Linux find grep


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Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l’article, comment ajouter mes sources .

This information is used by the system to determine when a user must change his/her password”. Linux has built-in command which named chage. Chage manual page says “The chage command changes the number of days between password changes and the date of the last password change.

 Les commandes grep et find Les expressions régulières On a vu auparavant ce qu’étaient les métacaractères. Elles fonctionnent avec certaines commandes comme grep. Les expressions régulières sont aussi des suites de caractères permettant de faire des sélections.

*How To Read Linux Filesystem (ext2 and ext3). Can Linux sfdisk Tool Used Instead. Create Linux partitions with. How To Find Un Allocated Space On Linux. Can it be used instead of fdisk command. How To Use Linux Grep Command To Find Strings.

linux find grep

Php files output by find as arguments to a single grep command; e. This uses xargs to pass all the. , grep "debug (" file1 file2 file3.

Ces exercices sont des questions de cours : les solutions se trouvent toutes dans les pages de man des commandes en question. On suppose donc connues les commandes de.

Find и grep в Linux как инструмент для администрирования. Вопросы к Вам и рекомендации от автора — GTD (планировщик) и бухгалтерия (маленькая или.

linux find grep

Par défaut, grep se comporte très exactement comme cette commande. Cette commande signifie : « rechercher globalement les correspondances avec l’expression rationnelle (en anglais, regular expression), et imprimer (print) les lignes dans lesquelles elle correspond ». Toutefois, de nombreuses options en ligne de commande permettent de changer son comportement.

How do I use grep command on Linux, Apple OS X, and Unix-like. How to find
the files accessed in last 3 days using a grep command.

Which is more efficient for finding which files in an entire filesystem contain a string: recursive grep or find with grep in an exec statement. I assume find would.

In this article I will cover some useful 12 grep. The grep is a most powerful file pattern searcher that comes equipped on every distribution of Linux.

Tags: find, grep, linux, xargs. Провести поиск искомой строки, и если она будет найдена – вывести имя файла.

