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YASAT - A Simple Security Auditing Tool - Effect Hacking

Separating partitions and placing them on separate disk drives can also increase performance by reducing the load on a single drive. In this way, a user would not be able to fill up a drive and lock-up the computer, nor would the installation of large software packages or the generation of temporary files or log files. Server installations: It is common practice to create more partitions to isolate user, system and temporary file directories. Create separate partitions for /home (user space), /opt (optional, non-standard software packages) or /usr/local, /tmp, /var etc. Making /home and /opt a separate partition from / also helps Linux upgrades which can be set to write over and upgrade all partitions except /home and /opt.

It is a certainty that unpatched machines will soon be hacked. It is critical that any security related updates be applied to your system. Root access security holes are reguarlay uncovered, and machines connected to the internet are regularly probed for these weaknesses.

Root access security holes are reguarlay uncovered, and machines connected to the internet are regularly probed for these weaknesses. 000
# vi ftpaccess
      #Turn off anonymous ftp
      defaultserver private
# cp -p ftpusers ftpusers. Edit the samba configuration file
# cd /etc/samba
# cp -p smb. These may be turned on by editing the appropriate file in /etc/xinet. 1, Name=MTA’)
# m4 sendmail. Access to services can be restricted to specific IP address. This configuration is appropriate only for a system which operates on a secure local network, as the password is transmitted as plaintext (like telnet and ftp). Note that if one properly configures the ipchains firewall, then these access control files are redundant and no changes are needed from the default configuration (empty, which permits access to all services by anyone). Thus, it is generally best to allow access to specific services by certain address in hosts. The syntax of this file is explained in the ipchains man page and on the many websites devoted to explaining ipchains and firewalls. 000
# cd /etc/mail
# cp -p sendmail. Cgi
      Add the lines
           
            Options ExecCGI
            SetHandler cgi-script
           
It is recommended that directory browsing be disabled. However, ftp is sometimes used on a secure local network when security is less of a concern. Conf
      In the [globals] section
      Set
            workgroup = {workgroup}
            server string = {hostname}
      Comment out
            ; printcap name = /etc/printcap
            ; load printers = yes
      Set
            max log size = 50
      Set
            security = share
      Add
            browseable = yes
            oplocks = no
            level2 oplocks = no
            preserve case = yes
            short preserve case = yes
      In the [homes] section
      Add if not present
            valid users = %S
Let samba packets across the firewall
# vi /etc/sysconfig/ipchains
      -A input -s {network address}/{network mask} -d 0/0 137:139 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s {network address}/{network mask} -d 0/0 137:139 -p udp -j ACCEPT
Restart the firewall
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Start the samba server
# /sbin/chkconfig smb on
# /sbin/service smb start
Add the samba share password
# smbpasswd -a {user}
Users may now change their password with
$ smbpasswd
Browse the samba shares from the Windows “Network Neighborhood”. X as well as Fedora. Deny
These files control what IP addresses are allowed to access various services on the Linux machine. D
# vi wu-ftp
      disable = no
# /sbin/service xinetd restart
If ftp fails,make sure that the iphains firewall contains a line for service 21 (ftp) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 21 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
that the ftp server software is installed
# rpm -qa | grep wu-ftp
and that either /etc/hosts. Err Kernal upgrades are more complex, and one should definitely read the instructions in The Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. This can also be done for the xinetd services with the /etc/hosts. To turn on telnet
# cd /etc/xinet. A brief summary of the procedure is given here
Locate your boot floppy disk and verify its operation Backup the previous /boot directory
# mkdir /boot. Allow permits access by the client
      ALL:{network_address}/{subnet_mask}
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask} Ftp
Ftp is not generally recommended because login information (username and password) and all files are transmitted as plain text. Com/apps/support/errata/ Check whether or not packages are installed with
# rpm -qa | grep {package} Download the appropriate rpm’s from Redhat
ftp://ftp. One should use sftp instead. Rpm Install and setup computational chemistry software Setup scratch directory
# cd /scratch
# rm -r lost+found
# chmod 777 /scratch
# chmod +t /scratch Install computational chemistry engines Pre-compiled binaries save the time and trouble of downloading and compiling program source code. Rpm
# rpm -ivh –force kernel-pcmcia-cs-{new_version}. Finally, some services (apache, samba) allow access to be restricted to certain IP addresses through their configurations files. /install-updates must be run again After the update is complete, restart your computer with
# cd /
# umount /mnt/cdrom
# shutdown -r now
Note that the root file system may fail to unmount during shutdown and is therefore automatically checked upon restart; inodes having zero dtime will be deleted. Rpm
Allow external access to pop3 (and/or pop3s, imap. A log of the update may be found in /tmp/update. Rpm} Restart your computer so that new versions of any updated services are restarted
# /sbin/shutdown -r now Option B: Purchase Official Red Hat Update CD-ROM and automatic installation of updates
Order the most recent Update CD from
http://www. Verify with
$ rpm -qa | grep g77
If it is not present, install it from distribution CDROM disk #2
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/gcc-g77-2. Some administrators prefer to set “encrypt password = no”, which does not require a separate samba password list to be maintained and allows users to use their Linux passwords to access their files. Allow permits access by the client
      ALL:{network_address}/{subnet_mask}
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask} Ssh and sftp
Ssh and sftp are secure shell and file transfer programs. Rpm
# rpm -Uvh kernel-headers-{new_version}. (Note that the Linux 2. If you do need to set up a centralized email server on your system, do the following:
If necessary, install the sendmail configuration file package from distribution CDROM #1
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/sendmail-cf-8. C> section, verify that
            UserDir public_html
      Uncomment the section
           
