Right Thing ™ to do when there is no other task that must be run. In order not to break the userland tools, the “MemShared” field in /proc/meminfo was set to 0. 8 weeks line 3600 s 24 hours 7 days Sounds like a nightmare to me. It’s about the work involved for Linus or whoever will be putting together the kernel releases. Resource forks are used to store ancillary data with files (such as which icon to display for the file when using a graphical filemanager). If you have problems compiling a kernel for a non-i386 architecture please check the related Web pages and mailing-lists for that specific port. If you plan ahead and install a serial console linked to another machine (read linux/Documentation/serial-console. Besides the x86 processors, the Linux kernel runs on 68k processors, MIPS R3000 and R4000, Power PC, ARM, Alpha and Sparc processors. Boot and check what happens. The stubs for the “top half” interrupt handlers. 2 (Makefile excerpt follows): EXTRA_CFLAGS := -DDEBUG -DLINUX -I/usr/src/foo/include MI_OBJS := your-module. /usr/src/linux/), you will find a file COPYING. After that, start on learning the processor, by writing the boot program. Compared with all the other kernel-based thread implementations, Linux is probably the fastest. It has been used as the basis for many research projects. For example, if you have 128 MiB of RAM, you would type mem=128M at the lilo prompt, or can have lilo use the argument automatically (add append=”mem=128M” to your /etc/lilo. Note that this is the time required to do a proper manual audit of the code. But if it doesn’t work, you get to fix it. 1xx kernels should fully support the Cyrix CPUs. WRT C, OS designers (since Thompson and Ritchie first wrote UNIX) have traditionally used C to implement as many OS kernel routines as possible. If perchance you’re running a damaged OS that can’t filter properly, and there is no procmail port for it, then you should either upgrade, or accept that you won’t be able to filter linux-kernel. Please don’t bother the list about it, don’t add noise. Stallman received the Grace Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery for 1991 for his development of the first Emacs editor in the 1970s. A popular reference is “TCP/IP Illustrated” (volumes 1 to 3) by W. Don’t quote the standard signature. If the system oops and then dies without a chance for klogd to record the information into a syslog file, copy down the oops message exactly, and then use the ksymoops (see the man page) to get the symbolic information out. However, it is a more complex language and is less mature than C. In this case, a far superior solution is available, using the Netfilter infrastructure. Someone will post a patch that will fix it within that time. This is usually OK, because the code that is specific to each architecture is (in theory, at least) separate from the others. (ADB) You really don’t want to read each and every posting to the list. Don’t try to have the last word. This used to mean sending relevant pieces out of System. A common request is to modify the Linux scheduler to better handle large numbers of running processes/threads. He has been involved in TCP/IP and internetworking since the late 1970s, and is an internationally recognized authority. The only safe way to recover is save your config, delete everything, restore the config and recompile. Doing it in the body of a message will anger people, as it’s always off-topic and is a waste of bandwidth (remember that even in the 21st century, many people are still being gouged by the second for bandwidth by their ISP or telco or both). If the contents of your. Assembly language in the implementation of OS’s. Pentium-II/400) provide impressive integer performance, for use in e. But don’t waste everybody’s time by posting stuff that has been reported already. This is why filesystems are in the kernel (you *could* put them in user space implemented as daemons), because a kernel implementation is *much* faster. Org/ { SPLIT -adi ~/Kernel } Similarly to procmail you can omit the mail folder from the split command. Note that the “Free” in Free Software refers to freedom, just about the opposite of what’s implied by “World Domination”. The kernel-list is crowded enough already, let’s take care. New CPU models, new architectures, new manufacturing technologies keep pushing the state of the art. You can’t read or write part of the attribute nor seek in it). Each of those lines has to be checked for C++ keywords. Including this unwanted material in your signature is less obnoxious, but is pointless at best (preaching to the converted). Don’t post “I traced him, bother his postmaster at such and such”. Is it down or what. And you should indicate on your message that you wish to be personally CC’ed the answers/comments posted to the list in response to your posting. Peter Anvin) Yes, but only if you have a kernel and libc which support them, and if your applications are written and compiled to use them. X kernels, printk() grabs a spinlock for SMP machines to avoid any possible deadlocks. Be as clear and precise