linux find grep


12 responses on “Linux find grep

  1. Here is the gui_urls. Htaccess file in the cgi-bin directory, not html/ops). You will need to put this database user and password in the project configuration file, config. At a minimum you need to run the transitioner and feeder. You will therefore need to have a fairly recent version of PHP installed, and configure your web server to use it. You can adjust the error reporting level so that you receive “notices” of minor things such as uninitialized variables, or only major errors, or something in between. Here is a quick example: # cd boinc/tools/ #. Php script in the html/ops directory contains functions to create forum Categories and Forums. This will fail if the file permissions of both do not match. (You may still need to go back later and change some file ownerships and permissions for subdirectories which have not yet been created. The file just contains a line like http://pirates. When you set up a project you need to do two things to get the discussion forums started. This file also controls which platforms your project supports (Windows, Mac, Linux, etc. These tasks are actually performed by running the command $PROJECT/bin/start –cron periodically from a cron job. You need to run a PHP script which creates the Categories for discussion and the Forums themselves under each Category. ) File Permissions The make_project script may not get all of the file permissions set correct for your project directories, depending on how you are configuring your user and group permissions. Php is provided in the BOINC distribution, but you need to customize it for your project. You must specify the name of your project on the command line, and you can optionally specify the project root directory and many other options. ) Use the ‘boincadm’ database account only to update the database schema or fix problems which can’t be dealt with by using the restricted account. Edu/svn/trunk/boinc % cd boinc % svn update -r 12677 # optional – sets a particular revision % _autosetup Bootstrapping configure script and makefiles: Checking version of ‘make’ >= 3. To avoid the cost of starting up a database connection each time, the feeder runs continuously with a connection to the database, and then transfers information between the scheduler and database via shared memory. Conf), but you may also want to review the configuration file in /etc/php. It should only have the permissions required to perform daily work, it should not be able to alter the database structure or get information beyond this particular database. Xml to provide links to your project directly from the BOINC Manager on client machines. 11 (Release) — — Build Components: (server & client) — checking build system type. ) Now, to change the user/group ownership of the entire directory tree the command (as root) would be something like: # chown -R boincadm:boinc $PROJECT The “-R” flag makes the command recursively descend all subdirectories. You may also find it useful to group items which affect similar things together, even though the default order does not do this. ) Configuration This section describes the steps necessary to configure the site to serve out Workunits to client machines. Edit this file whenever you want to add a news item to the RSS feed and front page news. These can include rotating logs, recording statistics, purging the database, updating user profile pages, and choosing the “User of the Day”. In particular, to improve security of your server you should verify that “register_globals” is turned off. (On Debian systems use the group “www-data” rather than “apache”. Php in the html/user directory. If you ever need to change the display order, the easiest way to do so right now is ‘by-hand’ via the command line using mySQL (sorry). 20) Checking version of ‘autoconf’ >= 2. Net /myers/help/boinc/Create_Project. The full directory structure is documented at Server directory structure It also creates a database called ‘pirates’ (or the name you used here for the “short” name for your project). Here is how to do this: use pirates; mysql> GRANT ALL * TO ‘boincadm’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘password’; mysql> GRANT ALL * TO ‘boincadm’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘password’; mysql> quit The reason for two entries is that when you try to connect to the database from a shell on the machine which is running the server you end up connecting from ‘localhost’, which is different from any other hostname, so an additional entry is needed. You may also find it useful to have a working example. Many project specific settings are set in the directory html/project. You need to create this directory. The feeder communicates database information to the scheduler CGI via shared memory. I recommend setting the feeder to run under group “apache” or “www-data”. It can be useful to create another database user, with the same name as the Unix login you will use to manage the project, which has greater powers than the daemon account just created, but lesser powers than ‘root’. /make_project -v –project_root /usr02/pirates pirates [email protected] This creates /usr02/pirates and a number of subdirectories under it. You could just as well put any project specific code in project. (If you are impatient to test your project server, and you are trusting of pirates, you can download the executable for the “hello” application from http://pirates. PHP – server side scripting Most of the web pages you view on BOINC, especially those which contain information about your account or preferences, are generated dynamically on the server using PHP. ) Even though the feeder may be running, it cannot communicate with the scheduler through shared memory if the permissions are not set correctly. Log) the error message Can’t attach shmem: -146 (feeder not running. If you add your own Unix account to the apache or www-data group then you will automatically be able to read any file or directory created by the web server. It does not provide very good navigation links or organization. If you set the “sgid” bit on a directory then any subdirectory created in it will inherit the group, which can prevent these kinds of problems. I686-pc-linux-gnu checking target system type. It’s easist to modify an existing example. (If the scheduler is working it will probably say something about your viewing the page with a broswer, which it’s not set up to do, but that confirms that it is being run. The configuration file for [email protected] (with some sensitive information altered) may be found here. Now you should add a password to the account. I find it useful to make a copy in the same directory called scheduler, but you will find references to this in the BOINC literature as just “cgi”. 