           . $ cd ~
$ vi. 000
# vi grub. Deny contains no entries or /etc/hosts. Edu}
If you do wish to set up pop3 or other mail retrieval services, do the following:
Install the imap package from distribution CDROM #2
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/imap-2000c-15. Com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/
or from a mirror site
http://www. For example, to accept WWW packets from anywhere, but limit telnet packets to being from the local network, one would use
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 80 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s {network_address}/{subnet_mask} -d 0/0 23 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask}
{subnet_mask} may also be specified as an integer equalling the number of nonzero bits starting from the left, e. Rpm from the Red Hat Linux 7. Allow entry that permits access to all services from a limited IP address range is
      ALL: {network_address}/{subnet_mask}
An example of an /etc/hosts. Many services have both client and server rpm’s, and it is the server package that must be present. Other services (telnet, ftp, rsh, rexec) are controlled by the xinetd daemon. Log, and any error messages or warnings may be found in /tmp/update. D
Filenames in this directory correspond to services that are controlled by the internet services daemon (formerly known as tcp_wrappers). 1+ configures sendmail to only accept mail from the localhost, which should be fine in almost all cases. ) The software for the service must be installed on the system, which can be checked with the command rpm -qa | grep {servicename}. Some administrators prefer to add the apache user to the each user’s group instead of changing each user’s home directory permissions
# vi /etc/group
      {user}:x:{number}:apache
# vi /etc/gshadow
      {user}:. Com/software/linux/updatecd/
Mount the Update CD
# mount /mnt/cdrom
Run the installation program
# cd /mnt/cdrom
#. This is done most fundamentally in the firewall configuration file, which can be configured to only allow access to certain services (ports) by certain IP address ranges. Forward
      {[email protected] Allow
      ipop3d:ALL
# cd /etc/sysconfig
# vi ipchains
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 110 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 110 -p udp -j ACCEPT
# /sbin/service ipchains restart Remove anonymous ftp access
Most servers prefer not provide anonymous ftp service, which would permit anyone to download files from the /var/ftp/pub directory without providing a password. D
# vi ipop3
      disable=no
# /sbin/service xinetd restart
# cd /etc
# vi hosts. Check whether anonymous ftp is installed with with
$ rpm -qa | grep anonftp
If so, turn off anonymous access to your Linux machine by adding the following lines to the ftp configuration files
# cd /etc
# cp -p ftpaccess ftpaccess. Html Install the updates
# rpm -Fvh {package-version. Telnetd
      in. Domain}   {hostname}   localhost. Deny contains no entries or /etc/hosts. # /sbin/service xinetd restart
Access to the services is further controlled by the /etc/hosts. 000
# vi ftpusers
      anonymous
      ftp Additonal comments about access control files
/etc/sysconfig/ipchains
The ipchains configuration file defines which IP packets are accepted, rejected, or denied by the Linux machine. By default, directories are created with mode 775 in Red Hat Linux. 2, and therefore one must use the 7. Option A: Manual download and installation of updates Visit the Redhat Errata page and determine which updates should be downloaded and applied
http://www. Rpm g77
g77 should be installed by default when the Software Development package group was selected during installation. One should use ssh instead. Restart the xinetd daemon for changes to take effect. Install additional packages and software f2c
Obtain f2c-19991109-2. D and setting disable=no. Allow
      sendmail:ALL
# cd /etc/sysconfig
# vi ipchains
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 25 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Restart sendmail
# /sbin/service sendmail restart Pop3 and imap (not recommended)
These mail access agents are probably only needed if sendmail has been set to allow access from other computers, i. It is a certainty that unpatched machines will soon be hacked. Shares which do not appear may be accessed from Start: Run. Edit these files to disable (disable = yes) or enable (disable = no) these services. Then restart the xinetd daemon with /sbin/service xinetd restart. In order for apache to access a user’s www files, the user’s home directory must be set to mode 711 and the public_html subdirectory must be set to mode 755. However, ssh client software is not part of the typical desktop PC installation (e. Some services (apache, ssh, samba, sendmail) are always in memory running as daemons. Instructions and pre-compiled binaries are available for the Linux operating system MOPAC
MOPAC 7 pre-compiled binary for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS pre-compiled binary for Linux Compiling the source code allows software to be installed on a wider array of hardware and oparting systems MOPAC
MOPAC 7 installation instructions for Linux
MOPAC 2000 installation instructions for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian
Gaussian 94 installation instructions for Linux
Portland Group F77 compiler installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian 98 installation instructions for Linux Install WebMO
WebMO installation instructions Copyright © 2001, WebMO, LLC, all rights reserved. D
# vi telnet
      disable = no
# /sbin/service xinetd restart
If telnet fails,make sure that the iphains firewall contains a line for service 23 (telnet) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 23 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
that the telnet server software is installed
# rpm -qa | grep telnet-server
and that either /etc/hosts.            
      Uncomment the line
            AddHandler cgi-script. (Note that the Powertools CDROM is no longer produced as of Red Hat Linux 7. 0=20
After editing /etc/sysconfig/ipchains, restart the ipchains service for the changes to take effect
# /sbin/service ipchains restart /etc/xinet. Conf and restart the samba server. These may be specified to start at boot time with /sbin/chkconfig {servicename} on|off or controlled manually with /sbin/service {servicename} start|stop. Conf If LILO boatloader is being used, verify and/or edit its configuration file, and write changes to hard disk MBR
# cd /etc
# cp -p lilo. Mc
      dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp,Addr=127. You may use only one type of firewall, the older default ipchains or the newer iptables. Verify that domainname can be determined
$ hostname -d
If the domainname is not reported, then edit /etc/hosts so that the fully qualified domain name appears before the hostname
# cd /etc
# cp -p hosts hosts. 000
# vi httpd. Forward
      {[email protected] Allow and then deny all other access in hosts. Ftpd
      sendmail
      ipop3d
If access is permitted to specific services as above, then it is recommended that the /etc/hosts. However, telnet is sometimes used on a secure local network when security is less of a concern. 4 kernel in Red Hat Linux 7. 000
# cd /boot
# tar cf -. When troubleshoting access to services, you need to consider all of the above factors. Deny contains no entries or /etc/hosts. 000; tar xvf -) Note what version of the kernel you are currently running
# uname -r Note what current kernel components are installed
# rpm -qa | grep kernel- Install new versions of the kernel components (only if they were already installed), using -U or –force options if necessary
# rpm -ivh kernel-{new_version}. To turn on ftp
# cd /etc/xinet. 000
# vi smb. Conf | grep Indexes
For example, change
      Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
to
      Options MultiViews SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
Make sure that the /etc/sysconfig/ipchains firewall configuration file contains a line for service 80 (http) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 80 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
Restart the firewall if ipchains was edited
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Start the apache server
# /sbin/chkconfig httpd on
# /sbin/service httpd start
Note that suexec is turned on by default in Red Hat Linux 7. Conf
# /sbin/lilo -v Reboot
# /sbin/shutdown -r now Make a new boot floppy disk
# uname -r
# /sbin/mkbootdisk {new_version} Customize Linux Forward root’s email
It is critical that a human actually read root’s email, so that logwatch output, system problems, or security breaches are quickly noted
# vi /root/. 2 also supports iptables. Search for and delete any instances of “Indexes” within “Options” statements, which can be located with
# grep ^[[:space:]]*Options httpd. Sendmail (not recommended)
By default, Red Hat Linux 7. ) services
# cd /etc/xinet. 1 distribution available from www. Conf
      In the