as possible, so that people can understand your idea quickly. Do that a few times and you will get a lot of credit as a good code debugger. Often we see the same old questions time and time again. Seeing these warnings occasionally is not unusual or even a bad thing – they just inflate your logs a little. What compiler flags should I use to compile modules. Some of the reasons are: It would increase the size of the Subject: line. Don’t post your oops report before you have checked linux/Documentation/oops-tracing. Static variables are placed in the. (REG) Note that on UP systems cli(), sti() and restore_flags() operate immediately. Fixing the signal delivery problems with Solaris Threads increased the complexity of their library, leading to bloat and performance loss. (DSM) Often the Sparc port diverges due to the sheer high rate of changes which occur to that port. The idea is that you can have a very primitive network stream of data, and then “push” a filter (“module”) that implements TCP/IP or whatever on top of that. Also keep in mind that some demented optimizations (such as -O99) may even produce slower and bigger kernels, due to gratuitous loop unrolling and function inlining. It is available at: http://m-arriaga. Make sure the quoted part is recognizable as such, by ensuring each quoted line starts with a > (or more >>, in case of multi-level quoting). Why don’t we rewrite it all in assembly language for processor Mega666. NOTE that these lists aren’t trying to block you personally, they are trying to block known spammers or spammer-friendly sites (RBL and ORBS), or uncontrolled dial-up users (DUL). The Linux kernel will execute the Halt instruction when the machine is idle (check the code for the idle_task in sched. Old code gets adequately documented. Please use your good sense. The greatest danger with C++ is in fact its power. The lock is released when unlock_kernel() is called as many times as lock_kernel() was called. (ADB) Think again before you subscribe. Buildkernel NEWESTBETA #To build the most recent beta kernel. (REG) From time to time various technical debates start on the linux kernel list. This option sets code alignment options that work well on the 486, but that cause excessive NOP padding on 586 and above class machines. Also, some people maintain “guru lists” and only read posts on linux-kernel by someone on their guru list, other people’s posts go to /dev/null. Org (don’t include the ” characters, and of course replace the fake email address with your true address). (REW, AC) In the 2. Well, yes, I suppose so, given their environment (the Solaris 2 kernel). AGP other than 66 MHz), this is strictly a physical design flaw in your motherboard. Remember that you will almost always get more information by carefully searching the archive than by posting a question to the list itself. What should I do. How about an undelete facility in the kernel. You can automate large parts of this, but you’ll need to write a *very* intelligent search-and-replace tool for that. Oh, and don’t expect him to tell you he’s applied the patch, either. On this date, Linus announced that gcc 2. In fact, there are five issues. Couldn’t it be split in various tarballs. Rather than add kernel support, a user-space library could be written which provided easy management of multiple steams of data for applications, while still storing the data in a single Unix file. It’s been there for quite some time, now, nice and quiet; added by Alan Modra circa 1994. If people haven’t understood the point you are making, try explaining it a different way. If the site to which you cannot connect is not under your control, then after you have contacted the administrator of the offending site to let them know about their problem, you can disable ECN in the 2. Com /home/fred/mfilter/linux/kernel-digest People using mailagent might try this in their. De/~jain/software/oe-quotefix/ for Outlook Express http://home. Stallman also wrote the GNU symbolic debugger (GDB), GNU Emacs, and various other GNU programs. All of these work. Patches for the following products are available: CISCO PIX. Adding comments and documentation increases the size of the source, but it’s still a Good Idea ™. Kernel at server news. (DW) Do not post any details of the compile failure to the mailing list unless you have first checked the archives to ensure that the question hasn’t been asked already. Who is Matti Aarnio. Can we make the kernel headers C++-friendly. Html where late-breaking patches may be posted. It is due to the spam filtering systems used by them. Post facts, avoid opinions. Databases or Web server applications. Html for more details). This is a kernel-level firewalling/NAT solution which is fast and reliable. (ADB) It is technically possible, but I have never heard of anybody being ejected from the linux-kernel list. Remember, a person’s mailbox is their personal property. How about adding feature Nice-also-very-nice to the Linux kernel. Better use that time in a more efficient way by learning C. (REG) Some people also have very aggressive mail filtering which rejects (non-list) messages from people they don’t know, asking for a re-send with a password (this stops SPAM dead). The theoretical reasons: some small parts of any OS kernel will always be written in assembly language, because they are too dependent on the hardware to be coded in C; for example, CPU and virtual memory setup. Because of this massive breakage, many kernel developers consider resource forks to be a bad idea. Advocacy which is dedicated to that kind of debate. (ADB) The basic rule is to avoid asking questions that have been asked before, or that are irrelevant to other list users, or that are off topic. Tim Burke, their Cluster Architect describes it thus:
A Kimberlite Cluster provides support for two server nodes connected to a shared SCSI or Fibre Channel storage subsystem, in an active-active failover environment. So called “3rd party” code is any kernel code which is not distributed with the official kernel tarball that Linus distributes. Beowulf clusters deliver GFLOPS using arrays of commodity computers. (ADB) Because it doesn’t need one. What are those references to “bazaar” and “cathedral”. The magic way to do it is: compile ramdisk support into kernel, the option is: CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM=y Run the following command to create 2mb ext2 ram disk: /sbin/mke2fs -vm0 /dev/ram 2048 mount it: mount /dev/ram /tmp And you are done. Until 26-OCT-2000, gcc 2. Same issue as BIOS WRT embedded systems. Always see the Documentation/Changes file for details. Unix only supports one “stream” of data per file. Some routines must be run with interrupts disabled, because some peripherals need a guaranteed access sequence, or because the routine is not reentrant and could be reentered from an interrupt, etc. 4 kernel report Connection refused when connecting to sites which work fine with earlier kernels. The kernel fixed them up. I currently write Linux device drivers for a living. Here is his calculation and comments (dates April, 2002): % find /usr/src/linux-2. If you post to the list and want to make sure a specific individual will see the message, Cc: that person. Today, Linux-based variants of the GNU system, based on the kernel Linux developed by Linus Torvalds, are in widespread use. In that case, you’d normally see the usage count at 0 (or more when it’s actually used), and when “something” happens, the usage may drop below zero. Sometimes, you will get surprised. For the Cyrix 6×86 family CPUs and the AMD K5 and K6, you should probably compile the kernel as a Pentium or PPro. This is the only option if you have not planned for a kernel hang. (ADB) The linux-kernel list is no longer spammed, you will rarely if ever find a commercial posting to the list itself. (AC) Alan Cox supervises the 2. Why does my kernel report lots of “DriveStatusError BadCRC” messages. (REG) This is an indication that a function has been called with an invalid parameter. This is a bad idea for many reasons which won’t be listed here. 4 kernel series but are not yet merged (as of 28-APR-2002). Repeat for each mountpoint on which you do not wish the filesystem mounted. What kind of question can I ask on the list. Next, there is the hard part: get Linux to compile and run on the processor. (ADB) Probably because of sheer lack of time to answer each email that gets sent to them. (x+1) kernel may need a different set of upgrades than 2. Patch available for download here. It/jigs/ Smalltalk has StepTalk at: http://www. Of those, about 253 k lines (17%) are in the architecture-specific subdirectories, and about 815 k lines (54%) are in platform-independent drivers. Linus implemented the Intel recommended workaround for this bug a few days after the bug was first reported in the newsgroups. In some cases, you may be blocked because your ISP has volunteered their dial-up IP address ranges to the DUL, in which case you should be using their approved mail relay rather than sending email out directly from your host. Why don’t we add resource forks/streams to Linux filesystems like NT has. Larger files are only supported on 64-bit architectures (Alpha and UltraSPARC) in late 2. Who is Richard M. 4 series kernel, then read this, which tells you how to port code from 2. Here is an extract of his message: The original question is enough of an FAQ that I thought it would be good to have real numbers rather than just my assurances that Linux has a fast FS layer. (TYT) Please follow general good bug reporting guidelines: remember, the developers don’t have access to your system, and they’re not mind readers. Allows read-only access to Windows NT ™ partitions. Baranowski) To protect your code from being interrupted by a bottom half handler. Other than this difference, these functions are SMP safe. I have measured less than 1 microsecond context switch times on an old Pentium/MMX 200 (see http://www. Why the recommended compiler. A good book to read on these concepts as they apply to OS design is “The Mythical Man-Month” by Frederick P. 4 kernel is designed to make your Internet Experience more pleasurable. Here are some: http://www. Coda is an advanced experimental distributed file system with features such as server replication and disconnected operation for laptops. Threads that can be scheduled by the kernel. 