9) aclocal -I m4 && autoheader && automake && autoconf Done, now run. If you prefer bash then use # export PROJECT=/usr02/pirates Some subdirectories are not created until the project is “started”. # service mysqld restart (How you do this on your Linux distro may be different, but the idea is the same. The command to do this is: # mysqladmin -u root password (whatever) # mysqladmin -u root -h `hostname` password (whatever) It is also a good idea to create two more database accounts: One database account is for use by the web server and BOINC daemons. ) Complete documentation for the project configuration file can be found on the BOINC website and the BOINC wiki: The Project Configuration File (from the BOINC site) Project Configuration File (from the BOINC wiki) One thing to keep in mind when you are starting out. Most of the files should be owned by an unprivileged account which will be used to manage the project. When your project is running with the application you have written then you will likely also need to use custom-built versions of these daemons. You do this by editing the file project_files. It is a bit more complicated than the one produced by make_project, in part because it creates a separate “virtual host” on the server, and it also supports some extra features which are being tested on [email protected] The name of the application needs to appear on the command line. Be sure to use the more restricted account (eg. An easy way to deal with this is to run the ‘status’ script once, which will create those directories but not actually “start” the project. If you are not using a separate account then use your own login account name. Net/cgi-bin/cgi You should of course edit this to point to your own scheduler. But to get the project started you can use the sample versions. I am just in the habit of typing SQL in upper case. For example, the task which records run statistics every 12 hours is specified by: alvarez db_dump -d 1 -dump_spec. Further customization to make your web site more functional and attractive are described in a later section. If you cannot do this then you may need to add command line arguments for the database user and password. Feeder configuration The scheduler needs to be able to communicate with the “feeder” daemon via shared memory. There is also a file deleter daemon, which deletes files that are no longer needed after a Workunit has finished. Feeder daemon One of the most important file permission you need to get right is for the feeder daemon. Applications and Platforms While your server runs on a Unix system, your applications can be built for a variety of platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, or others). Inc on line 6. One complication you may encounter is that some subdirectories of these, which are created by the web server later, may then not be readable by your account. In that case set error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE GD – dynamical graphical image manipulation library The BOINC server use the ‘gd’ suite of image processing functions to create re-sized versions of profile and avatar images. To do so, add the following to the block for the file deleter: 1 Two other daemons need to be running to process returning Workunits: the “validator” and the “assimilator”. That script will copy new versions of all files in the BOINC distribution, which would replace the custom versions if there were files in the distribution with the same names. If you are working behind a firewall you may need to be careful about using internal -vs- external IP addresses, etc. To see what other tasks might be performed this way, take a look at the [email protected] configuration file. (In that case you put the. The “scheduler” tags are the “traditional” way the scheduler URL has been distributed, and this is the only way that older clients will find your scheduler. You can define icon images which are shown in the BSG to represent both your project and your applications. ) download directory Another important permission to get right is for the download directory and it’s subdirectories. You need to restrict access to them, as described here. These are all specified in a block in the file config. This is the default for new installations, but might be turned on if you are copying a file from another project or site. The news file will be in html/cache and will normally not need to be edited by hand. (You may need to right-click and download the file if your browser won’t view XML properly. BSG Icons The newest BOINC Manager has a mode called the “BOINC Simple GUI” (BSG). The first way may be easier, but it also has a potential security vulnerability: All files which are writeable by the “boinc” group can then be modified by the web server daemon. (A nicer interactive RSS news management system is in the works, but it is not working yet. If you ran the make_project script as ‘root’, which is the easiest way to do it when you are getting started, then the files will all be owned by ‘root’, which is not very useful. Xml will work from the point of view of your client machines. Net/cgi-bin/scheduler’> Clients can also obtain the URL of scheduler(s) from a block of XML imbeded in a comment in the project home page. Main project configuration – config. Here is the project_files. Here is the configuration