Restart the xinetd daemon for changes to take effect. Allow files as described below. Install additional packages and software f2c
Obtain f2c-19991109-2. D
Filenames in this directory correspond to services that are controlled by the internet services daemon (formerly known as tcp_wrappers). An example of an /etc/hosts. Deny file consist of
      ALL: ALL
The efect of these entries is immediate, and the xinetd daemon does not need to be restarted after making changes. For example, to accept WWW packets from anywhere, but limit telnet packets to being from the local network, one would use
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 80 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s {network_address}/{subnet_mask} -d 0/0 23 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask}
{subnet_mask} may also be specified as an integer equalling the number of nonzero bits starting from the left, e. Telnetd
      in. Instructions and pre-compiled binaries are available for the Linux operating system MOPAC
MOPAC 7 pre-compiled binary for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS pre-compiled binary for Linux Compiling the source code allows software to be installed on a wider array of hardware and oparting systems MOPAC
MOPAC 7 installation instructions for Linux
MOPAC 2000 installation instructions for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian
Gaussian 94 installation instructions for Linux
Portland Group F77 compiler installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian 98 installation instructions for Linux Install WebMO
WebMO installation instructions Copyright © 2001, WebMO, LLC, all rights reserved. Deny
These files control what IP addresses are allowed to access various services on the Linux machine. Verify with
$ rpm -qa | grep g77
If it is not present, install it from distribution CDROM disk #2
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/gcc-g77-2. )
# rpm -Uhv f2c-20000510-5. Note that if one properly configures the ipchains firewall, then these access control files are redundant and no changes are needed from the default configuration (empty, which permits access to all services by anyone). 2, and therefore one must use the 7. Additonal comments about access control files
/etc/sysconfig/ipchains
The ipchains configuration file defines which IP packets are accepted, rejected, or denied by the Linux machine. It is often preferable to limit accepted packets to the local network, rather than accept them from anywhere. Rpm Install and setup computational chemistry software Setup scratch directory
# cd /scratch
# rm -r lost+found
# chmod 777 /scratch
# chmod +t /scratch Install computational chemistry engines Pre-compiled binaries save the time and trouble of downloading and compiling program source code. Rpm g77
g77 should be installed by default when the Software Development package group was selected during installation. Rpm from the Red Hat Linux 7. 1 distribution available from www. Allow entry that permits access to all services from a limited IP address range is
      ALL: {network_address}/{subnet_mask}
An example of an /etc/hosts. 0=20
After editing /etc/sysconfig/ipchains, restart the ipchains service for the changes to take effect
# /sbin/service ipchains restart /etc/xinet. (Note that the Powertools CDROM is no longer produced as of Red Hat Linux 7. # /sbin/service xinetd restart
Access to the services is further controlled by the /etc/hosts. Allow entry that permits access to ssh from anywhere is
      sshd: ALL
Other services controlled by these access files include
      in. Ftpd
      sendmail
      ipop3d
If access is permitted to specific services as above, then it is recommended that the /etc/hosts. Edit these files to disable (disable = yes) or enable (disable = no) these services. It is best to allow access for various services to some IP numbers, and then to deny all other access.