6 million lines left. Can we have the Subject: line modified to help mail filters. Recently, a new K6 bug has been reported on the linux-kernel list. The file states that the Linux kernel is placed under the GNU General Public License (version 2), a copy of which is provided. (William Stearns) The Buildkernel script walks you through an entire kernel build, including downloading the necessary files, patching the source, building the kernel and modules, installing the lot into lilo, and optionally building pcmcia-cs, cipe, and freeswan code for that kernel. In some cases, these invalid parameters can be detected at compile time (through clever use of preprocessor tricks), so the preprocessor will modify the called function name into an invalid one. (REG) The VFS (Virtual FileSystem or Virtual Filesystem Switch, depending on who you talk to) is basically the Linux filesystem layer. Replace your device files with ones using the new major numbers, 2 and 3. This makes file lookups much faster. However, the Linux scheduler is designed to work well with a small number of running threads. (REG) Please don’t have long, inflammatory, controversial or offensive signatures (see RFC 1855). (REG) At the very least, you need these: -O2 -DMODULE -D__KERNEL__ -DLINUX -Dlinux (KO) I don’t advise compiling modules by hand if the directory is in the kernel source tree. Feed your address to the input box at: http://vger. If you are using development kernels keep an eye for reports on the kernel list. One reason people want to inspect packets is to perform firewalling. Some modules lack the code to unload. How about having I/O completion ports. Why doesn’t answer my mails. (REG, quoting Keith Owens) If an Oops is recoverable then the text appears first in the kernel message buffer (/proc/kmsg). Older kernels had the infamous cli()-sti() pair in printk(), so you would get enabled interrupts when returning from printk(), whether printk() was called with interrupts disabled or enabled; whereas recent kernels (e. Can we have a Reply-To: header automatically added to the list traffic. These are attributes like file permissions (such as ACLs and POSIX capability sets), which have limited size, and tend to be read and written atomically (i. Net/software/libtrash/ How about tmpfs for Linux. MTRR settings
mtrr: probably your BIOS does not setup all CPUs In English, using “had” as past or past perfect tense commonly implies that the condition no longer exists. Any compiler or language that likes to hide things like memory allocations behind your back just isn’t a good choice for a kernel. Reading all of this document is a good starting point. It would require a very large amount of work to rewrite the kernel (it’s a large piece of code). O Why do I get unresolved symbols like foo__ver_foo in modules. ) (REG) You did of course read REPORTING-BUGS from the kernel source tree first, didn’t you. (ADB) A bug differs very slightly from an oops, actually. So now we come to the suggestion for replacing the goto’s with C exception handlers. If we look at Solaris Threads, they have a hybrid scheme, and claim that is an advantage. This also forces CPU0 to handle all interrupts. Actually, it already does. IOW, what existing problem justifies all the extra arch work and maintenance. These documents describe the basic procedure for kernel oops tracing. Even if you’re sure that the problem isn’t a hardware problem, or some other theory that the developer advances, the scientific method demands that you do a test to rule these sorts of things out. Who is Richard E. If that doesn’t happen for more than a day, fix it yourself, and post the patch to linux-kernel. Real Answer: the recommended compiler has been extensively tested and proven to be a very stable compiler. New drivers are implemented. You mean threads are implemented in kernel space in GNU/Linux. The Cyrix 6×86(Classic, L, MX) “Coma” bug, affects ALL Cyrix 6×86 CPUs. (REW, ADB) Ignore it. (REG) Quite a few. How do I post to the list. Most of the kernel developers are unconvinced of the merits of C++ in general, and consider C++ to generate bloated code. If you can detect this misbehaviour, you may or may not be getting an oops. What information should go in a bug report. Read this VFS primer document if you want to know more. Acknowledgements are usually sent when the change is made. You are referred to Andrew Tanenbaum’s book “Structured Computer Organization”, 3rd ed. Throwing out the non i386-specific drivers will save around 97 k lines, a saving of about 6%. (VKh) If you have a local makefile with which you wish to build your module not linked under the kernel tree in the proper way, you still can “ride” on the master Makefile. Sometimes your BogoMips reading will vary by as much as 30%, from one kernel to another. This is because inode lookups are not needed when a dcache entry is available. Further, it’s