file for [email protected] Project Home Page The home page for your project is the file index. Any upgrade changes to the database schema will (and should) fail with the more limited database account. Php in the html/user directory. This directory needs to be readable by the web server, but should not be writeable. The sample provided with the BOINC code should only be considered a rudimentary outline. (The ‘upgrade’ script can change file permissions. More information about the format and use of this feature may be found on the BOINC site: Project-specific items in the client GUI Control Panel The “control panel” pages are under html/ops. You will eventually have to write your own code to create work appropriate for your project’s application. The web server user and group names are often “apache” (on Fedora/Red Hat based systems) or “www-data” (on Debian systems). Inc in the html/project directory. Xml for [email protected]
    (You may need to right-click and download it, since it is an XML file). /configure –prefix=/usr/local/boinc — Configuring BOINC 5. ) Server Status Page There is a web page which shows an overview of server status, at html/user/server_status. Com’s GD page Automatic Startup You will likely wish to configure the web server to start automatically when your system is booted. You can verify with a browser that you can connect to the project main page, the download area, and the scheduler. After that, you can work through the sequence of example applications: yello, cube, lalanne, and so on, which demonstrate successively more complicated aspects of writing BOINC applications. These example files might make the task easier: [email protected] E[email protected] (this was an early prototype, some were not created) Interactions in Understanding the Universe discussion site The main index page for the discussion forums is a file called forum_index. Edit these to match your requirments. Php to provide a custom look for your project and to select the searching options you wish to provide. Discussion Forums BOINC comes with software to support discusison forums so that participants can ‘talk’ with each other. Periodic tasks Some tasks need to be performed periodically to keep the project functioning smoothly. If you make a mistake you can easily start over, but you need to include command line flags to delete the previous installation or database. It is also useful to create a Unix group called ‘boinc’ for managing the project, especially if several people may be involved in such management. The initial configuration of MySQL on Unix includes two “anonymous” accounts with no password. We should probably show both. Williams, (O’Reilly, 2002) or any of the many other references on MySQL. Configuration Details about how to set up the web server configuration can be found at Apache httpd Configuration for BOINC The make_project script will create a template configuration file for the web server in the project root directory. If all goes well you will be attached to your new project and have created your first user account. Xml file controls the operation of “daemon” tasks which run continuously to keep the project operating. 80) Checking version of ‘m4’ >= 1. That can be your personal Unix account, or a separate account created for this purpose (such as ‘boincadm’). This is created by first connecting to the database server as the ‘root’ user, and then issuing a GRANT command to create a new account with the correct permissions, like so: # mysql -p -u root Password: mysql> use pirates; mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE ON * TO ‘homestar’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘beleted’; (You can type this all in lower case (except that the password is case-sensitive). The “link” tag, while prefered, is relatively new and only supported by newer BOINC clients (5. Net Last modified: 01 January 2012 Copyright © 2012 by Spy Hill Research http://www. Some configuration and management functions are also performed by running PHP scripts from the command line. You may need to adjust the permissions accordingly later. In particular, you will need to add the database username and password for the ‘daemon’ database account created above. Apparently such spaces are not properly removed by some versions of the core client. The reason that you must rename certain sample files and directories is so that they will not be overwritten when you run the script to upgrade your project. ) You might also put a test script in the cgi-bin to verify that you can connect to it and that CGI scripts are being run. The complete documentation for this script may be found at: The make_project script It’s best to run this script as the Unix ‘root’ user, if you can, because then there will be no problem creating the proper directories or accessing the database. A template file sample_index. User; +———–+———————–+———————————-+ | User | Host | Password | +———–+———————–+———————————-+ | root | localhost | *60A192DDF7927A05D1C1285381A6DE9 | | root | % | *60A192DDF7927A05D1C1285381A6DE9 | | homestar | % | *B35D43E87F6799FD62A19CCC96BD1D8 | | boincadm | % | *DBDC09C1ADAEBEEEF6658A21FCD21CF | | boincadm | localhost | *DBDC09C1ADAEBEEEF6658A21FCD21CF | +———–+———————–+———————————-+ Detailed instructions for securing the initial MySQL configuration can be found in the MySQL 5. In the sample code provided by BOINC this is included in the home page from the file schedulers. (When I last did an installation I also found that to get the web site working I had to say # chmod o+rx $PROJECT/html/inc but this is unusual. The second approach is more explicit and slightly more secure, so that is what I use in what follows (even though the BOINC documentation suggests the opposite here. To run the application you will also need to put Workunit and Result template files in $PROJECT/templates. More information about the format and use of this feature may be found on the BOINC site: Project graphics in the BOINC simple GUI Project-specific items in the client GUI Please send corrections