redhat download xinetd

Cgi
      Add the lines
           
            Options ExecCGI
            SetHandler cgi-script
           
It is recommended that directory browsing be disabled. 000
# cd /boot
# tar cf -. Allow permits access by the client
      ALL:{network_address}/{subnet_mask}
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask} Ftp
Ftp is not generally recommended because login information (username and password) and all files are transmitted as plain text. However, ftp is sometimes used on a secure local network when security is less of a concern. $ cd ~
$ vi. 000
# vi smb. Ftpd
      sendmail
      ipop3d
If access is permitted to specific services as above, then it is recommended that the /etc/hosts. 000
# vi ftpusers
      anonymous
      ftp Additonal comments about access control files
/etc/sysconfig/ipchains
The ipchains configuration file defines which IP packets are accepted, rejected, or denied by the Linux machine. Deny file consist of
      ALL: ALL
The efect of these entries is immediate, and the xinetd daemon does not need to be restarted after making changes. ::apache Samba
Samba permits access to files on the Linux system via Windows networking. Install additional packages and software f2c
Obtain f2c-19991109-2. 000
# cd /etc/mail
# cp -p sendmail. 000
# vi sendmail. Instructions and pre-compiled binaries are available for the Linux operating system MOPAC
MOPAC 7 pre-compiled binary for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS pre-compiled binary for Linux Compiling the source code allows software to be installed on a wider array of hardware and oparting systems MOPAC
MOPAC 7 installation instructions for Linux
MOPAC 2000 installation instructions for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian
Gaussian 94 installation instructions for Linux
Portland Group F77 compiler installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian 98 installation instructions for Linux Install WebMO
WebMO installation instructions Copyright © 2001, WebMO, LLC, all rights reserved. Forward
      {[email protected] ) Also, some of the services (ssh, sendmail) running as permanent daemons respect /etc/hosts. Conf and restart the samba server. Com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/
or from a mirror site
http://www. Deny contains no entries or /etc/hosts. Account Configuration Set root password Add at least one user account Authentication Configuration, accept defaults and click Next Package Group Selection Printer Support Classic X Window System X Window System Gnome KDE Sound and Multimedia Support Network Support Messaging and Web Tools Graphics and Image Manipulation Windows File Server (only if you will run samba) Anonymous FTP Server (not recommended) Web Server Authoring/Publishing Emacs Utilities Software Development Video Card Configuration, accept default video card or choose one manually Preparing to Install. D
# vi telnet
      disable = no
# /sbin/service xinetd restart
If telnet fails,make sure that the iphains firewall contains a line for service 23 (telnet) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 23 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
that the telnet server software is installed
# rpm -qa | grep telnet-server
and that either /etc/hosts. # /sbin/service xinetd restart
Access to the services is further controlled by the /etc/hosts. Edu} Create useful mount points, for example
# mkdir /mnt/zip
# mount -t vfat /dev/hdd4 /mnt/zip
# ls -alF /mnt/zip
# umount /mnt/zip
If the following line is added to /etc/fstab
      /dev/hdd4   /mnt/zip   vfat   noauto,owner   0 0
then the mount command can be simplified to
# mount /mnt/zip Turn on desired services Understand background concepts about access to services
Access to system services over the network is controlled at multiple levels:
A firewall controls what packets are accepted by the system and which are dropped or rejected. Access to services can be restricted to specific IP address. Search for and delete any instances of “Indexes” within “Options” statements, which can be located with
# grep ^[[:space:]]*Options httpd. If access is denied at any level, then the service will appear to fail. Allow permits access by the client
      ALL:{network_address}/{subnet_mask}
or
      sshd:ALL Apache
The apache web server runs as the “apache” user in Red Hat Linux 7. One should use sftp instead. Allow
      sendmail:ALL
# cd /etc/sysconfig
# vi ipchains
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 25 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Restart sendmail
# /sbin/service sendmail restart Pop3 and imap (not recommended)
These mail access agents are probably only needed if sendmail has been set to allow access from other computers, i. 1 distribution available from www. Sendmail (not recommended)
By default, Red Hat Linux 7. It is a certainty that unpatched machines will soon be hacked. Rpm
Verify that symbolic links are correct
# ls -lF /boot If you have a SCSI hard disk, verify that a new disk image file was created
# ls -l /boot/initrd* If GRUB bootloader is being used, verify and/or edit its configuration file
# cd /boot/grub
# cp -p grub. Telnetd
      in. ) services
# cd /etc/xinet. One should use ssh instead. Allow and then deny all other access in hosts. Rpm
# rpm -ivh –force kernel-pcmcia-cs-{new_version}. An example of an /etc/hosts. Localdomain   localhost Install update packages from RedHat It is critical that any security related updates be applied to your system. Log, and any error messages or warnings may be found in /tmp/update. Rpm Install and setup computational chemistry software Setup scratch directory
# cd /scratch
# rm -r lost+found
# chmod 777 /scratch
# chmod +t /scratch Install computational chemistry engines Pre-compiled binaries save the time and trouble of downloading and compiling program source code. However, telnet is sometimes used on a secure local network when security is less of a concern. Option A: Manual download and installation of updates Visit the Redhat Errata page and determine which updates should be downloaded and applied
http://www. Check whether anonymous ftp is installed with with
$ rpm -qa | grep anonftp
If so, turn off anonymous access to your Linux machine by adding the following lines to the ftp configuration files
# cd /etc
# cp -p ftpaccess ftpaccess. To turn on telnet
# cd /etc/xinet. 1, Name=MTA’)
# m4 sendmail. If ssh fails,make sure that the iphains firewall contains a line for service 22 (ssh) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 22 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
that the ssh server software is installed
# rpm -qa | grep openssh-server
and that either /etc/hosts.            
      Uncomment the line
            AddHandler cgi-script. Verify with
$ rpm -qa | grep g77
If it is not present, install it from distribution CDROM disk #2
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/gcc-g77-2. This is done most fundamentally in the firewall configuration file, which can be configured to only allow access to certain services (ports) by certain IP address ranges. 1+ configures sendmail to only accept mail from the localhost, which should be fine in almost all cases. Note that post-Windows 95 machines (Windows 95SE, 98, ME, NT, 2000, XP) must be configured to transmit their passwords as plaintext by modifying their registry as described by the appropriate /usr/share/doc/samba-2. 000
# vi httpd. Do not allow outsiders to access sendmail unless you thoroughly understand how relaying works (which permits massive spamming), are prepared to administer an email system, and are willing to accept reponsibility for any spam forwarded by your system. Domain}   {hostname}   localhost. This configuration is appropriate only for a system which operates on a secure local network, as the password is transmitted as plaintext (like telnet and ftp). X as well as Fedora. Some services (apache, ssh, samba, sendmail) are always in memory running as daemons. Rpm
# rpm -Uvh kernel-headers-{new_version}. C> section, verify that
            UserDir public_html
      Uncomment the section
           