fairly likely that the “new” technique that is being proposed has already been evaluated, and found to be inadequate/inappropriate for the kernel. O O_TARGET := your-module. (ADB) There are four causes for this unbounded growth: New architectures are implemented. New directory entry cache (dcache). Also take a look at the Linux Benchmarking HOWTO (shameless plug) if you want some basic information on Linux performance measurements. Patches exist for the 2. Don’t treat the list as your personal helpdesk. If you are writing to the PCI bus, you then use PCI burst mode transfers, which are a few times faster. To unmount it from either mountpoint, simply run umount . (RMS) Richard Stallman is the founder of the GNU project, launched in 1984 to develop the free operating system GNU (an acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix”), and thereby give computer users the freedom that most of them have lost. I grabbed the standard kernel tarball from ftp. Few exceptions:
Everyone welcomes code cleanup patches, for instance, newer compilers may complain a lot more. I want to implement the Linux kernel for CPU Hyper123, how do I get started. See the Tainted kernel document from Novell/SUSE Linux for more information. (REW) But you will if you post questions or answers that are asked and answered on this FAQ. Uk/ Cris (AXIS) http://developer. Also, it would result in a confusing mix of C and C++ code in the kernel. They have stated several times on the kernel list when this topic comes up that even optional support will not be included. This just happens to be written in C. OK, so now that you know why, go forth and pester the maintainer of the section of code that is making the invalid function call. Are you sure someone hasn’t thought of it before. You may find tmpfs useful if you have an embedded system which has the root file-system on a read-only media but needs a writable file-system. OTOH, BogoMips get calculated because the kernel bases itself on BogoMips data to implement small time delays (busy loops) needed by various drivers in different circumstances. In case there are any doubts on what his opinion is, here is what he said in 2004: In fact, in Linux we did try C++ once already, back in 1992. The patch did not generate much enthusiasm. There are replacement versions of the rm utility which will move/copy files to a wastebasket area instead of actually deleting. Normally, when your system is idle, the system idle task is run, and this is shown as idle time (i. Can GNU/Linux machines be clustered. (RML) Yes, as of 2. It is fully virtual memory (i. Understand the distinction, and you will understand why many widely acclaimed ideas in computer science are held with contempt in the Linux kernel developer community. This is what you can do on 2. X” questions Size (source and executable). He is director of the Internetworking Research Group at Purdue, editor of Software – Practice and Experience, and a former member of the Internet Architecture Board. Section 13 – Mysterious kernel messages What exactly does a “Socket destroy delayed” mean. These usually require special privileges to modify. ” My pseudo-tty devices don’t work any more. ”
I’ve been browsing the net for the reference for this. This often happens if you send email from a machine or domain which is listed in the MAPS RBL, DUL and ORBS lists. Most people who talk about fault tolerance expect hardware and OS support of this (if a node goes down, the OS will automatically migrate the application to another node). They seem to prefer to follow POSIX in this, perhaps following the maxim the great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from. With APM (Advanced Power Management), a special idle task (kapmd) is required so that greater power saving techniques can be enabled. (REG) This could be for a variety of reasons, such as temporary problems with mail delivery. ), and people can’t cope with the load. Now write a short post describing your patch, the version of the kernel it applies to, your tests, the feedback you would like to get, etc. If someone tells you that NT scales better than Linux, ignore them. X, egcs, (add your xyz compiler here). For example, the format of /proc/net/dev changed; as a result, an older ifconfig will incorrectly report errors. Highlight only the points that you really need to understand your arguments. (REG) This yields similar behaviour as *BSD versions of Unix. There will be others who will appreciate your efforts. (REW) There are several possibilities. A device driver or VM problem can cause the filesystem code to notice a discrepancy, and flag a warning. If you can repeat this, please drop the driver maintainer an Email. Note that neither BogoMips nor MHz measure processor performance in any way. If there’s a reason why you can’t run the latest kernel (like it’s your main dialin server and you don’t want to mess with it), saying it in your original report will save some explaining later. It’s very confusing to see a reply before the quoted context. This will increase your chances of picking a winner, and decrease