or suggestions for improvement to [email protected] You need to be sure that there are no trailing spaces between the URL and the closing tag. 0 Reference Manual, Sect 2. Xml in the main project directory. The format is fairly simple and there are examples in the file. The simplest is the Hello, World. It turns out that Fedora Core 4 (and 5) does not include GD with PHP by default. Here’s why: An instance of the scheduler CGI script is started each time a client contacts the scheduler via the web server. This is described in more detail here: Log Rotation for BOINC projects Log Rotation Scheduler configuration Clients connect to the project to get work via the “scheduler” in the cgi-bin directory. It can be useful to have a working example of this file to use as a reference. Once you have the daemon tasks configured you can “start” the project with the command (run under your own Unix account or the one you set up to run the project, not root): % $PROJECT/bin/start Remember, you’ll have to do this “by hand” when you reboot the machine. 3 Much more detailed information about managing a MySQL database, including user accounts, may be found in “Managing and Using MySQL” by George Reese, Randy Jay Yarker, and Tim King, with Hugh E. If it doesn’t work at first, this is a good time to debug the connection. You can edit the template file forum_sample_index. Buttons appear on the left side of the manager when your project is selected under the “Projects” tab, and pressing one of the buttons starts a web browser which displays a paraticular web page. In addition to a link to the main project page, you can have links to the user’s account or a page specific to the computer in use. See the section above on File Permissions for details. The command is: # $PROJECT/bin/status Then the changes describe below will also apply to the subdirectories this creates. Just don’t over-do it. This is disabled in the example by default. 59) Checking version of ‘automake’ >= 1. Xml The main configuration of your BOINC project is controlled by a file called $PROJECT/config. In the same file you will find a number of functions you should customize. Thus the scheduler, run by the web server, and the feeder, running under your own Unix account, need to be able to connect via shared memory. That way you can simply edit it to match your server configuration, which is much easier than creating it from scratch. Log The parameters used in creating the summary output are all in the file db_dump. You will need to verify or adjust some file permissions, add database passwords, and edit the config. If the apache server is not in the “boinc” group then the feeder can be made to run under the “apache” group by saying % chgrp apache $PROJECT/bin/feeder % chmod g+xs $PROJECT/bin/feeder The “+s” causes the feeder to run with group “apache”, which allows the scheduler CGI which is also running under group “apache” to connect to the shared memory segment set up by the feeder. Clients can obtain the URL of the scheduler from a “link” tag on the project home page, of the form = 0. At present you are best advised to use both, while expecting that the “scheduler” tags will go away someday (but not anytime soon). It will be convenient in what follows to define the PROJECT environment variable to be the top directory for the project. One argument you give to create a catagory or forum is an ordering parameter; the categories are displayed in increasing Order number, and then the Forums in each Category are also displayed in increasing order based on this parameter. Site Customization When you first set up your BOINC project you need to do a few things customize the web pages and get everything working. These need to be readable by the apache web server so that the files in the download area can be served to clients. I disagree, but in normal operation both methods give the same result. Then if by chance some is able to crack into the project and issue commands to the database server they can only do limited damage. Inc, but I think it’s slightly easier to have a separation between the BOINC distributed code, even if it needs to be customized, and other code. Errors may be displayed on the web pages, and/or logged to the web server error log. Do not use this database account for day to day operation of your project. Php (you could name it anything you want) and then include that file from /html/project/project. Project Configuration A large number of parameters that control the web pages are in the file project. That way you can use this Unix account to more easily modify the database, either for troubleshooting or when the BOINC software is updated. Run the make_project script Once the ‘make’ command finishes successfully you will want to run the make_project script, which is in the tools subdirectory of the source distribution. The transitioner controls changes of state for Results and Workunits as they make their way through the system. % make make all-recursive make[1]: Entering directory. Database Password and Accounts Earlier, when the database server was initialized, a master database account was created with the name ‘root’ and no password. At this point don’t worry about the output from this command.

  2. The default for MySQL is to use /var/lib, and I have found that the /var partition is often too small for this. If you have everything on one machine, you may want to put the database on a separate disk partition. Then if there are any security problems which allow an attacker to break in via the database system, he can only do what the database user can do, but will not have full ‘root’ powers. In the example below I have my database on the separate partition called /usr02. MySQL Unix Accounts It is a good idea to create a separate Unix account and group just for MySQL, and run the server daemon under that account and group rather than as the superuser (‘root’).

  3. Copyright © 2017 University of California. 2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.

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