           . If you do need to set up a centralized email server on your system, do the following:
If necessary, install the sendmail configuration file package from distribution CDROM #1
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/sendmail-cf-8. The service must be started by the system. (Note that the Powertools CDROM is no longer produced as of Red Hat Linux 7. Rpm from the Red Hat Linux 7. 000
# vi /etc/lilo. Rpm
Allow external access to pop3 (and/or pop3s, imap. Many services have both client and server rpm’s, and it is the server package that must be present. 000
# vi ftpaccess
      #Turn off anonymous ftp
      defaultserver private
# cp -p ftpusers ftpusers. Click Next, and wait a very long time while partitions are formatted and packages are installed. Conf
# /sbin/lilo -v Reboot
# /sbin/shutdown -r now Make a new boot floppy disk
# uname -r
# /sbin/mkbootdisk {new_version} Customize Linux Forward root’s email
It is critical that a human actually read root’s email, so that logwatch output, system problems, or security breaches are quickly noted
# vi /root/. Some administrators prefer to add the apache user to the each user’s group instead of changing each user’s home directory permissions
# vi /etc/group
      {user}:x:{number}:apache
# vi /etc/gshadow
      {user}:. Rpm} Restart your computer so that new versions of any updated services are restarted
# /sbin/shutdown -r now Option B: Purchase Official Red Hat Update CD-ROM and automatic installation of updates
Order the most recent Update CD from
http://www. Ssh should be installed by default on Red Hat Linux 7. Suexec imposes many security restrictions upon cgi scripts. This can also be done for the xinetd services with the /etc/hosts. To turn on ftp
# cd /etc/xinet. 000; tar xvf -) Note what version of the kernel you are currently running
# uname -r Note what current kernel components are installed
# rpm -qa | grep kernel- Install new versions of the kernel components (only if they were already installed), using -U or –force options if necessary
# rpm -ivh kernel-{new_version}. Allow is processed first, and then /etc/hosts. 2 also supports iptables. The default firewall is defined in /etc/sysconfig/ipchains, which was created during Firewall Configuration step of the installation process. (Note that the Linux 2. Conf
      In the [globals] section
      Set
            workgroup = {workgroup}
            server string = {hostname}
      Comment out
            ; printcap name = /etc/printcap
            ; load printers = yes
      Set
            max log size = 50
      Set
            security = share
      Add
            browseable = yes
            oplocks = no
            level2 oplocks = no
            preserve case = yes
            short preserve case = yes
      In the [homes] section
      Add if not present
            valid users = %S
Let samba packets across the firewall
# vi /etc/sysconfig/ipchains
      -A input -s {network address}/{network mask} -d 0/0 137:139 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s {network address}/{network mask} -d 0/0 137:139 -p udp -j ACCEPT
Restart the firewall
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Start the samba server
# /sbin/chkconfig smb on
# /sbin/service smb start
Add the samba share password
# smbpasswd -a {user}
Users may now change their password with
$ smbpasswd
Browse the samba shares from the Windows “Network Neighborhood”. Deny
These files control what IP addresses are allowed to access various services on the Linux machine. 2 Boot Disk for {hostname}” Monitor Selection and X Configuration Choose specific monitor, or choose and appropriate Generic Monitor Adjust syncronization rates as follows Horizontal sync: 30-64 kHz Vertical sync: 50-75 Hz Customize graphics configuration as follows Color Depth: High Color (16 Bit) Screen Resolution: 1024×768 Desktop Environment: GNOME (default) or KDE (recommended) Login Type: Graphical (for use as workstation) or Text (for use as server by experts) Click ‘Test Setting’ to test X screen settings
NOTE: (Control+Alt+Backspace) exits X immediately Click ‘Next’ Congratulations, Linux has been installed. Thus all user cgi scripts run as the user in whose directory they are installed, instead of as the ‘apache’ user. Log Boot Disk Creation. The following instructions configure Samba to use “security=share”, which behaves more like Windows networking and allows users to access any home directories for which they know the password. Therefore, one must manually do a ‘chmod 755’ on any directory containing cgi scripts. In order for apache to access a user’s www files, the user’s home directory must be set to mode 711 and the public_html subdirectory must be set to mode 755. Edit the samba configuration file
# cd /etc/samba
# cp -p smb. Html Install the updates
# rpm -Fvh {package-version. The syntax of this file is explained in the ipchains man page and on the many websites devoted to explaining ipchains and firewalls. Insert formatted floppy and click Next. D
Filenames in this directory correspond to services that are controlled by the internet services daemon (formerly known as tcp_wrappers). /install-updates must be run again After the update is complete, restart your computer with
# cd /
# umount /mnt/cdrom
# shutdown -r now
Note that the root file system may fail to unmount during shutdown and is therefore automatically checked upon restart; inodes having zero dtime will be deleted. Not only must the scripts by nonwritable by others, the directory containing the cgi script must be non writable by others, e. X configures Samba to use “security=user”, which requires that a user have a Linux account with the same name as their Windows login name, and “encrypt passwords = yes”, which requires that users (or the Linux administrator) maintain a separate samba password list on the Linux machine with the user’s Window’s password that is in general different than their Linux password. D and setting disable=no. These may be specified to start at boot time with /sbin/chkconfig {servicename} on|off or controlled manually with /sbin/service {servicename} start|stop. Conf
      In the

The latest kubernetes release 1. 9 has rolled out an alpha implementation of the Container Storage Interface (CSI) which makes installing new volume plugins as easy as deploying a pod. It also enables third-party storage providers to develop solutions without the need to add to the core Kubernetes codebase.

On my SCSI based system: mount -t umsdos /dev/sda3 /mnt/C) This requires that one create the directory mount point first (mkdir /mnt/C ) This mount can be made permanent by making the following entry to the /etc/fstab file:. Use the command: mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/C
Mount MS/windows partition with long filenames so Linux can look at it if Win95 is on your 1st partition on the first drive. Use option “-t umsdos” for DOS/Win 3.

redhat download xinetd

GRUB can hide partitions from operating systems which is important when cohabitating with a Microsoft operating system. (GNU: GRUB home page). You can use a partition to install an operating system and hide the other partitions from it. GRUB: GRUB allows one to boot one of many operating systems installed on the hard drives.

Red Hat Linux: *Red Hat Enterprise security updates [RHEL4] [RHEL5] [RHEL6] *Redhat. Red Hat Support – Documentation. Org – Network service handler *lpr – LPRng – pdq [info] – Print spooler *CUPS. Download *ftp Download *NvNews. Net – Info Special Purpose Linux: *BlueCat: Real Time.