your frustration levels. If you will be asking a question, before you post to the list, try to find the answer in the available documentation or in the list archives. Besides having to write support for the processor, you will also have to write the boot sequence to get things going. Do you really want to get that much traffic in your mailbox. Other times, questions about how some part of the Linux kernel works are posted. Why do I get bounces when I send private email to some of these people. If someone is rude to you, please resist the temptation to carry on a war on the list. Why does the Linux kernel source code keep getting larger and larger. (REG) Don’t worry, it’s not stealing valuable CPU time from other processes. The binutils package is the one that contains the assembler (gas) and linker (ld). 0D 3 ufs 28. At some point, after the remaining sk_buffs accounted to the socket are freed, destroying should succeed. Config file to their post. But they do occasionally post. Apparently, someone has had the temerity to label the above paragraph as “a bit fuddy”. (ADB) Basically because we wouldn’t gain much in terms of efficiency, but would lose a lot in terms of ease of maintenance and readability of the source code. Org is running an ECN-enabled kernel. Also, any message with header matching the regular expression: X-Mailing-List:. Org/ IA64 (aka Itanium aka Itanic, by Intel and HP) http://www. Not counting those that have contributed a “one line fix”). A number of APIs to this class for different languages are available: Objective-C has GNUstep at: http://www. X, so you should check the Changes file every single time you upgrade your Linux kernel. Right now one can get PnP support using the isapnptools user space package and manually tuning the I/O, IRQ and DMA channel allocation, but future Linux kernels will do that for you. You can also follow some links on the Linux Documentation Project site. If the former: there is relatively little to decide when it comes to the mailing list. So your best option is to install a modern kernel. Current kernels and compilers are very complex pieces of software. (PG) Don’t attach huge files to your post. Seriously now, there is really no point in compiling a production kernel with an experimental compiler. This is always rejected by the kernel developer community because it is, frankly, stupid to have large numbers of threads. Note that small, “obviously correct” patches are more likely to be processed faster, and often jump the queue ahead of larger patches. Can I use Unix 98 ptys. Don’t get me wrong: these are often reasonable questions, it’s just that seeing them over and over is something we’d rather avoid. An x86 version is also available. Wik for this suggestion). Some people want transparent fault tolerance and load balancing of general applications, others want parallel processing of a single job. Org/ is another archive with latest kernels, latest messages and hottest messages tables. The Hurd is a microkernel-based Unix, and is supposed to be the promised GNU kernel. {0,1}/ Does the Linux kernel execute the Halt instruction to power down the CPU. , pages 401-404, for a more detailed comparison of the use of high level languages vs. Html for information on Majordomo. Then when you write a piece of code people will pay attention to you. Under no circumstances should you complain to the kernel list. Tell us which kernel version, and what your hardware is (if you’re not sure, more detail is better than less). (REG) STREAMS allow you to “push” filters onto a network stack. What is the maximum file size/filesystem size. Org/ who are usually willing to help. This is done because there are too many questions asked on linux-kernel which shouldn’t be (which is why people should read this FAQ first. Remember that many micro-optimisations result in macro slowdowns. Consequently something that looks like a submission from a valid return address tends to go on the list. Please don’t take this seriously. This is a rather critical problem in embedded systems if they are not running Linux; if they are running Linux this is solved by Alan Modra’s code snippet mentioned above. 2 still has a global kernel lock, but this is often released quite quickly (for example, when the process blocks waiting for a resource and/or data), so the net result is that it is quite unlikely for two processors to compete for the global lock. (REW himself) “I wrote the kmalloc that still drives linux-2. (REG) Don’t post post any religious or political material, including in your signature. Most companies have a help desk that keeps the end users from bothering the developers. An oops is when the kernel detects that something has gone wrong. Don’t post in HTML format. It is an incredibly cheap and elegant way to get significant computing power for e. This is likely to be a very bad idea. Html General CPU http://www. (ADB) At the bottom of each and every message sent by the linux-kernel mailing list server one can read:

To unsubscribe from this list: send the line “unsubscribe linux-kernel” in