There is a need for xinetd services to be highly available; The xinetd services require resources provided by the cluster to operate. Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7 with the High Availability or Resilient Storage Add On; xinetd .

) services
# cd /etc/xinet. Therefore, one must manually do a ‘chmod 755’ on any directory containing cgi scripts. Localdomain   localhost Install update packages from RedHat It is critical that any security related updates be applied to your system. Allow permits access by the client
      ALL:{network_address}/{subnet_mask}
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask} Ftp
Ftp is not generally recommended because login information (username and password) and all files are transmitted as plain text. This is the last chance to safely cancel the installation process. 0=20
After editing /etc/sysconfig/ipchains, restart the ipchains service for the changes to take effect
# /sbin/service ipchains restart /etc/xinet. 000
# vi smb. It is often preferable to limit accepted packets to the local network, rather than accept them from anywhere. Html Install the updates
# rpm -Fvh {package-version. Err Kernal upgrades are more complex, and one should definitely read the instructions in The Official Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Access to services can be restricted to specific IP address. This configuration is appropriate only for a system which operates on a secure local network, as the password is transmitted as plaintext (like telnet and ftp). To do this, comment out
      ; encrypt passwords = yes
      ; smb passwd file = /etc/samba/smbpasswd
in smb. C> section, verify that
            UserDir public_html
      Uncomment the section
           
           . These may be specified to start at boot time with /sbin/chkconfig {servicename} on|off or controlled manually with /sbin/service {servicename} start|stop. # /sbin/service xinetd restart
Access to the services is further controlled by the /etc/hosts. For example, to accept WWW packets from anywhere, but limit telnet packets to being from the local network, one would use
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 80 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s {network_address}/{subnet_mask} -d 0/0 23 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask}
{subnet_mask} may also be specified as an integer equalling the number of nonzero bits starting from the left, e. To turn on telnet
# cd /etc/xinet. Allow
      sendmail:ALL
# cd /etc/sysconfig
# vi ipchains
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 25 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Restart sendmail
# /sbin/service sendmail restart Pop3 and imap (not recommended)
These mail access agents are probably only needed if sendmail has been set to allow access from other computers, i. One should use sftp instead. Allow
      ipop3d:ALL
# cd /etc/sysconfig
# vi ipchains
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 110 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 110 -p udp -j ACCEPT
# /sbin/service ipchains restart Remove anonymous ftp access
Most servers prefer not provide anonymous ftp service, which would permit anyone to download files from the /var/ftp/pub directory without providing a password. Note that post-Windows 95 machines (Windows 95SE, 98, ME, NT, 2000, XP) must be configured to transmit their passwords as plaintext by modifying their registry as described by the appropriate /usr/share/doc/samba-2. 1 distribution available from www. Install additional packages and software f2c
Obtain f2c-19991109-2. This can also be done for the xinetd services with the /etc/hosts. Rpm Install and setup computational chemistry software Setup scratch directory
# cd /scratch
# rm -r lost+found
# chmod 777 /scratch
# chmod +t /scratch Install computational chemistry engines Pre-compiled binaries save the time and trouble of downloading and compiling program source code. Microsoft Windows) and must be installed separately as third party software. Since you probably already have an email account on a centralized server, you do not need to accept email from the outside world on your Linux machine. Rpm from the Red Hat Linux 7. Allow and then deny all other access in hosts. D
# vi ipop3
      disable=no
# /sbin/service xinetd restart
# cd /etc
# vi hosts. Option A: Manual download and installation of updates Visit the Redhat Errata page and determine which updates should be downloaded and applied
http://www.            
      Uncomment the line
            AddHandler cgi-script. It is best to allow access for various services to some IP numbers, and then to deny all other access. By default, directories are created with mode 775 in Red Hat Linux. A log of the update may be found in /tmp/update. When troubleshoting access to services, you need to consider all of the above factors. You may use only one type of firewall, the older default ipchains or the newer iptables. Authentication Configuration, accept defaults and click Next Package Group Selection Printer Support Classic X Window System X Window System Gnome KDE Sound and Multimedia Support Network Support Messaging and Web Tools Graphics and Image Manipulation Windows File Server (only if you will run samba) Anonymous FTP Server (not recommended) Web Server Authoring/Publishing Emacs Utilities Software Development Video Card Configuration, accept default video card or choose one manually Preparing to Install. ) The software for the service must be installed on the system, which can be checked with the command rpm -qa | grep {servicename}. 000
# vi hosts
      127. 000
# vi /etc/lilo. This is done most fundamentally in the firewall configuration file, which can be configured to only allow access to certain services (ports) by certain IP address ranges. D and setting disable=no. It is a certainty that unpatched machines will soon be hacked. By default, Red Hat Linux 7. Rpm
# rpm -ivh –force kernel-pcmcia-cs-{new_version}. Com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/
or from a mirror site
http://www. Shares which do not appear may be accessed from Start: Run. Root access security holes are reguarlay uncovered, and machines connected to the internet are regularly probed for these weaknesses. A brief summary of the procedure is given here
Locate your boot floppy disk and verify its operation Backup the previous /boot directory
# mkdir /boot. Ftpd
      sendmail
      ipop3d
If access is permitted to specific services as above, then it is recommended that the /etc/hosts. Cf
Allow external access to sendmail
# cd /etc
# vi hosts. Allow files as described below. In general, you will not do this, but would instead simply forward any mail from Linux account to an existing email account. Verify with
$ rpm -qa | grep g77
If it is not present, install it from distribution CDROM disk #2
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/gcc-g77-2. Allow entry that permits access to ssh from anywhere is
      sshd: ALL
Other services controlled by these access files include
      in. Allow is processed first, and then /etc/hosts. Log, and any error messages or warnings may be found in /tmp/update. Com/apps/support/errata/ Check whether or not packages are installed with
# rpm -qa | grep {package} Download the appropriate rpm’s from Redhat
ftp://ftp. 1+ configures sendmail to only accept mail from the localhost, which should be fine in almost all cases. One should use ssh instead. Forward
      {[email protected] Some administrators prefer to add the apache user to the each user’s group instead of changing each user’s home directory permissions
# vi /etc/group
      {user}:x:{number}:apache
# vi /etc/gshadow
      {user}:. , the system is intended to be a mail server from which you will regularly read mail. Allow permits access by the client
      ALL:{network_address}/{subnet_mask}
or
      sshd:ALL Apache
The apache web server runs as the “apache” user in Red Hat Linux 7. If you do need to set up a centralized email server on your system, do the following:
If necessary, install the sendmail configuration file package from distribution CDROM #1
# rpm -Uhv /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/sendmail-cf-8. Deny
These files control what IP addresses are allowed to access various services on the Linux machine. Telnetd
      in. 000
# vi sendmail. )
# rpm -Uhv f2c-20000510-5. 000
# vi ftpaccess
      #Turn off anonymous ftp
      defaultserver private
# cp -p ftpusers ftpusers. Deny contains no entries or /etc/hosts. D
# vi wu-ftp
      disable = no
# /sbin/service xinetd restart
If ftp fails,make sure that the iphains firewall contains a line for service 21 (ftp) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 21 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
that the ftp server software is installed
# rpm -qa | grep wu-ftp
and that either /etc/hosts. Ss
Write the new date and time to the system’s CMOS clock
# clock -w Verify that all of the machine’s RAM has been detected
$ free
If Linux reports less RAM than is actually installed your system, follow instructions to specify at boot time the amount of available RAM Verify that domainname can be determined
$ hostname -d
If the domainname is not reported, then edit /etc/hosts so that the fully qualified domain name appears before the hostname
# cd /etc
# cp -p hosts hosts. Log Boot Disk Creation. The service must be started by the system. Instructions and pre-compiled binaries are available for the Linux operating system MOPAC
MOPAC 7 pre-compiled binary for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS pre-compiled binary for Linux Compiling the source code allows software to be installed on a wider array of hardware and oparting systems MOPAC
MOPAC 7 installation instructions for Linux
MOPAC 2000 installation instructions for Linux
GAMESS
GAMESS installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian
Gaussian 94 installation instructions for Linux
Portland Group F77 compiler installation instructions for Linux
Gaussian 98 installation instructions for Linux Install WebMO
WebMO installation instructions Copyright © 2001, WebMO, LLC, all rights reserved. X configures Samba to use “security=user”, which requires that a user have a Linux account with the same name as their Windows login name, and “encrypt passwords = yes”, which requires that users (or the Linux administrator) maintain a separate samba password list on the Linux machine with the user’s Window’s password that is in general different than their Linux password. Deny contains no entries or /etc/hosts. Conf
      In the [globals] section
      Set
            workgroup = {workgroup}
            server string = {hostname}
      Comment out
            ; printcap name = /etc/printcap
            ; load printers = yes
      Set
            max log size = 50
      Set
            security = share
      Add
            browseable = yes
            oplocks = no
            level2 oplocks = no
            preserve case = yes
            short preserve case = yes
      In the [homes] section
      Add if not present
            valid users = %S
Let samba packets across the firewall
# vi /etc/sysconfig/ipchains
      -A input -s {network address}/{network mask} -d 0/0 137:139 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
      -A input -s {network address}/{network mask} -d 0/0 137:139 -p udp -j ACCEPT
Restart the firewall
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Start the samba server
# /sbin/chkconfig smb on
# /sbin/service smb start
Add the samba share password
# smbpasswd -a {user}
Users may now change their password with
$ smbpasswd
Browse the samba shares from the Windows “Network Neighborhood”. Conf If LILO boatloader is being used, verify and/or edit its configuration file, and write changes to hard disk MBR
# cd /etc
# cp -p lilo. Com/software/linux/updatecd/
Mount the Update CD
# mount /mnt/cdrom
Run the installation program
# cd /mnt/cdrom
#. Restart the xinetd daemon for changes to take effect. To turn on ftp
# cd /etc/xinet. Finally, some services (apache, samba) allow access to be restricted to certain IP addresses through their configurations files. Many services have both client and server rpm’s, and it is the server package that must be present. However, passwords for these shares are maintained separately from the Linux login passwords. /install-updates must be run again After the update is complete, restart your computer with
# cd /
# umount /mnt/cdrom
# shutdown -r now
Note that the root file system may fail to unmount during shutdown and is therefore automatically checked upon restart; inodes having zero dtime will be deleted. Conf
# /sbin/lilo -v Reboot
# /sbin/shutdown -r now Make a new boot floppy disk
# uname -r
# /sbin/mkbootdisk {new_version} Customize Linux Forward root’s email
It is critical that a human actually read root’s email, so that logwatch output, system problems, or security breaches are quickly noted
# vi /root/. Edu} Create useful mount points, for example
# mkdir /mnt/zip
# mount -t vfat /dev/hdd4 /mnt/zip
# ls -alF /mnt/zip
# umount /mnt/zip
If the following line is added to /etc/fstab
      /dev/hdd4   /mnt/zip   vfat   noauto,owner   0 0
then the mount command can be simplified to
# mount /mnt/zip Turn on desired services Understand background concepts about access to services
Access to system services over the network is controlled at multiple levels:
A firewall controls what packets are accepted by the system and which are dropped or rejected. Deny file consist of
      ALL: ALL
The efect of these entries is immediate, and the xinetd daemon does not need to be restarted after making changes. 000; tar xvf -) Note what version of the kernel you are currently running
# uname -r Note what current kernel components are installed
# rpm -qa | grep kernel- Install new versions of the kernel components (only if they were already installed), using -U or –force options if necessary
# rpm -ivh kernel-{new_version}. Rpm
Edit the sendmail configuration file
# cd /etc
# cp -p sendmail. Suexec imposes many security restrictions upon cgi scripts. However, telnet is sometimes used on a secure local network when security is less of a concern. Mc
      dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(`Port=smtp,Addr=127. 000
# vi httpd. Rpm} Restart your computer so that new versions of any updated services are restarted
# /sbin/shutdown -r now Option B: Purchase Official Red Hat Update CD-ROM and automatic installation of updates
Order the most recent Update CD from
http://www. Telnet
Telnet is not generally recommended because login information (username and password) and all commands (su and root password) are transmitted as plain text. Label disk as “Linux 7. Edit the samba configuration file
# cd /etc/samba
# cp -p smb. (Note that the Linux 2. Insert disk 2 when prompted and click OK. 2, and therefore one must use the 7. 000
# vi ftpusers
      anonymous
      ftp Additonal comments about access control files
/etc/sysconfig/ipchains
The ipchains configuration file defines which IP packets are accepted, rejected, or denied by the Linux machine. Forward
      {[email protected] ::apache Samba
Samba permits access to files on the Linux system via Windows networking. If ssh fails,make sure that the iphains firewall contains a line for service 22 (ssh) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 22 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
that the ssh server software is installed
# rpm -qa | grep openssh-server
and that either /etc/hosts. Other services (telnet, ftp, rsh, rexec) are controlled by the xinetd daemon. ) Also, some of the services (ssh, sendmail) running as permanent daemons respect /etc/hosts. Not only must the scripts by nonwritable by others, the directory containing the cgi script must be non writable by others, e. Click Next, and wait a very long time while partitions are formatted and packages are installed. Conf | grep Indexes
For example, change
      Options MultiViews Indexes SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
to
      Options MultiViews SymLinksIfOwnerMatch IncludesNoExec
Make sure that the /etc/sysconfig/ipchains firewall configuration file contains a line for service 80 (http) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 80 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
Restart the firewall if ipchains was edited
# /sbin/service ipchains restart
Start the apache server
# /sbin/chkconfig httpd on
# /sbin/service httpd start
Note that suexec is turned on by default in Red Hat Linux 7. Conf and restart the samba server. An example of an /etc/hosts. If access is denied at any level, then the service will appear to fail. Note that if one properly configures the ipchains firewall, then these access control files are redundant and no changes are needed from the default configuration (empty, which permits access to all services by anyone). (Note that the Powertools CDROM is no longer produced as of Red Hat Linux 7. Deny contains no entries or /etc/hosts. Cgi
      Add the lines
           