the body of a message to [email protected] Create a kernel Makefile in your new directory. If you provide code, you can be sure someone will try it out and give you comments. Telling the developer that they have to set up some complicated application environment (especially if it involves some ghastly expensive proprietary software like SAP or Oracle 🙂 may cause the developer to hit the ‘d’ key and move on. Fortunately, with the latest syslogd/klogd, this is much simpler (check the man page of klogd to see if your version has this feature; if it doesn’t, you should upgrade to the latest version, and probably to a modern distribution). The useful information will very likely be lost due to line truncation. (REG, by Adam Sulmicki) If after reading all the above you still feel you need tmpfs, and you’re stuck in the stone age with a 2. He has written numerous research papers and textbooks, and currently heads several networking research projects. Note that for some CPUs advanced development is kept outside the mainline kernel, and changes are merged into the mainline periodically. 1 kernels, they usually compile fine with other compiler versions, but do NOT complain to the list if your are not using the recommended compiler. However, splitting the list wouldn’t help, since most developers would just subscribe to both lists. Whether this is a feature or a mis-feature is in the eye of the beholder, but it is clear that there is a performance cost inherent in the microkernel design. (ADB) For many reasons, some practical, others theoretical. This has been done by Manuel Arriaga and is called “libtrash”. Why don’t we rewrite it as a microkernel. 2, these were beta releases and known to be buggy. (ADB) I can’t compare actual kernel footprints of 2. If you want to play with the optimization options, you need to hack the Makefile in arch/i386/Makefile (assuming you have an x86 processor), but if it breaks. That lasted for a few revisions. 33 kernel source, and 1460508 when I run this on a 1. If you are being blocked, it probably means you have the misfortune to be using an ISP that is not a good net citizen and thus has been added to the RBL or ORBS lists. Not every contributer to the linux kernel is an uber-guru, and thus will not know the various tricks and traps for producing efficient C++ code. WRT GNU/Linux, it is a general consensus that Alpha machines usually provide the best floating point performance, when the actually shipping hardware available at any given point in time is compared (June 1998: the 21164/600). X, but I think it’s worth mentionning that 2. Kernel&meta= (REG, contributed by Gunter Ohrner) Yes, GMANE offers a bidirectional gateway at nntp:gmane. Avoid expressions that may be interpreted as aggressive towards other list participants, even if the subject being treated is particularly relevant to you and/or controversial. When reading text with really bad spelling or grammar, people stall while trying to parse your post. Sometimes he finds also cycles to hack on the kernel, and you see some patches from him. 4 is the current stable kernel) use more modern bios calls that can detect all your memory, and even keep track of which memory is used by the bios itself. Try to find a simple, reliable way to trigger the problem. Check the exact bottleneck in your case. Each stream may be read, written and seeked in just like in files with only one stream of data. Now, there is a huge difference between kernel support and a ready-to-install distribution. So Erik Mouw did a short back-of-the-envelope calculation to show that searching the kernel sources for possible C++ keywords is a nightmare. Html are close but not quite close enough. The main emphasis here is on parallelism to get maximum processing power, although fault tolerance is possible too. 33 4 afs 69. If you want to port your drivers to the 2. X is the wrong way to measure the Memory Rusting Effect. Also note that in 2. A hardware problem can masquerade as a VM problem. Each block is 512 Bytes, so that works out to 2 TiB. They don’t mean to be rude, however. I promise you that Linus and the core developers will completely ignore such messages, so whinging about it is a complete waste of bandwidth. It is, however, good engineering. ” (REW) Auch.

However, when I ran the back up all databases one by one using mysqldump (i. 5 to MariaDB 5. Our server hosts about 100 databases, when I was testing them individually, I didn’t see any problem. Recently, I decided to upgrade a database server from RHEL 6 (CentOS 6) to RHEL 7 (CentOS 7), which involves switching from MySQL 5. Here is the error message:. , running mysqldump command for each database, one after one, 100 times), something funny happened.

This will install the matching kernel automatically. You will need to reboot after updating the kernel. In this case, update the installed kernel to the latest by running the following command. If the kernel header files installed by the above command do not match with your current kernel, this is because your kernel is outdated.

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