            Options ExecCGI
            SetHandler cgi-script
           
It is recommended that directory browsing be disabled. Ssh should be installed by default on Red Hat Linux 7. A log will be written to /tmp/install. Edit these files to disable (disable = yes) or enable (disable = no) these services. /install-updates
Answer ‘y’ to all prompts
If the update fails during the dependency check, then the missing package(s) must be installed manually with
# rpm -ivh 7. In order for apache to access a user’s www files, the user’s home directory must be set to mode 711 and the public_html subdirectory must be set to mode 755. X as well as Fedora. D
# vi telnet
      disable = no
# /sbin/service xinetd restart
If telnet fails,make sure that the iphains firewall contains a line for service 23 (telnet) like
      -A input -s 0/0 -d 0/0 23 -p tcp -y -j ACCEPT
that the telnet server software is installed
# rpm -qa | grep telnet-server
and that either /etc/hosts. Thus, it is generally best to allow access to specific services by certain address in hosts. 4 kernel in Red Hat Linux 7. 2 Boot Disk for {hostname}” Monitor Selection and X Configuration Choose specific monitor, or choose and appropriate Generic Monitor Adjust syncronization rates as follows Horizontal sync: 30-64 kHz Vertical sync: 50-75 Hz Customize graphics configuration as follows Color Depth: High Color (16 Bit) Screen Resolution: 1024×768 Desktop Environment: GNOME (default) or KDE (recommended) Login Type: Graphical (for use as workstation) or Text (for use as server by experts) Click ‘Test Setting’ to test X screen settings
NOTE: (Control+Alt+Backspace) exits X immediately Click ‘Next’ Congratulations, Linux has been installed. Do not allow outsiders to access sendmail unless you thoroughly understand how relaying works (which permits massive spamming), are prepared to administer an email system, and are willing to accept reponsibility for any spam forwarded by your system. 2 also supports iptables. Remove floppy, click Exit, and remove CD-ROM to reboot Verify aspects of the system configuration Verify the date and time
$ date
Adjust the date and time if necessary
# date MMDDhhmm[YYYY]. However, ssh client software is not part of the typical desktop PC installation (e. Since this is not the default installation, one must become root and do a chmod 711 on all /home/user directories
# cd /home
# chmod 711 {user}
Each user must then create a public_html directory structure
$ cd ~
$ mkdir public_html
$ cd public_html
$ mkdir cgi-bin
$ chmod 755 cgi-bin
Edit the apache configuration file
# cd /etc/httpd/conf
# cp -p httpd. 000
# vi grub. Insert formatted floppy and click Next. D
Filenames in this directory correspond to services that are controlled by the internet services daemon (formerly known as tcp_wrappers). 1, Name=MTA’)
# m4 sendmail. Some administrators prefer to set “encrypt password = no”, which does not require a separate samba password list to be maintained and allows users to use their Linux passwords to access their files. Allow permits access by the client
      ALL:{network_address}/{subnet_mask}
where {network_address} may be calculated from
$ ipcalc –network {ip_address} {subnet_mask} Ssh and sftp
Ssh and sftp are secure shell and file transfer programs. Conf
      In the

Fundamentally, traditional storage was built for applications developed in the 1970s and 1980s. Software-defined storage is geared to support the applications of today and tomorrow, applications that look and behave nothing like the applications of the past. Among these are rapid scalability, especially for high volume unstructured data that may need to expand rapidly. As the name implies, software-defined storage decouples storage software from hardware. It lets you abstract and pool storage capacity across on-premise and cloud environments to scale independently of specific hardware components.


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